This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb.
Dominant Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell subset exist only in primates, and recognize phosphoantigen from selected pathogens including M. tuberculosis(Mtb). In vivo function of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in tuberculosis remains unknown. We conducted mechanistic studies to determine whether earlier expansion/differentiation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells during Mtb infection could increase immune resistance to tuberculosis in macaques. Phosphoantigen/IL-2 administration specifically induced major expansion and pulmonary trafficking/accumulation of phosphoantigen-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, significantly reduced Mtb burdens and attenuated tuberculosis lesions in lung tissues compared to saline/BSA or IL-2 controls. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells differentiated into multifunctional effector subpopulations capable of producing anti-TB cytokines IFNγ, perforin and granulysin, and co-producing perforin/granulysin in lung tissue. Mechanistically, perforin/granulysin-producing Vγ2Vδ2 T cells limited intracellular Mtb growth, and macaque granulysin had Mtb-bactericidal effect, and inhibited intracellular Mtb in presence of perforin. Furthermore, phosphoantigen/IL2-expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells produced IL-12, and their expansion/differentiation led to enhanced pulmonary responses of peptide-specific CD4+/CD8+ Th1-like cells. These results provide first in vivo evidence implicating that early expansion/differentiation of Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells during Mtb infection increases resistance to tuberculosis. Thus, data support a rationale for conducting further studies of the γδ T-cell-targeted treatment of established TB, which might ultimately help explore single or adjunctive phosphoantigen expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell subset as intervention of MDR-tuberculosis or HIV-related tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis(TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While CD4+/CD8+ T cells are protective, role of γδ T cells in TB and other infections remains unknown in humans. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells exist only in primates, represent a dominant circulating γδ T-cell subpopulation, and recognize phosphoantigen from Mtb and some selected pathogens. Here, we determined whether earlier expansion/differentiation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells during Mtb infection increased resistance to TB in macaques. Phosphoantigen plus IL-2 administration induced expansion and pulmonary accumulation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, significantly reduced Mtb counts and attenuated TB lesions in lung tissues. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells produced anti-TB cytokines IFNγ, perforin and granulysin, and co-produced perforin and granulysin in lung tissue. Perforin/granulysin-co-producing Vγ2Vδ2 T cells limited intracellular Mtb growth, and macaque granulysin killed Mtb bacteria, and inhibited intracellular Mtb in presence of perforin. Furthermore, expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T effectors enhanced pulmonary responses of peptide-specific CD4+/CD8+ T cells, which correlated with the ability of Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells to produce IL-12. These results provide first evidence implicating a protective role of Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells in TB, supporting a rationale to explore Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell-targeted treatment of drug-resistant TB or HIV-related TB.
There has been considerable controversy regarding whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children (TD) show different eye movement patterns when processing faces. We investigated ASD and age- and IQ-matched TD children's scanning of faces using a novel multi-method approach. We found that ASD children spent less time looking at the whole face generally. After controlling for this difference, ASD children's fixations of the other face parts, except for the eye region, and their scanning paths between face parts were comparable either to the age-matched or IQ-matched TD groups. In contrast, in the eye region, ASD children's scanning differed significantly from that of both TD groups: (a) ASD children fixated significantly less on the right eye (from the observer's view); (b) ASD children's fixations were more biased towards the left eye region; and (c) ASD children fixated below the left eye, whereas TD children fixated on the pupil region of the eye. Thus, ASD children do not have a general abnormality in face scanning. Rather, their abnormality is limited to the eye region, likely due to their strong tendency to avoid eye contact.
