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1.  EEG-fMRI Evaluation of Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Sclerosis 
The neuroradiology journal  null;27(1):45-54.
This preliminary study sought more information on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation, especially contralateral temporal/extratemporal spread, during continuous EEG-fMRI recordings in four patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). In two patients, EEG showed unilateral focal activity during the EEG-fMRI session concordant with the interictal focus previously identified with standard and video-poly EEG. In the other two patients EEG demonstrated a contralateral diffusion of the irritative focus. In the third patient (with the most drug-resistant form and also extratemporal clinical signs), there was an extratemporal diffusion over frontal regions, ipsilateral to the irritative focus. fMRI analysis confirmed a single activation in the mesial temporal region in two patients whose EEG showed unilateral focal activity, while it demonstrated a bilateral activation in the mesial temporal regions in the other two patients. In the third patient, fMRI demonstrated an activation in the supplementary motxor area. This study confirms the most significant activation with a high firing rate of the irritative focus, but also suggests the importance of using new techniques (such as EEG-fMRI to examine cerebral blood flow) to identify the controlateral limbic activation, and any other extratemporal activations, possible causes of drug resistance in MTS that may require a more precise pre-surgical evaluation with invasive techniques.
PMCID: PMC4202837  PMID: 24571833
focal drug resistant epilepsy; surgical treatment; EEG-fMRI
2.  IGF1 as a Potential Treatment for Rett Syndrome: Safety Assessment in Six Rett Patients 
Autism Research and Treatment  2012;2012:679801.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in ten thousand girls and has no cure. The majority of RTT patients display mutations in the gene that codes for the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Clinical observations and neurobiological analysis of mouse models suggest that defects in the expression of MeCP2 protein compromise the development of the central nervous system, especially synaptic and circuit maturation. Thus, agents that promote brain development and synaptic function, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), are good candidates for ameliorating the symptoms of RTT. IGF1 and its active peptide, (1–3) IGF1, cross the blood brain barrier, and (1–3) IGF1 ameliorates the symptoms of RTT in a mouse model of the disease; therefore they are ideal treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders, including RTT. We performed a pilot study to establish whether there are major risks associated with IGF1 administration in RTT patients. Six young girls with classic RTT received IGF1 subcutaneous injections twice a day for six months, and they were regularly monitored by their primary care physicians and by the unit for RTT in Versilia Hospital (Italy). This study shows that there are no risks associated with IGF1 administration.
PMCID: PMC3420537  PMID: 22934177
3.  Cerebellar Ataxia with Complete Clinical Recovery and Resolution of MRI Lesions Related to Central Pontine Myelinolysis: Case Report and Literature Review 
Case Reports in Neurology  2010;2(3):157-162.
There are several reports of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) in a setting of malnutrition, alcoholism, and chronic debilitating illness associated with electrolyte abnormalities, especially hyponatremia. The cause of myelinolysis is still under debate, and, although osmotic effects are thought to be responsible in most cases, alternative pathological factors should be considered [King et al.: Am J Med Sci 2010;339:561–567]. We report a case of CPM in a patient with recent chemotherapy for colon cancer without electrolyte unbalance and otherwise unexplained causes. Moreover, the present case is an example of the unusual clinical ataxic variant, followed by complete recovery without any specific treatment. The diagnosis was confirmed by MRI, which showed a characteristic hyperintense signal abnormality in the central part of the pons with an unaffected outer rim. One month later, we observed complete resolution of clinical and radiological symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3098816  PMID: 21607027
Central pontine myelinolysis; Cerebellar ataxia; Chemotherapy; Complete recovery; Hyponatremia

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