AIM: To investigate the dynamic features of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression in rat hepatocarcinogenesis, and the relationship between IGF-IR and hepatocytes malignant transformation at mRNA or protein level.
METHODS: Hepatoma models were made by inducing with 2-fluorenylacetamide (2-FAA) on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Morphological changes of hepatocytes were observed by pathological Hematoxylin and eosin staining, the dynamic expressions of liver and serum IGF-IR were quantitatively analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The distribution of hepatic IGF-IR was located by immunohistochemistry. The fragments of IGF-IR gene were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and confirmed by sequencing.
RESULTS: Rat hepatocytes after induced by 2-FAA were changed dynamically from granule-like degeneration, precancerous to hepatoma formation with the progressing increasing of hepatic mRNA or IGF-IR expression. The incidences of liver IGF-IR, IGF-IR mRNA, specific IGF-IR concentration (ng/mg wet liver), and serum IGF-IR level (ng/mL) were 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.63 ± 0.17, and 1.33 ± 0.47 in the control; 50.0%, 61.1%, 0.65 ± 0.2, and 1.51 ± 0.46 in the degeneration; 88.9%, 100%, 0.66 ± 0.14, and 1.92 ± 0.29 in the precancerosis; and 100%, 100%, 0.96 ± 0.09, and 2.43 ± 0.57 in the cancerous group, respectively. IGF-IR expression in the cancerous group was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that in any of other groups at mRNA or protein level. The closely positive IGF-IR relationship was found between livers and sera (r = 0.91, t = 14.222, P < 0.01), respectively.
CONCLUSION: IGF-IR expression may participate in rat hepatocarcinogenesis and its abnormality should be an early marker for hepatocytes malignant transformation.
Hepatoma; Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor; Immunohistochemistry; Gene amplification; Sequencing; Rat hepatoma model
The reported prevalence of cognitive deficits within the first month of stroke ranges widely from 10% to 82%, depending primarily on the criteria used to define cognitive impairment and on the selected patient population. These cognitive defects progress toward impairment over a course of time if left untreated. Among the most common cognitive deficits are the attentional, the visuoperceptual, the memory and executive function deficits. As these impairments are being increasingly recognized in the scientific communities, more and more studies are being devoted to the outcomes of various therapies for these disorders. In this review, we focus on the outcomes of various therapies for these cognitive disorders over time. We reviewed all the possible medical databases using key words for individual cognitive deficit treatment outcomes. All the possible studies including randomized controlled trials, pre-post design studies, case series and single case reports were included in this study. On the basis of present literature review, we conclude that the evidence is definitively positive only for outcomes of attentional and visuoperceptive skill deficits. On the other hand, there have been very few studies to conclude for effectiveness of various therapies for memory and executive function outcomes.
Cognition; interventions; neuropsychological outcome; stroke
Heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) is associated with clinical treatment failure. However, the resistance mechanism of hVISA has not been fully clarified. In the present study, comparative proteomics analysis of two pairs of isogenic vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) and hVISA strains isolated from two patients identified five differentially expressed proteins, IsaA, MsrA2, Asp23, GpmA, and AhpC, present in both isolate pairs. All the proteins were up-regulated in the hVISA strains. These proteins were analyzed in six pairs of isogenic VSSA and hVISA strains, and unrelated VSSA (n = 30) and hVISA (n = 24) by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–PCR (qRT–PCR). Of the six pairs of isogenic strains, isaA, msrA2 and ahpC were up-regulated in all six hVISA strains; whereas asp23 and gpmA were up-regulated in five hVISA strains compared with the VSSA parental strains. In the unrelated strains, statistical analyses showed that only isaA was significantly up-regulated in the hVISA strains. Analysis of the five differentially expressed proteins in 15 pairs of persistent VSSA strains by qRT–PCR showed no differences in the expression of the five genes among the persistent strains, suggesting that these genes are not associated with persistence infection. Our results indicate that increased expression of isaA may be related to hVISA resistance.
AIM: To investigate the effects of Annexin A2 (ANXA2) silencing on invasion, migration, and tumorigenic potential of hepatoma cells.