autism spectrum disorder; face processing; face recognition; eye movements; eye tracking
Although Listeria monocytogenes can induce systemic infection causing spontaneous abortion, septicemia, and meningitis, studies have not been performed to investigate human anti-L. monocytogenes immune responses, including those of Ag-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, a dominant human γδ T cell subset. L. monocytogenes is the only pathogen known to possess both the mevalonate and non-mevalonate isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways that produce metabolic phosphates or phosphoantigens activating human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, making it interesting to explore in vivo anti-L. monocytogenes immune responses of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. In this study, we demonstrated that subclinical systemic L. monocytogenes infection of rhesus macaques via parenteral inoculation or vaccination with an attenuated Listeria strain induced multieffector-functional immune responses of phosphoantigen-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Subclinical systemic infection and reinfection with attenuated L. monocytogenes uncovered the ability of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells to mount expansion and adaptive or recall-like expansion. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells could traffic to and accumulate in the pulmonary compartment and intestinal mucosa. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells could evolve into effector cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-17, or perforin after L. monocytogenes infection, and some effector Vγ2Vδ2 T cells could coproduce IL-17 and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IFN-γ, or TNF-α and perforin. Surprisingly, in vivo-expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T effector cells in subclinical L. monocytogenes infection could directly lyse L. monocytogenes-infected target cells and inhibit intracellular L. monocytogenes bacteria. Thus, we present the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of multieffector-functional Vγ2Vδ2 T cell responses against L. monocytogenes.
The broad spectrum kinase inhibitor sunitinib is a first-line therapy for advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), a deadly form of kidney cancer. Unfortunately, most patients develop sunitinib resistance and progressive disease after about 1 year of treatment. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of resistance to sunitinib to identify the potential tactics to overcome it. Xenograft models were generated that mimicked clinical resistance to sunitinib. Higher microvessel density was found in sunitinib-resistant tumors, indicating that an escape from antiangiogenesis occurred. Notably, escape coincided with increased secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from tumors into the plasma, and coadministration of an IL-8 neutralizing antibody resensitized tumors to sunitinib treatment. In patients who were refractory to sunitinib treatment, IL-8 expression was elevated in ccRCC tumors, supporting the concept that IL-8 levels might predict clinical response to sunitinib. Our results reveal IL-8 as an important contributor to sunitinib resistance in ccRCC and a candidate therapeutic target to reverse acquired or intrinsic resistance to sunitinib in this malignancy.
Considering the fact that iRGD (tumor-homing peptide) demonstrates tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating activity, and that B16-F10 (murine melanoma) cells overexpress both αv integrin receptor and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), the purpose of this study was to prepare a novel doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded, iRGD-modified, sterically-stabilized liposome (SSL) (iRGD-SSL-DOX) in order to evaluate its antitumor activity on B16-F10 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The iRGD-SSL-DOX was prepared using a thin-film hydration method. The characteristics of iRGD-SSL-DOX were evaluated. The in vitro leakage of DOX from iRGD-SSL-DOX was tested. The in vitro tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating characteristics of iRGD-modified liposomes on B16-F10 cells were investigated. The in vivo tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating activities of iRGD-modified liposomes were performed in B16-F10 tumor-bearing nude mice. The antitumor effect of iRGD-SSL-DOX was evaluated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice in vivo. The average particle size of the iRGD-SSL-DOX was found to be 91 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.16. The entrapment efficiency of iRGD-SSL-DOX was 98.36%. The leakage of DOX from iRGD-SSL-DOX at the 24-hour time point was only 7.5%. The results obtained from the in vitro flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, as well as in vivo biodistribution and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy experiments, indicate that the tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating activity of the iRGD-modified SSL was higher than that of unmodified SSL. In vivo antitumor activity results showed that the antitumor effect of iRGD-SSL-DOX against melanoma tumors was higher than that of SSL-DOX in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, the iRGD-SSL-DOX is a tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating peptide modified liposome which has significant antitumor activity against melanoma tumors.
tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating; integrin receptor; NRP-1; iRGD; liposome; doxorubicin
The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) study has gradually become one of the hot topics in the field of RNA biology. One lncRNA which has attracted attention is LOC285194, a lncRNA demonstrated the potential tumor-suppressor role in osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of LOC285194 in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to investigate the relationship between this lncRNA levels and existing clinicopathologic parameters and patient survival.
The expression of LOC285194 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in pairs of tumorous and adjacent normal tissues of 81 colorectal cancer patients with a follow-up of 5 years, as well as in three colorectal cancer cell lines and normal intestinal mucous cell line. Then, we analyzed the potential relationship between this lncRNA levels in tumor tissues and existing clinicopathological features of CRC, and clinical outcome.
