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author:("sankyo, smith")
1.  Diastematomyelia – A Report of Two Cases 
Diastematomyelia means sagittal division of the spinal cord into two hemi cords. It is a congenital malformation which results from an abnormal adhesion between ectoderm and endoderm. It is more common in females (3:1).
This abnormal adhesion which splits the cord may be in the form of fibrous tissue or purely a calcific bar or purely an ossific bar or even a combination of the earlier mentioned entities.
The health impacts of this entity are enormous, as the patients may be asymptomatic to begin with, until gradually; progressive spinal cord dysfunction sets in. Imaging plays a vital role in establishing the diagnosis and it may aid in easing the quality of life by making an early diagnosis.
The affected individual and the afflicted families need psycho-social guidance and counselling. We are presenting here, imaging findings in two cases of diastematomyelia.
PMCID: PMC4064889  PMID: 24959492
Diastematomyelia; Imaging; Radiology; MRI; X-Ray; Ultrasound
2.  Cytological study of palpable breast lumps presenting in an Indian rural setup 
Benign as well as malignant breast lesions are quite common in Indian population. It is the second most common cancer site after cancer cervix. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is safe, reliable, and time saving outdoor procedure with little discomfort to the patient. FNAC is useful in diagnosis and further planning of treatment without need for biopsy. The current study was carried out with aims of studying the frequency of various breast lesions on FNAC in a rural area in India and its histopathological correlation.
Materials and Methods:
This was 2 years prospective study carried out from May 2010 to April 2012. Physical examination of breast mass by palpation was done. Smears were stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and Papanicolaou stain.
Of the 225 cases, 131 were in the benign category and 65 belonged to the malignant category, while the cytology study of 13 cases was unsatisfactory. Seventy-six cases were available for histological correlation. Of 29 cytological benign cases, 26 were confirmed as benign, but 3 turned out to be malignant. Out of 36 cytological malignant cases, 35 were confirmed as malignant. FNAC was 88.37% sensitive and 96.42% specific in diagnosing malignant lesions.
Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a rapid and effective method for the primary categorization of palpable breast lumps into benign, malignant, atypical, suspicious, and unsatisfactory categories. Benign breast lesions are common than malignant lesions. Histological correlation indicated FNAC to be a good diagnostic tool.
PMCID: PMC4152634  PMID: 25197179
Benign lesion; breast; fine needle aspiration cytology; histopathology; malignant lesion
3.  Reviewer Index: A New Proposal Of Rewarding The Reviewer 
Mens Sana Monographs  2013;11(1):274-284.
Science is strengthened not by research alone, but by publication of original research articles in international scientific journals that gets read by a global scientific community. Research publication is the ‘heart’ of a journal and the ‘soul’ of science - the outcome of collective efforts of authors, editors and reviewers. The publication process involves author-editor interaction for which both of them get credit once the article gets published – the author directly, the editor indirectly. However, the remote reviewer who also plays a key role in the process remains anonymous and largely unrecognised. Many potential reviewers therefore, stay away from this ‘highly honorary’ task. Appropriate peer review controls quality of an article and thereby ensures quality and integrity of the journal. Recognising and rewarding the role of the reviewer is therefore vital. In this article, we propose a novel idea of Reviewer Index (RI), Reviewer Index Directory (RID) and Global Reviewer Index Directory (GRID), which will strengthen science by focussing on the reviewer, as well as the author. By adopting this innovative Reviewer Centric Approach, a new breed of well-trained reviewers of high quality and sufficient quantity will be available for eternity. Moreover, RI, RID and GRID would also enable grading and ethical rewarding of reviewers.
PMCID: PMC3653227  PMID: 23678247
Author; Editor; Global reviewer index directory; Journal; Reviewer; Reviewer index; Reviewer index directory; Reward; Science
4.  Antiretroviral therapy associated mastopathy 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(8):418-420.
Reports about bilateral breast enlargement in patients on antiretroviral therapy are rare. It forms a constituent of the human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy syndrome. Often clinical suspicion followed by appropriate imaging evaluation is confirmative.
A case of antiretroviral therapy associated mastopathy is therefore presented here so that increased awareness would obviate the need of mastectomy in such cases. We also emphasise the role of adequate counselling in this scenario in alleviating patients’ anxiety.
PMCID: PMC3442184  PMID: 23024714
Breast cancer; breast mass; mastopathy, antiretroviral therapy mastopathy; lipodystrophy
5.  Primary tubercular mastopathy 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(8):436-439.
Primary breast tuberculosis is a rare entity in the developed world but is slightly more common in the developing world. All lesions that clinically, pathologically and imaging wise appear benign but do not respond to routine antibiotics, must be worked up for possible tubercular aetiology especially when they present as plain oedema, induration or as non-healing ulcers. Imaging has a role in defining the extent, deciding the type of management and duration of follow-up. This article highlights the clinical and sonographic imaging findings in one such case which was followed up for a period of one year.
PMCID: PMC3442188  PMID: 23024718
Primary breast tuberculosis; ultrasound; acid fast bacilli; imaging
6.  Diabetic mastopathy 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(6):296-299.
Diabetic mastopathy is the occurrence of lymphocytic mastitis and stromal fibrosis in men as well as women having long-standing diabetes. Clinical and radiological appearance can raise a suspicion of malignancy and result in unnecessary biopsy. As these lesions are known to recur; failure to recognise them can have devastating results. A case of diabetic mastopathy is therefore presented for the knowledge and benefit of all so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided.
PMCID: PMC3395289  PMID: 22848327
Breast cancer; Breast mass; Mastopathy; Diabetic mastopathy; Diabetes mellitus; B-­‐lymphocytes; Lymphocytic mastitis
7.  Telepathology for effective healthcare in developing nations 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2011;4(11):592-595.
Telepathology has grown immensely due to rapid advances in information and technology. It has a wide variety of applications especially in the developing world, namely for remote primary diagnosis, specialist referrals, secondary opinions, remote teachings and in research. Basic infrastructure and skilled and experienced staff are the prerequisites for its successful implementation.
Socio-economic differences in developing nations result in a chaotic scenario so that, the advanced areas have expertise, while rural and remote areas remain deprived. Telepathology has the potential to bridge this gap.
This article discusses how successful use of the internet for telepathology is bridging this gap in developing nations and thereby contributing positively to effective healthcare. Possible constraints to telepathology and some solutions to overcome them are also discussed.
PMCID: PMC3562914  PMID: 23386872
Internet; Healthcare; Telepathology; Telereporting; Developing nations
8.  Radio-imaging for detecting congenitally defective metabolic pathways: A review 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2011;4(9):480-484.
Congenitally defective metabolic pathways adversely affect the quality of life of patients as well as their care givers. Early diagnosis is therefore vital. Frequently, radio-imaging alone raises a strong suspicion and sometimes even provides conclusive evidence of defective metabolic pathways, when the patient presents with signs and symptoms that clinically fail to lead to a definitive diagnosis. This article discusses the role of radiological imaging that can lead to a strong suspicion, or even a diagnosis of these errors.
PMCID: PMC3562905  PMID: 23393538
Congenital metabolic defects; radiograph; ultrasound; CT scan; MRI; MR spectroscopy

Results 1-8 (8)