METHODS: Human hepatoma cell lines [HepG2, SMMC-7721, SMMC-7402, and MHCC97-H, a novel human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line with high metastasis potential] and a normal hepatocyte cell line (LO2) were used in this study. The protein and mRNA expression levels of ANXA2 were analysed by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The intracellular distribution profile of ANXA2 expression was determined by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Short hairpin RNA targeting ANXA2 was designed and stably transfected into MHCC97-H cells. Cells were cultured for in vitro analyses or subcutaneously injected as xenografts in mice for in vivo analyses. Effects of ANXA2 silencing on cell growth were assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay (in vitro) and tumour-growth assay (in vivo), on cell cycling was assessed by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining (in vitro), and on invasion and migration potential were assessed by transwell assay and wound-healing assay, respectively (both in vitro).
RESULTS: The MHCC97-H cells, which are known to have high metastasis potential, showed the highest level of ANXA2 expression among the four HCC cell types examined; compared to the LO2 cells, the MHCC97-H expression level was 8-times higher. The ANXA2 expression was effectively inhibited (about 80%) by ANXA2-speciﬁc small hairpin RNA (shRNA). ANXA2 expression in the MHCC97-H cells was mainly localized to the cellular membrane and cytoplasm, and some localization was detected in the nucleus. Moreover, the proliferation of MHCC97-H cells was obviously suppressed by shRNA-mediated ANXA2 silencing in vitro, and the tumour growth inhibition rate was 38.24% in vivo. The percentage of MHCC97-H cells in S phase dramatically decreased (to 27.76%) under ANXA2-silenced conditions. Furthermore, ANXA2-silenced MHCC97-H cells showed lower invasiveness (percentage of invading cells decreased to 52.16%) and suppressed migratory capacity (migration distance decreased to 63.49%). It is also worth noting that shRNA-mediated silencing of ANXA2 in the MHCC97-H cells led to abnormal apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: shRNA-mediated silencing of ANXA2 suppresses the invasion, migration, and tumorigenic potential of hepatoma cells, and may represent a useful target of future molecular therapies.
Annexin A2; Small hairpin RNA; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Invasion; Migration; Tumorigenic potential
Shewanella spp. is infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. Following two outbreaks of food poisoning, eight Shewanella spp. strains were obtained from the fecal specimens of patients, food and food processing-related materials. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was identified in the culture supernatants of these strains, and the toxin’s biological activity was detected using a mouse bioassay. This study suggested that Shewanella strains can colonize and survive in human intestines. The study also raises the issues of the accumulation of TTX produced by Shewanella in food and the possible role of TTX-producing Shewanella in food poisoning.
Tetrodotoxin; Shewanella; Food poisoning
Background. Genetic modification, such as the addition of exogenous genes to the MSC genome, is crucial to their use as cellular vehicles. Due to the risks associated with viral vectors such as insertional mutagenesis, the safer nonviral vectors have drawn a great deal of attention. Methods. VEGF, bFGF, vitamin C, and insulin-transferrin-selenium-X were supplemented in the MSC culture medium. The cells' proliferation and survival capacity was measured by MTT, determination of the cumulative number of cells, and a colony-forming efficiency assay. The plasmid pHr2-NL was constructed and nucleofected into MSCs. The recombinants were selected using G418 and characterized using PCR and Southern blotting. Results. BFGF is critical to MSC growth and it acted synergistically with vitamin C, VEGF, and ITS-X, causing the cells to expand significantly. The neomycin gene was targeted to the rDNA locus of human MSCs using a nonviral human ribosomal targeting vector. The recombinant MSCs retained multipotential differentiation capacity, typical levels of hMSC surface marker expression, and a normal karyotype, and none were tumorigenic in nude mice. Conclusions. Exogenous genes can be targeted to the rDNA locus of human MSCs while maintaining the characteristics of MSCs. This is the first nonviral gene targeting of hMSCs.
A scarlet fever outbreak caused by Streptococcus pyogenes occurred in China in 2011. To determine the genomic features of the outbreak strains, we deciphered genomes of two strains isolated from the regions with the highest incidence rates. The sequences will provide valuable information for comprehensive study of mechanisms related to this outbreak.