The relative expression levels of LOC285194 was significantly lower in tumor tissues (p < 0.001) and colorectal cancer cell lines compared with adjacent normal tissues and normal intestinal mucous cell line. In addition, low expression of LOC285194 was correlated with larger tumor size (p = 0.015), higher tumor stage (p = 0.034), and more distant metastasis (p = 0.046). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with low LOC285194 expression had a poor disease free survival (p = 0.010). Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that decreased expression of LOC285194 was an independent predictor of disease-specific survival.
Our data indicate that LOC285194 might be a novel prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer and may be a potential target for diagnosis and gene therapy.
Colorectal cancer; Long non-coding RNAs; LOC285194; Survival
While granulysin has been suggested to play an important role in adaptive immune responses against bacterial infections by killing pathogens, and molecular force for protein–protein interaction or protein–bacteria interaction may designate the specific functions of a protein, the molecular-force basis underlying the bacteriolytic effects of granulysin at single-molecule level remains unknown. Here, we produced and purified bactericidal domain of macaque granulysin (GNL). Our bacterial lysis assays suggested that GNL could efficiently kill bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore, we found that the interaction force between GNL and L. monocytogenes measured by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) was about 22.5 pN. Importantly, our AFM-based single molecular analysis suggested that granulysin might lyse the bacteria not only through electrostatic interactions but also by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interaction. Thus, this work provides a previous unknown mechanism for bacteriolytic effects of granulysin.
AFM; Granulysin; Perforin; Bacteria; Listeria monocytogenes
The possibility that simultaneous expansion of T regulatory cells (Treg) and T effector cells early postinfection can confer some immunological benefits has not been studied. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that early, simultaneous cytokine expansion of Treg and T effector cells in a tissue infection site can allow these T cell populations to act in concert to control tissue inflammation/damage while containing infection. IL-2 treatments early after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of macaques induced simultaneous expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg, CD8+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, and CD4+ T effector/CD8+ T effector/Vγ2Vδ2 T effector populations producing anti-M. tuberculosis cytokines IFN-γ and perforin, and conferred resistance to severe TB inflammation and lesions. IL-2–expanded Foxp3+ Treg readily accumulated in pulmonary compartment, but despite this, rapid pulmonary trafficking/accumulation of IL-2–activated T effector populations still occurred. Such simultaneous recruitments of IL-2–expanded Treg and T effector populations to pulmonary compartment during M. tuberculosis infection correlated with IL-2–induced resistance to TB lesions without causing Treg-associated increases in M. tuberculosis burdens. In vivo depletion of IL-2–expanded CD4+Foxp3+ Treg and CD4+ T effectors during IL-2 treatment of M. tuberculosis-infected macaques significantly reduced IL-2–induced resistance to TB lesions, suggesting that IL-2–expanded CD4+ T effector cells and Treg contributed to anti-TB immunity. Thus, IL-2 can simultaneously activate and expand T effector cells and Foxp3+ Treg populations and confer resistance to severe TB without enhancing M. tuberculosis infection.
The role of IL-22-producing CD4+ T cells in intracellular pathogen infections is poorly characterized. IL-22-producing CD4+ T cells may also express other effector molecules, and therefore synergize or contribute to anti-microbial effector function. This hypothesis cannot be tested by conventional approaches manipulating a single IL-22 cytokine at genetic and protein levels, and IL-22+ T cells cannot be purified for evaluation due to secretion nature of cytokines. Here, we surprisingly found that upon activation, CD4+ T cells in M. tuberculosis-infected macaques or humans could evolve into T effector cells bearing membrane-bound IL-22 after de novo IL-22 production. Membrane-bound IL-22+ CD4+ T effector cells appeared to mature in vivo and sustain membrane distribution in highly-inflammatory environments during active M. tuberculosis infection. NSOM/QD-based nanoscale molecular imaging revealed that membrane-bound IL-22, like CD3, distributed in membrane and engaged as ~100–200 nm nanoclusters or ~300–600 nm nanodomains for potential interaction with IL-22 receptor. Importantly, purified membrane-bound IL-22+ CD4+ T cells inhibited intracellular M. tuberculosis replication in macrophages. Our findings suggest that IL-22-producing T cells can evolve to retain IL-22 on membrane for prolonged IL-22 half-lives and to exert efficient cell-cell interaction for anti-M. tuberculosis effector function.
