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1.  Metastatic breast cancer in the mandibular condyle mimicking temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2014;2014(1):rjt130.
Metastases or tumour to the jaws are rare and those to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are even rarer. The symptoms like preauricular pain, swelling and clicking are generally associated with TMJ disease. But the same symptoms are also found in tumours of the jaws or other diseases. We report on the case of a 48-year-old woman with a 12-year history of breast cancer who was referred to our department for clarification of preauricular swelling and pain. The possible aetiology of TMJ disorders and the frequency and localization of metastases to the jaws are discussed.
doi:10.1093/jscr/rjt130
PMCID: PMC3913433
2.  IGF1 as a Potential Treatment for Rett Syndrome: Safety Assessment in Six Rett Patients 
Autism Research and Treatment  2012;2012:679801.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in ten thousand girls and has no cure. The majority of RTT patients display mutations in the gene that codes for the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Clinical observations and neurobiological analysis of mouse models suggest that defects in the expression of MeCP2 protein compromise the development of the central nervous system, especially synaptic and circuit maturation. Thus, agents that promote brain development and synaptic function, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), are good candidates for ameliorating the symptoms of RTT. IGF1 and its active peptide, (1–3) IGF1, cross the blood brain barrier, and (1–3) IGF1 ameliorates the symptoms of RTT in a mouse model of the disease; therefore they are ideal treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders, including RTT. We performed a pilot study to establish whether there are major risks associated with IGF1 administration in RTT patients. Six young girls with classic RTT received IGF1 subcutaneous injections twice a day for six months, and they were regularly monitored by their primary care physicians and by the unit for RTT in Versilia Hospital (Italy). This study shows that there are no risks associated with IGF1 administration.
doi:10.1155/2012/679801
PMCID: PMC3420537  PMID: 22934177
3.  Dissociation of Dorsal Hippocampal Regional Activation Under the Influence of Stress in Freely Behaving Rats 
Stress has deleterious effects on brain, body, and behavior in humans and animals alike. The present work investigated how 30-min acute photic stress exposure impacts on spatial information processing in the main sub-regions of the dorsal hippocampal formation [CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG)], a brain structure prominently implicated in memory and spatial representation. Recordings were performed from spatially tuned hippocampal and DG cells in rats while animals foraged in a square arena for food. The stress procedure induced a decrease in firing frequencies in CA1 and CA3 place cells while sparing locational characteristics. In contrast to the CA1–CA3 network, acute stress failed to induce major changes in the DG neuronal population. These data demonstrate a clear dissociation of the effects of stress on the main hippocampal sub-regions. Our findings further support the notion of decreased hippocampal excitability arising from behavioral stress in areas CA1 and CA3, but not in DG.
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00066
PMCID: PMC3194099  PMID: 22022311
stress; freely moving; place cells; hippocampus; CA1; CA3; dentate gyrus

Results 1-3 (3)