Efferocytosis is a unique phagocytic process for macrophages to remove apoptotic cells in inflammatory loci. This event is maintained by milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), but attenuated by high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Alcohol abuse causes injury and inflammation in multiple tissues. It alters efferocytosis, but precise molecular mechanisms for this effect remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that acute exposure of macrophages to alcohol (25 mmol/L) inhibited MFG-E8 gene expression and impaired efferocytosis. The effect was mimicked by hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, blocked acute alcohol effect on inhibition of macrophage MFG-E8 gene expression and efferocytosis. In addition, recombinant MFG-E8 rescued the activity of alcohol-treated macrophages in efferocytosis. Together, the data suggest that acute alcohol exposure impairs macrophage efferocytosis via inhibition of MFG-E8 gene expression through a reactive oxygen species dependent mechanism. Alcohol has been found to suppress or exacerbate immune cell activities depending on the length of alcohol exposure. Thus, we further examined the role of chronic alcohol exposure on macrophage efferocytosis. Interestingly, treatment of macrophages with alcohol for seven days in vitro enhanced MFG-E8 gene expression and efferocytosis. However, chronic feeding of mice with alcohol caused increase in HMGB1 levels in serum. Furthermore, HMGB1 diminished efferocytosis by macrophages that were treated chronically with alcohol, suggesting that HMGB1 might attenuate the direct effect of chronic alcohol on macrophage efferocytosis in vivo. Therefore, we speculated that the balance between MFG-E8 and HMGB1 levels determines pathophysiological effects of chronic alcohol exposure on macrophage efferocytosis in vivo.
AIM: To evaluate potential risk factors in the development of ulcerative colitis (UC) in China.
METHODS: A total of 1308 patients with UC and 1308 age-matched and sex-matched controls were prospectively studied in China. The UC cases were collected from 17 hospitals in China from April 2007 to April 2010. Uniform questionnaires were designed to investigate risk factors including smoking, appendectomy, stress, socio-economic conditions, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections and family sanitary conditions. Group comparisons by each factor were done using simple logistic regression analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: By univariate analysis, the variables predictive of UC included feeling stress, light and heavy alcoholic drinking, spicy food, sugar consumption and infectious diarrhea, while heavy tea intake and tap water consumption were protective against UC. On multivariate analysis, the protective factor for UC was tap water consumption [odds ratios (OR) = 0.424, 95%CI: 0.302-0.594, P < 0.001]; while the potential risk factors for UC were heavy sugar consumption (OR = 1.632, 95%CI: 1.156-2.305, P < 0.001), spicy food (light intake: OR = 3.329, 95%CI: 2.282-4.857, P < 0.001; heavy intake: OR = 3.979, 95%CI: 2.700-5.863, P < 0.001), and often feeling stress (OR = 1.981, 95%CI: 1.447-2.711, P < 0.001). Other factors, such as smoking habit, appendectomy, breastfeeding, a history of measles, rural or urban residence, education, oral contraceptives, and NSAID use have not been found to have a significant association with the development of UC in the present study.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed tap water consumption was a protective factor for UC, while spicy food, heavy sugar consumption and often feeling stress were risk factors for UC in this Chinese population.
Ulcerative colitis; Risk factors; Case-control study
It is now well established that the developing embryo is very sensitive to oxidative stress, which is a contributing factor to pregnancy-related disorders. However, little is known about the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the embryonic cardiovascular system due to a lack of appropriate ROS control method in the placenta. In this study, a small molecule called 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), a free radicals generator, was used to study the effects of oxidative stress on the cardiovascular system during chick embryo development. When nine-day-old (stage HH 35) chick embryos were treated with different concentrations of AAPH inside the air chamber, it was established that the LD50 value for AAPH was 10 µmol/egg. At this concentration, AAPH was found to significantly reduce the density of blood vessel plexus that was developed in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of HH 35 chick embryos. Impacts of AAPH on younger embryos were also examined and discovered that it inhibited the development of vascular plexus on yolk sac in HH 18 embryos. AAPH also dramatically repressed the development of blood islands in HH 3+ embryos. These results implied that AAPH-induced oxidative stress could impair the whole developmental processes associated with vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Furthermore, we observed heart enlargement in the HH 40 embryo following AAPH treatment, where the left ventricle and interventricular septum were found to be thickened in a dose-dependent manner due to myocardiac cell hypertrophy. In conclusion, oxidative stress, induced by AAPH, could lead to damage of the cardiovascular system in the developing chick embryo. The current study also provided a new developmental model, as an alternative for animal and cell models, for testing small molecules and drugs that have anti-oxidative activities.
Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus exhibit different pathogenicities, but to date, there remains no definitive and reliable strategy for differentiating these strains. In this study, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a potential method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. The phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 16S rRNA and recombinase A (recA) gene sequences, outer membrane protein P6 gene sequencing and single-gene PCR were used as reference methods. The original reference database (ORD, provided with the Biotyper software) and new reference database (NRD, extended with Chinese strains) were compared for the evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS. Through a search of the ORD, 76.9% of the NTHi (40/52) and none of the H. haemolyticus (0/20) strains were identified at the species level. However, all NTHi and H. haemolyticus strains used for identification were accurately recognized at the species level when searching the NRD. From the dendrogram clustering of the main spectra projections, the Chinese and foreign H. influenzae reference strains were categorized into two distinct groups, and H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus were also separated into two categories. Compared to the existing methods, MALDI-TOF MS has the advantage of integrating high throughput, accuracy and speed. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is an excellent method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. This method can be recommended for use in appropriately equipped laboratories.
The shotgun strategy applying tandem mass spectrometry has been widely used to identify the proteins that are differentially distributed among diseases for its high reliability and efficiency. To find out the potential difference of protein profiles in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) between Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and non-CJD patients, especially in the fraction ranging from 1–10 KD, the CSF samples of 40 probable sporadic CJD (sCJD) patients, 32 non-CJD cases with dementia and 17 non-CJD cases without dementia were separately pooled and enriched by the magnetic beads based weak cation exchange chromatography (MB-WCX). After trypsin digestion, each enriched CSF was separated and identified by RP-HPLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS. In total, 42, 53 and 47 signals of proteins were identified in the pooled CSF fraction less than 10 KD of probable sCJD, non-CJD with dementia and non-CJD without dementia, respectively. Compared with that of probable sCJD, the similarity of CSF protein profiles of non-CJD with dementia (76.2%) were higher than that of non-CJD without dementia (57.1%). Nine CSF proteins were found to be specially observed in probable sCJD group. Those data may help to select the potential biomarkers for diagnosis of CJD. Additionally, further studies of the small segments of cellular proteins in CSF of CJD patients may also provide scientific clues for understanding the neuropathogenesis of TSEs.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; CSF; MB-HPLC-ESI-QTOF; 1–10 KD; comparative peptidome
AIM: To investigate the characteristics and diagnostic value of annexin A2 (ANXA2) expression in cancerous tissues and sera of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Levels of liver ANXA2 gene transcription or protein expression were analyzed in HCC-, their self-controlled precancerous-, and distant cancerous- tissues from 30 HCC. Serum levels of ANXA2 expression in 115 patients with HCC, 25 with metastatic liver cancer, 35 with chronic hepatitis, 28 with acute hepatitis, 38 with cirrhosis, and 30 healthy controls were determined. Clinicopathological characteristics of circulating ANXA2 expression were analyzed, and its diagnostic efficiency and clinical values in HCC were evaluated.