Tuberculosis; IL-22; Infection; NSOM/QD; nanoscale molecular imaging
Clonal responses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T effector cells producing antituberculosis cytokine IFN-γ in the context of immune protection against tuberculosis remain poorly characterized in humans. Utilizing decade-long TCR expertise, we previously developed a useful method to isolate clonotypic TCR sequences from Ag-specific IFN-γ–producing T cells and to specifically measure clonotypic TCR frequencies in the T cell pool. In this study, we investigated TCR Vβ repertoires/CDR3 usage, clonal expansion or dominance, and pulmonary trafficking or accumulation for purified protein deritative (PPD)-specific T effector cells producing IFN-γ during bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and subsequent M. tuberculosis challenge of macaques. We found that while PPD-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T effector clones employed diverse TCR Vβ repertoires, 30–33% of IFN-γ+CD4+ T cell clones from three M. tuberculosis-infected macaques expressed TCR bearing a conserved residue leucine in CDR3. Many Ag-specific IFN-γ+ CD4+ and few CD8+ T effector cells emerged as dominant clones during mycobacterial infections and underwent major recall expansion after pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection of BCG-vaccinated macaques. PPD-specific T cell clones readily trafficked to the airway or lung after BCG vaccination or M. tuberculosis infection, and some of them continuously accumulated in lungs during M. tuberculosis infection even after they became undetectable in the circulation. Importantly, remarkable recall expansion and pulmonary accumulation of T effector cells coincided with BCG-induced protection against tuberculosis. Thus, rapid clonal expansion and pulmonary accumulation of Ag-specific T effector cells appear to be one of the immune mechanisms underlying immunity against tuberculosis.
Nano-spatial distribution of cell surface molecules on cell membrane fluctuations during T-cell activation has not been reported. In this study, we innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)/quantum dots (QD)-based nanotechnology through three-dimensional image fusion algorithm to merge the simultaneously-obtained dual-color fluorescence information and three-dimensional topography. This novel imaging system made it possible to visualize nano-spatial distribution and organization of early-activation molecules CD69 and late-activation molecules CD71 on cell-membrane fluctuations during T-cell activation. Interestingly, most CD69 molecules were clustered to form 250–500 nm nano-domains polarizing predominantly in the peak of the cell-membrane fluctuations. In contrast, although CD71 molecules were also clustered as 250–500 nm nano-domains, they polarized dominantly in the valley of the cell-membrane fluctuations. The peak-valley polarities of CD69 nano-domains and CD71 nano-domains implied their different functions. CD69 nano-domains polarizing on membrane-peak fluctuations might serve as transient platforms driving TCR/CD3-induced signaling and activation, whereas CD71 nano-domains distributing in the membrane-valley fluctuations appeared to facilitate iron uptake for increased metabolisms in T-cell activation. Importantly, this NSOM/QD-based fluorescence-topographic image fusion provides a powerful tool to visualize nano-spatial distribution of cell-surface molecules on cell-membrane fluctuations and enable better understanding of distribution-function relationship.
Nanoimmunology; Nanobiotechnology; NSOM; T-cell activation; CD69; CD71
Considering the observations that linoleic acid conjugated with paclitaxel (CLA-PTX) possesses antitumor activity against brain tumors, is able to cross the blood–brain barrier, but has poor water solubility, the purpose of this study was to prepare a novel CLA-PTX microemulsion and evaluate its activity against brain tumors in vitro and in vivo.
The in vitro cytotoxicity of a CLA-PTX microemulsion was investigated in C6 glioma cells. The in vivo antitumor activity of the CLA-PTX microemulsion was evaluated in tumor-bearing nude mice and rats. The pharmacokinetics of the CLA-PTX microemulsion were investigated in rats, and its safety was also evaluated in mice.
