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3.  Antiobiotic resistance pattern of biofilm-forming uropathogens isolated from catheterised patients in Pondicherry, India 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(7):344-348.
Background
Microbial biofilms pose a public health problem for persons requiring indwelling medical devices, as micro-organisms in biofilms are difficult to treat with antimicrobial agents. Thus the present study includes biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogens in hospitalised patients with catheter associated urinary tract infections (UTI).
Method
This prospective analysis included 100 urine samples from catheterised patients with symptoms of UTI over a period of six months. Following identification, all isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity using modified Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method. Detection of biofilms was done by tube adherence method and Congo red agar method.
Results
E.coli was found to be the most frequently isolated uropathogen 70%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 16%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4%, Acinetobacter spp 2%, coagulase negative Staphylococci 6% and Enterococci Spp 2%. In the current study 60% of strains were in vitro positive for biofilm production. Biofilm positive isolates showed 93.3%, 83.3%, 73.3% and 80% resistance to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, cephotaxime and cotrimoxazole, respectively, compared to 70%, 60%, 35%, 60% resistance showed by biofilm non-producers for the respective antibiotics. Approximately 80% of the biofilm producing strains showed multidrug resistant phenotype
Conclusion
To conclude E.coli was the most frequent isolate, of which 63% were biofilm producers. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern in the present study showed quinolones were the least active drug against uropathogens. The uropathogens showed the highest sensitivity to carbapenems. The next best alternatives were aminoglycosides. Significant correlation between biofilm production and multi-drug resistance was observed in our study.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2012.1193
PMCID: PMC3412999  PMID: 22905060
Biofilm; Uropathogens; Tube adherence method; Congo red agar method
4.  Comparison of different techniques of cataract surgery in bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber in diabetic and non-diabetic population 
Aim:
To compare the bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber (AC) between manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS) and phacoemulsification (Phaco). To study the conjunctival flora and bacterial contamination of AC between well-controlled diabetics and non-diabetics.
Materials and Methods:
Three hundred and sixty-eight patients were randomized to manual SICS and Phaco. Sixty-eight patients were excluded for not completing follow-up or for intraoperative complications like posterior capsule rupture. One hundred and fifty patients in each group were finally analyzed. Conjunctival swabs were taken on admission, after one day of topical ofloxacin and 15 min after 5% Povidone Iodine (PI) instillation. AC aspirate at the end of the surgery was also cultured.
Results:
Fifty-six (18.66%) patients had positive conjunctival swab on admission which was reduced to 19 (6.33%) with topical ofloxacin and to five (1.66%) with instillation of 5% PI. AC contamination in both manual SICS and Phaco was 0.66%. The conjunctival flora in diabetics was similar to non-diabetics. None of the diabetics had AC contamination. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-Square test (with Yates’ correction).
Conclusion:
Statistically significant reduction in conjunctival flora was achieved with topical ofloxacin and 5% PI instillation and AC contamination in both manual SICS and Phaco was minimal (0.66%). Well-controlled diabetics who underwent cataract surgery in this study had similar conjunctival flora and AC contamination as non-diabetics.
doi:10.4103/0301-4738.90486
PMCID: PMC3263244  PMID: 22218245
Anterior chamber contamination; cataract surgery; conjunctival flora; diabetics

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