RESULTS: ANXA2 expression was localized in both cell membrane and cytoplasm in HCC tissue, mainly in the cytoplasm of matched adjacent cancerous tissue, and there was almost no positive staining in matched distant cancerous tissue. Abnormal expression of liver ANXA2 was present in HCC tissues compared with self-controlled adjacent- and distant-cancerous tissues at protein or mRNA level. Circulating ANXA2 in HCC patients was significantly higher than that of other liver diseases (P < 0.01) except metastatic liver cancer. If the diagnostic cutoff value of ANXA2 level was more than 18 ng/mL, the incidence of serum ANXA2 was 86.96% in the HCC group, 80% in the metastatic liver cancer group, 31.58% in the liver cirrhosis group, none in the chronic hepatitis or acute hepatitis or normal control group, respectively. Serum ANXA2 expression in HCC patients was correlated with HBV infection (27.38 ± 5.67 ng/mL vs 18.58 ± 7.83 ng/mL, P < 0.01), extrahepatic metastasis (26.11 ± 5.43 ng/mL vs 22.79 ± 5.64 ng/mL, P < 0.01), and portal vein thrombus (26.03 ± 5.99 ng/mL vs 23.06 ± 5.03 ng/mL, P < 0.01), and was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the moderately- (26.19 ± 5.34 ng/mL) or the poorly- differentiated group (27.05 ± 5.13 ng/mL) than in the well differentiated group (20.43 ± 4.97 ng/mL), and in the tumor node metastasis stages III-IV (P < 0.01) than in stages I-II. ANXA2 was not correlated with patient sex, age, size or α-fetoprotein (AFP) level. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the whole range of sensitivities and specificities was 0.796 for ANXA2 and 0.782 for AFP. Combining detection of serum ANXA2 and AFP substantially improved the diagnostic efficiency (96.52%) and the negative predictive value (96.61%) for HCC.
CONCLUSION: The characteristics and distribution of ANXA2 expression has good diagnostic potential for HCC diagnosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Annexin A2; Liver; Upregulation; Clinicopathological characteristics; Diagnosis; Expression; Biomarker
For eye diseases, such as glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), involved in long-term degeneration procedure, longitudinal comparison of retinal images is a common step for reliable diagnosis of these kinds of diseases.
To provide a retinal image registration approach for longitudinal retinal image alignment and comparison.
Two image registration solutions were proposed for facing different image qualities of retinal images to make the registration methods more robust and feasible in a clinical application system.
Thirty pairs of longitudinal retinal images were used for the registration test. The experiments showed both solutions provided good performance for the accurate image registrations with efficiency.
We proposed a set of retinal image registration solutions for longitudinal retinal image observation and comparison targeting a clinical application environment.
Retinal image registration; Glaucoma; ARMD; clinical decision support
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been characterized as a putative neurotransmitter and serves as a reservoir for brain histamine, which could act on histaminergic neurons system to relieve stress-induced damages. However, understanding of the role of carnosine in stress-evoked immunocompromise is limited. In this study, results showed that when mice were subjected to restraint stress, spleen index and the number of spleen lymphocytes including Natural Killer (NK) cells were obviously decreased. Results also demonstrated that restraint stress decreased the cytotoxic activity of NK cells per spleen (LU10/spleen) while the activity of a single NK cell (LU10/106 cells) was not changed. However, oral administration of carnosine (150 and 300 mg/kg) increased spleen index and number of spleen lymphocytes (including NK cells), and elevated the cytotoxic activity of NK cells per spleen in restraint-stressed mice. These results indicated that carnosine ameliorated stress-evoked immunocompromise through spleen lymphocyte number maintenance. Carnosine was further found to reduce stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone level. On the other hand, results showed that carnosine and RU486 (a glucocorticoids receptor antagonist) treatment prevented the reduction in mitochondrion membrane potential and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm, increased Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio, as well as decreased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in spleen lymphocytes of stressed mice. The results above suggested that the maintenance of spleen lymphocyte number by carnosine was related with the inhibition of lymphocytes apoptosis caused by glucocorticoids overflow. The stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation by carnosine also contributed to the maintenance of spleen lymphocyte number in stressed mice. In view of the elevated histamine level, the anti-stress effects of carnosine on restraint-evoked immunocompromise might be via carnosine-histamine metabolic pathway. Taken together, carnosine maintained spleen lymphocyte number by inhibiting lymphocyte apoptosis and stimulating lymphocyte proliferation, thus prevented immunocompromise in restraint-stressed mice.