The average droplet size of the CLA-PTX microemulsion was approximately 176.3 ± 0.8 nm and the polydispersity index was 0.294 ± 0.024. In vitro cytotoxicity results showed that the IC50 of the CLA-PTX microemulsion was 1.61 ± 0.83 μM for a C6 glioma cell line, which was similar to that of free paclitaxel and CLA-PTX solution (P > 0.05). The antitumor activity of the CLA-PTX microemulsion against brain tumors was confirmed in our in vivo C6 glioma tumor-bearing nude mice as well as in a rat model. In contrast, Taxol® had almost no significant antitumor effect in C6 glioma tumor-bearing rats, but could markedly inhibit growth of C6 tumors in C6 glioma tumor-bearing nude mice. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that CLA-PTX in solution has a much longer circulation time and produces higher drug plasma concentrations compared with the CLA-PTX microemulsion. The results of the acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of CLA-PTX solution was 103.9 mg/kg. In contrast, the CLA-PTX microemulsion was well tolerated in mice when administered at doses up to 200 mg/kg.
CLA-PTX microemulsion is a novel formulation with significant antitumor efficacy in the treatment of brain tumors, and is safer than CLA-PTX solution.
CLA-PTX; microemulsion; pharmacokinetics; brain tumor; antitumor efficacy; safety
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health burden for which safe vaccines are needed. BCG has limitations as a TB vaccine so we have focused on live attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants as vaccine candidates. Prior to human studies, however, it is necessary to demonstrate safety in non-human primates (NHP). In this study, we evaluate the safety and efficacy of two live attenuated M. tuberculosis double deletion vaccine strains mc26020 (ΔlysA ΔpanCD) and mc26030 (ΔRD1 ΔpanCD) in cynomolgus macaques. In murine models, mc26020 is rapidly cleared while mc26030 persists. Both mc26020 and mc26030 were safe and well tolerated in cynomolgus macaques. Following a high-dose intrabronchial challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis, mc26020-vaccinates were afforded a level of protection intermediate between that elicited by BCG vaccination and no vaccination. BCG vaccinates had reduced tuberculosis-associated pathology and improved clinical scores as compared to saline and mc26030 vaccinates, but survival did not differ among the groups.
Vaccine; Mycobacteria; Mycobacterium; Tuberculosis; Non-human primate; BCG; Safety
T-cell immune responses modulated by T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in humans remain poorly understood. Here, we found that active TB patients exhibited increases in numbers of Tim-3-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which preferentially displayed polarized effector memory phenotypes. Consistent with effector phenotypes, Tim-3+CD4+ and Tim-3+CD8+ T-cell subsets showed greater effector functions for producing Th1/Th22 cytokines and CTL effector molecules than Tim-3− counterparts, and Tim-3-expressing T cells more apparently limited intracellular Mtb replication in macrophages. The increased effector functions for Tim-3-expressing T cells consisted with cellular activation signaling as Tim-3+CD4+ and Tim-3+CD8+ T-cell subsets expressed much higher levels of phosphorylated signaling molecules p38, stat3, stat5, and Erk1/2 than Tim-3- controls. Mechanistic experiments showed that siRNA silencing of Tim-3 or soluble Tim-3 treatment interfering with membrane Tim-3-ligand interaction reduced de novo production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by Tim-3-expressing T cells. Furthermore, stimulation of Tim-3 signaling pathways by antibody cross-linking of membrane Tim-3 augmented effector function of IFN-γ production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, suggesting that Tim-3 signaling helped to drive stronger effector functions in active TB patients. This study therefore uncovered a previously unknown mechanism for T-cell immune responses regulated by Tim-3, and findings may have implications for potential immune intervention in TB.
Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell effector functions producing Th1 or cytotoxic cytokines are required to mount anti-mycobacterial immunity, insufficiency or failure to mount anti-mycobacterial effector functions by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may lead to impaired immunity against TB. Therefore, it is important to elucidate functional characteristics and regulatory pathways for Mtb-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during immune responses to Mtb infection. It was postulated that T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) might represent a T-cell exhaustion marker, and expression of Tim-3 on T cells may be linked to progressive loss of secretion of cytokines. Thus, Tim-3 expression on T cells might correlate with T-cell dysfunction and disease pathogenic events. However, T-cell immune responses modulated by Tim-3 in human TB disease remain poorly understood. Here, we found that up-regulation of Tim-3 expression in active human TB disease allows CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to mount stronger, but not impaired, anti-mycobacterium effector functions. This study therefore uncovers a previously unknown mechanism for T-cell immune responses regulated by Tim-3, and has an important implication for TB diagnostics and therapy.
Background. Malaria and AIDS represent 2 leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide, and their high geographic overlap means coinfection is prevalent. It remains unknown whether distinct immune responses during coinfection with malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect clinical outcomes.
Methods. We tested this hypothesis by employing macaque models of coinfection with malaria and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV).
Results. Plasmodium fragile malaria coinfection of acutely SHIV-infected macaques induced hyperimmune activation and remarkable expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T effector cells de novo producing interferon γ or tumor necrosis factor α. Malaria-driven cellular hyperactivation/expansion and high-level Th1-cytokines enhanced SHIV disease characterized by increasing CD4+ T-cell depletion, profound lymphoid depletion or destruction, and even necrosis in lymph nodes and spleens. Importantly, malaria/SHIV-mediated depletion, destruction, and necrosis in lymphoid tissues led to bursting parasite replication and fatal virus-associated malaria. Surprisingly, chronically SHIV-infected macaques without AIDS employed different defense mechanisms during malaria coinfection, and mounted unique ∼200-fold expansion of interleukin 17+/interleukin 22+ T effectors with profound Th1 suppression. Such remarkable expansion of Th17/Th22 cells and inhibition of Th1 response coincided with development of immunity against fatal virus-associated malaria without accelerating SHIV disease.
Conclusions. These novel findings suggest that virus infection status and selected Th1 or Th17/Th22 responses after malaria/AIDS-virus coinfection correlate with distinct outcomes of virus infection and malaria.
Impaired cognitive flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been reported in previous literature. The present study explored ASD children's visual scanning patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) task using eye-tracking technique. ASD and typical developing (TD) children completed the standardized DCCS procedure on the computer while their eye movements were tracked. Behavioral results confirmed previous findings on ASD children's deficits in executive function. ASD children's visual scanning patterns also showed some specific underlying processes in the DCCS task compared to TD children. For example, ASD children looked shorter at the correct card in the postswitch phase and spent longer time at blank areas than TD children did. ASD children did not show a bias to the color dimension as TD children did. The correlations between the behavioral performance and eye moments were also discussed.
Co-infection with HIV and HCV is very common. It is estimated that over 5 million people are co-infected with HIV and HCV worldwide. Accumulated evidence shows that each virus alters the course of infection of the other one. CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in the eradication of viruses and infected target cells. To the best of our knowledge, no one has investigated the gene expression profiles in HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals.
Genome-wide transcriptomes of CD8+ T cells from HIV/HCV-co-infected or mono-infected treatment-naïve individuals were analyzed by microarray assays. Pairwise comparisons were performed and differentially expressed genes were identified followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) validation. Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) from Web-based Gene SeT AnaLysis Toolkit (WebGestalt) and DAVID bioinformatics resources 6.7 (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) were used to discover the Gene Ontology (GO) categories with significantly enriched gene numbers. The enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were also obtained by using WebGestalt software.
Results and Conclusions
A total of 110, 24 and 72 transcript IDs were shown to be differentially expressed (> 2-fold and p<0.05) in comparisons between HCV- and HIV-mono-infected groups, HIV/HCV-co-infected and HIV-mono-infected groups, and HIV/HCV-co-infected and HCV-mono-infected groups, respectively. In qRT-PCR assay, most of the genes showed similar expressing profiles with the observation in microarray assays. Further analysis revealed that genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional regulation and cytokine responses were significantly altered. These data offer new insights into HIV/HCV co-infections, and may help to identify new markers for the management and treatment of HIV/HCV co-infections.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Sensitive, non-invasive diagnostic screen methods are urgently needed to improve its survival rates. Stable circulating microRNA offers unique opportunities for the early diagnosis of several diseases, including cancers. Our aim has been to find new plasma miRNAs that can be used as biomarkers for the detection of CRC.