Caffeine consumption is worldwide. It has been part of our diet for many centuries; indwelled in our foods, drinks, and medicines. It is often perceived as a “legal drug”, and though it is known to have detrimental effects on our health, more specifically, disrupt the normal fetal development following excessive maternal intake, much ambiguity still surrounds the precise mechanisms and consequences of caffeine-induced toxicity. Here, we employed early chick embryos as a developmental model to assess the effects of caffeine on the development of the fetal nervous system. We found that administration of caffeine led to defective neural tube closures and expression of several abnormal morphological phenotypes, which included thickening of the cephalic mesenchymal tissues and scattering of somites. Immunocytochemistry of caffeine-treated embryos using neural crest cell markers also demonstrated uncharacteristic features; HNK1 labeled migratory crest cells exhibited an incontinuous dorsal-ventral migration trajectory, though Pax7 positive cells of the caffeine-treated groups were comparatively similar to the control. Furthermore, the number of neurons expressing neurofilament and the degree of neuronal branching were both significantly reduced following caffeine administration. The extent of these effects was dose-dependent. In conclusion, caffeine exposure can result in malformations of the neural tube and induce other teratogenic effects on neurodevelopment, although the exact mechanism of these effects requires further investigation.
AIM: To investigate the non-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacterial flora concurrent with H. pylori infection.
METHODS: A total of 103 gastric biopsy specimens from H. pylori positive patients were selected for bacterial culture. All the non-H. pylori bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).
RESULTS: A total of 201 non-H. pylori bacterial isolates were cultivated from 67 (65.0%) of the 103 gastric samples, including 153 isolates identified successfully at species level and 48 at genus level by MALDI-TOF MS. The dominant species were Streptococcus, Neisseria, Rothia and Staphylococcus, which differed from the predominantly acid resistant species reported previously in healthy volunteers. The prevalence of non-H. pylori bacteria was higher in non-ulcer dyspepsia group than in gastric ulcer group (100% vs 42.9%, P < 0.001). Six bacterial species with urease activity (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus aureus, Brevibacterium spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were also isolated.
CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of the non-H. pylori bacteria concurrent with H. pylori infection, and the non-H. pylori bacteria may also play important as-yet-undiscovered roles in the pathogenesis of stomach disorders.
Non-Helicobacter pylori; Bacterial flora; Gastrointestinal diseases; Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Bacteria release flagellin that elicits innate responses via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). Here, we investigated the fate of apically administrated full length flagellin from virulent and avirulent bacteria, along with truncated recombinant flagellin proteins in intestinal epithelial cells and cellular responses. Flagellin was internalized by intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) monolayers of IEC-18. Additionally, apically applied flagellin was internalized by polarized human Caco-2BBe and T-84 cells in a TLR5 dependent mechanism. More, flagellin exposure did not affect the integrity of intestinal monolayers. With immunofluorescent staining, internalized flagellin was detected in both early endosomes as well as lysosomes. We found that apical exposure of polarized Caco-2BBe and T-84 to flagellin from purified Salmonella, Escherichia coli O83:H1 (isolate from Crohn’s lesion) or avirulent E. coli K12 induced comparable levels of basolateral IL-8 secretion. A recombinant protein representing the conserved amino (N) and carboxyl (C) domains (D) of the flagellin protein (ND1/2ECHCD2/1) induced IL-8 secretion from IEC similar to levels elicited by full-length flagellins. However, a recombinant flagellin protein containing only the D3 hypervariable region elicited no IL-8 secretion in both cell lines compared to un-stimulated controls. Silencing or blocking TLR5 in Caco-2BBe cells resulted in a lack of flagellin internalization and decreased IL-8 secretion. Furthermore, apical exposure to flagellin stimulated transepithelial migration of neutrophils and dendritic cells. The novel findings in this study show that luminal-applied flagellin is internalized by normal IEC via TLR5 and co-localizes to endosomal and lysosomal compartments where it is likely degraded as flagellin was not detected on the basolateral side of IEC cultures.
AIM: To investigate the mechanism behind β-cell regeneration in neonatal rat pancreas treated with streptozotocin (STZ).
METHODS: Neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 70 mg/kg STZ. Body weight, pancreas weight and blood glucose were recorded every two days after the treatment. To identify the expression and location of transcription factors in the rat pancreas, double immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific cell markers and transcription factors.