According to the results of miRNA profiling performed on pooling plasma samples form 10 CRC patients or 10 healthy controls, a panel of miRNAs (hsa-miR-10a, -19a, -22*, -24, -92a, 125a-5p, -141, -150, -188-3p, -192, -210, -221, -224*, -376a, -425*, -495, -572, -601, -720, -760 and hsa-let-7a, -7e) were deregulated in CRC plasma with fold changes >5. After large scale validation by qRT-PCR performed on another 191 independent individuals (90 CRC, 43 advanced adenoma and 58 healthy participants), we found that the levels of plasma miR-601 and miR-760 were significantly decreased in colorectal neoplasia (carcinomas and advanced adenomas) compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis showed that plasma miR-601 and miR-760 were of significant diagnostic value for advanced neoplasia. These two miRNAs together yield an AUC of 0.792 with 83.3% sensitivity and 69.1% specificity for separating CRC from normal controls, and yield an AUC of 0.683 with 72.1% sensitivity and 62.1% specificity in discriminating advanced adenomas from normal controls.
Plasma miR-601 and miR-760 can potentially serve as promising non-invasive biomarkers for the early detection of CRC.
After cancer diagnosis, therapy for the patient is largely dependent on the tumor origin, especially when a metastatic tumor is being treated. However, cases such as untypical metastasis, poorly differentiated tumors or even a limited number of tumor cells may lead to challenges in identifying the origin. Moreover, approximately 3% to 5% of total solid tumor patients will not have to have their tumor origin identified in their lifetime. The THEROS CancerTYPE ID® is designed for identifying the tumor origin with an objective, rapid and standardized procedure.
Methodology and Principal Findings
This is a blinded retrospective study to evaluate performance of the THEROS CancerTYPE ID® in a Chinese population. In total, 184 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of 23 tumor origins were collected from the tissue bank of Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FDUSCC). A standard tumor cell enrichment process was used, and the prediction results were compared with reference diagnosis, which was confirmed by two experienced pathologists at FDUSCC. All of the 184 samples were successfully analyzed, and no tumor specimens were excluded because of sample quality issues. In total, 151 samples were correctly predicted. The agreement rate was 82.1%. A Pearson Chi-square test shows that there is no difference between this study and the previous evaluation test performed by bioTheranostics Inc. No statistically significant decrease was observed in either the metastasis group or tumors with high grades.
A comparable result with previous work was obtained. Specifically, specimens with a high probability score (>0.85) have a high chance (agreement rate = 95%) of being correctly predicted. No performance difference was observed between primary and metastatic specimens, and no difference was observed among three tumor grades. The use of laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) makes the THEROS CancerTYPE ID® accessible to almost all of the cancer patients with different tumor statuses.
In the crystal structure of the title compound, C18H23NO2, there are only van der Waals interactions present. The cyclohexyl ring has a chair conformation. The longer axes of the displacement parameters of the non-H atoms forming the ethylmethylcarboxylate skeleton are perpendicular to the plane through the non-H atoms of this skeleton.
We previously demonstrated that unvaccinated macaques infected with large-dose M.tuberculosis(Mtb) exhibited delays for pulmonary trafficking of Ag-specific αβ and γδ T effector cells, and developed severe lung tuberculosis(TB) and “secondary” Mtb infection in remote organs such as liver and kidney. Despite delays in lungs, local immunity in remote organs may accumulate since progressive immune activation after pulmonary Mtb infection may allow IFNγ-producing γδ T cells to adequately develop and traffic to lately-infected remote organs. As initial efforts to test this hypothesis, we comparatively examined TCR repertoire/clonality, tissue trafficking and effector function of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in lung with severe TB and in liver/kidney without apparent TB.
We utilized conventional infection-immunity approaches in macaque TB model, and employed our decades-long expertise for TCR repertoire analyses. TCR repertoires in Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell subpopulation were broad during primary Mtb infection as most TCR clones found in lymphoid system, lung, kidney and liver were distinct. Polyclonally-expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell clones from lymphoid tissues appeared to distribute and localize in lung TB granuloms at the endpoint after Mtb infection by aerosol. Interestingly, some TCR clones appeared to be more predominant than others in lymphocytes from liver or kidney without apparent TB lesions. TCR CDR3 spetratyping revealed such clonal dominance, and the clonal dominance of expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in kidney/liver tissues was associated with undetectable or low-level TB burdens. Furthermore, Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from tissue compartments could mount effector function for producing anti-mycobacterium cytokine.
We were the first to demonstrate clonal immune responses of mycobacterium-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in the lymphoid system, heavily-infected lungs and lately subtly-infected kidneys or livers during primary Mtb infection. While clonally-expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells accumulated in lately-infected kidneys/livers without apparent TB lesions, TB burdens or lesions appeared to impact TCR repertoires and tissue trafficking patterns of activated Vγ2Vδ2 T cells.
The gene encoding c-ABL, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, is involved in a chromosomal translocation resulting in expression of a BCR-Abl fusion protein that causes most chronic myelogenous and some acute lymphocytic leukemias (CML and ALL) in humans. The Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) expresses an alternative form of c-Abl, v-Abl, that transforms murine pro-B cells, resulting in acute leukemia and providing an experimental model for human disease. Gleevec (STI571) inhibits the Abl kinase and has shown great utility against CML and ALL in humans, although its usefulness is limited by acquired resistance. Since STI571 is active against A-MuLV-transformed cells in vitro, we performed a retroviral cDNA library screen for genes that confer resistance to apoptosis induced by STI571. We found that forced expression of Cdk6 promotes continued cell division and decreased apoptosis of leukemic cells. We then determined that the transcription factor E2A negatively regulates Cdk6 transcription in leukemic pro-B cells and that the v-Abl kinase stimulates Cdk6 expression via an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1-dependent pathway. Finally, we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor PD0332991 can act synergistically with STI571 to enhance leukemic cell death, suggesting a potential role for CDK6 inhibitors in the treatment of STI571-resistant CML or ALL.
Transforming growth factor type-β (TGF-β)/Smad pathway plays an essential role in vascular fibrosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation also mediates TGF-β signaling-induced vascular fibrosis, suggesting that some sort of interaction exists between Smad and redox pathways. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate the influence of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a downstream effector of ROS, on TGF-β signaling transduction through Smad3 pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).
Methods and Results
TGF-β1 treatment promoted PARP1 activation through induction of ROS generation in rat VSMCs. TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Smad3 was prevented by treatment of cells with PARP inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) or N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)acetami (PJ34), or PARP1 siRNA. TGF-β1 treatment promoted poly(ADP-ribosy)lation of Smad3 via activation of PARP1 in the nucleus. Poly(ADP-ribosy)lation enhanced Smad-Smad binding element (SBE) complex formation in nuclear extracts and increased DNA binding activity of Smad3. Pretreatment with 3AB, PJ34, or PARP1 siRNA prevented TGF-β1-induced Smad3 transactivation and expression of Smad3 target genes, including collagen Iα1, collagen IIIα1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, in rat VSMCs.
PARP1 is indispensable for TGF-β1 induced Smad3 activation in rat VSMCs. Targeting PARP1 may be a promising therapeutic approach against vascular diseases induced by dysregulation of TGF-β/Smad3 pathway.
We previously showed that recombinant (r) Listeria monocytogenes carrying ΔactA and a selected prfA* mutation (r-Listeria ΔactA prfA*) secreted >100-fold more immunogen in broth culture than wild-type r-Listeria or r-Listeria ΔactA and elicited much greater cellular and humoral immune responses than r-Listeria ΔactA after intravenous vaccination of mice. Here, we conducted comparative studies evaluating vaccine-elicited immune responses in systemic and mucosal sites after intranasal, intravenous, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous immunization of mice with r-Listeria ΔactA prfA* vaccine candidates. Intranasal vaccination of mice with r-Listeria ΔactA prfA* vaccine candidates elicited a robust gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ+) cellular response in systemic sites, although intravenous or intraperitoneal immunization was more efficient. Surprisingly, intranasal vaccination elicited an appreciable pulmonary IFN-γ+ cellular response that was nonstatistically higher than the magnitude induced by the intravenous route but was significantly greater than that elicited by subcutaneous immunization. Furthermore, although intranasal r-Listeria ΔactA prfA* delivery induced poor systemic IgG responses, intranasal vaccination elicited appreciable secretory immunogen-specific IgA titers that were similar to or higher in mucosal fluid than those induced by subcutaneous and intravenous immunizations. Thus, intranasal vaccination with r-Listeria ΔactA prfA* appears to be a useful approach for eliciting robust systemic and pulmonary cellular responses and measurable secretory mucosal IgA titers.