RESULTS: Expression of Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), a marker for endocrine precursor cells, was observed by immunofluorescence in a few β-cells and many α-cells. The expression reached a peak 12 d after treatment. Pax4, a transcription factor that lies downstream of Ngn3 and plays an important role in β-cell differentiation, was also expressed in the α-cells of STZ-treated rats. We did not observe significant changes in Nkx6.1, which is essential for β-cell maturation in the treated rats.
CONCLUSION: α-cells dedifferentiated into endocrine precursor cells and acquired the ability to dedifferentiate in the neonatal rat pancreas after STZ treatment.
Pancreatic remodeling; Dedifferentiation; Endocrine precursor cells; Streptozotocin; Transcription factors
Milk fat globule–EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) has been shown to play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and to accelerate healing of the mucosa in septic mice. Herein, we (a) analyzed the expression of MFG-E8 in the gut of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (MFG-E8+/+) mice with and without dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, (b) characterized the pathological changes in intestinal mucosa of MFG-E8+/+ and MFG-E8−/− mice with DSS-induced colitis and (c) examined the therapeutic role of MFG-E8 in inflammatory bowel disease by using DSS-induced colitis model. Our data documented that there was an increase in colonic and rectal MFG-E8 expression in MFG-E8+/+ mice during the development of DSS colitis. MFG-E8 levels in both tissues decreased to below baseline during the recovery phase in mice with colitis. Changes in MFG-E8 gene expression correlated to the levels of inflammatory response and crypt-epithelial injury in both colonic and rectal mucosa in MFG-E8+/+ mice. MFG-E8−/−mice developed more severe crypt-epithelial injury than MFG-E8+/+ mice during exposure to DSS with delayed healing of intestinal epithelium during the recovery phase of DSS colitis. Administration of MFG-E8 during the recovery phase ameliorated colitis and promoted mucosal repair in both MFG-E8−/− and MFG-E8+/+ mice, indicating that lack of MFG-E8 causes increased susceptibility to colitis and delayed mucosal healing. These data suggest that MGF-E8 is an essential protective factor for gut epithelial homeostasis, and exogenous administration of MFG-E8 may represent a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease.
AIM: To investigate the relationship between urinary peptide changes and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection using urinary peptidome profiling.
METHODS: The study was performed in volunteers (n = 137) who gave informed consent. Urinary peptides were enriched by magnetic beads based weak cation exchange chromatography and spectrums acquired by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). ClinProTools bioinformatics software was used for statistical analysis and the recognition of peptide patterns. The marker peptides were identified by LTQ Obitrap XL tandem MS.
RESULTS: Approximately 50 proteins or peptides which loaded onto the magnetic beads were detected by MALDI-TOF MS. By optimizing the parameters of the model, the Genetic Algorithm model had good recognition capability (97%) and positive predictive value (94%). Based on the model, 2 markers with molecular masses of 6788 and 1912 Da were found that differentiated between H. pylori positive and negative volunteers. The m/z 1912 sequence was parsed as SKQFTSSTSYNRGDSTF. The peptide was identified as isoform 1 of the fibrinogen α chain precursor, whose concentration in urine was markedly higher in H. pylori infected volunteers than in H. pylori non-infected ones.
CONCLUSION: The appearance of urinary fibrinogen degradation products is caused by an active H. pylori-induced process.
Urinary peptidome profiling; MB-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry; Helicobacter pylori; Fibrinogen degradation products
In this study, 68 group A streptococcus (GAS) isolates associated with two outbreaks of acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) in China were analyzed by emm typing. A total of 11 different emm types were identified. Analysis of emm type distribution suggested that AGN outbreaks in two counties were caused by emm60.1- and emm63.0-type GAS. These two types were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, sof sequence typing, and PCR-based identification of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A, B, and C (speA, speB, and speC) genes. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, all outbreak strains were resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, and the rates of resistance of nonoutbreak strains to the two antibiotics were 63.6% and 90.9%. This study is also the first to report a nephritogenic M63 GAS strain.
AIM: To investigate the anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of recombinant vascular basement membrane-derived multifunctional peptide (rVBMDMP) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: HepG2, Bel-7402, Hep-3B, HUVE-12 and L-02 cell lines were cultured in vitro and the inhibitory effect of rVBMDMP on proliferation of cells was detected by MTT assay. The in vivo antitumor efficacy of rVBMDMP on HCC was assessed by HepG2 xenografts in nude mice. Distribution of rVBMDMP, mechanism by which the growth of HepG2 xenografts is inhibited, and microvessel area were observed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CD31 immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: MTT assay showed that rVBMDMP markedly inhibited the proliferation of human HCC (HepG2, Bel-7402, Hep-3B) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE-12) cells in a dose-dependent manner, with little effect on the growth of L-02 cells. When the IC50 was 4.68, 7.65, 8.96, 11.65 and 64.82 μmol/L, respectively, the potency of rVBMDMP to HepG2 cells was similar to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with an IC50 of 4.59 μmol/L. The selective index of cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells of rVBMDMP was 13.8 (64.82/4.68), which was higher than that of 5-FU [SI was 1.9 (8.94/4.59)]. The VEGF-targeted recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (100 mg/L) did not affect the proliferation of HepG2, Bel-7402, Hep-3B and L-02 cells, but the growth inhibitory rate of bevacizumab (100 mg/L) to HUVE-12 cells was 87.6% ± 8.2%. Alternis diebus intraperitoneal injection of rVBMDMP suppressed the growth of HepG2 xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. rVBMDMP (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) decreased the tumor weight by 12.6%, 55.9% and 79.7%, respectively, compared with the vehicle control. Immunohistochemical staining of rVBMDMP showed that the positive area rates (2.2% ± 0.73%, 4.5% ± 1.3% and 11.5% ± 3.8%) in rVBMDMP treated group (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) were significantly higher than that (0.13% ± 0.04%) in the control group (P < 0.01). The positive area rates (19.0% ± 5.7%, 12.2% ± 3.5% and 5.2% ± 1.6% ) of PCNA in rVBMDMP treated group (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) were significantly lower than that (29.5% ± 9.4%) in the control group (P < 0.05). rVBMDMP at doses of 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg significantly reduced the tumor microvessel area levels (0.26% ± 0.07%, 0.12% ± 0.03% and 0.05% ± 0.01% vs 0.45% ± 0.15%) in HepG2 xenografts (P < 0.01), as assessed by CD31 staining.
CONCLUSION: rVBMDMP has effective and unique anti-tumor properties, and is a promising candidate for the development of anti-tumor drugs.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Recombinant vascular basement membrane-derived multifunctional peptide; Proliferating cell nuclear antigen; CD31; Therapeutic action
Milk fat globule-EGF factor (MFG-E8) is a protein that binds to αvβ3/5 integrin and phosphatidylserine. It plays a role in apoptotic cell removal, tissue remodeling and intestinal epithelial wound-healing process. In the present study, we examined the expression of MFG-E8 mRNA in the small intestine, liver and lungs during postnatal development. Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed at different ages (E20, P0, P5, P10 and P21). Total RNA was extracted from various tissues including the small intestine, liver and lungs. The MFG-E8 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time PCR. We found that the MFG-E8 mRNA was expressed at a low level on E20 in the liver. Within 24 hours after birth, its expression was markedly increased. It was then stably expressed at high level during the postnatal period. In contrast, in the small intestine, MFG-E8 mRNA significantly decreased by more than 60% (p<0.001) within 24 hours after birth compared to E20, then it gradually regained E20 values by P10. It was persistently expressed until P21. In the lungs, MFG-E8 is constitutively expressed prenatally at E20. Its expression did not change during the postnatal period. In summary, our study indicated that MFG-E8 is extensively expressed in the small intestine, liver, and lungs. As opposed to other organs, the expression of intestinal MFG-E8 is decreased during the first week of life. It is possible that this could contribute to the predisposition of the neonatal intestine to inflammation.
MFG-E8; postnatal gene expression; intestines; liver; lung