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1.  PTPN22 R620W minor allele is a genetic risk factor for giant cell arteritis 
RMD Open  2016;2(1):e000246.
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is one of the commonest forms of vasculitis in the elderly, and may result in blindness and stroke. The pathogenesis of GCA is not understood, although environmental, infectious and genetic risk factors are implicated. One gene of interest is PTPN22, encoding lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp), expressed exclusively in immune cells, which is proposed to be an ‘archetypal non-HLA autoimmunity gene’. The minor allele of a functional PTPN22 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2476601, R620W), which disrupts an interaction motif in the protein, was originally reported to be associated with biopsy-proven GCA in Spanish patients, with supporting data from three replicate Northern European studies. Recently, this observation was extended with additional patients and controls, and studies encompassing European, Scandinavian, UK and American patients. The aim of our study was to determine the association between PTPN22 rs2476601 (R620W) and biopsy-proven GCA in an Australian case cohort.
PMCID: PMC4838769  PMID: 27110387
Giant Cell Arteritis; Gene Polymorphism; Systemic vasculitis
2.  Personality and Fibromyalgia Syndrome 
We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia.
The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences.
Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia.
No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism.
PMCID: PMC3447191  PMID: 23002409
Fibromyalgia; personality; stress; psychology; instruments.
3.  Measuring quality of life in rheumatic conditions 
Clinical Rheumatology  2006;26(5):671-673.
Musculoskeletal disorders often have associated pain, functional impairment and work disability, and, not surprisingly, are the most common reasons for utilizing healthcare resources. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia (FM) are causes of musculoskeletal pain and disability. Research indicates that there is a widespread impact of RA and FM on physical, psychological and social factors in affected individuals, and thus, outcome measures that encompass multiple aspects of quality of life are needed. Generic measures of quality of life identify associations between physical conditions and mental health and highlight the need to address psychological functioning to ultimately improve the individuals’ quality of life.
PMCID: PMC1847465  PMID: 17124551
Disability; Fibromyalgia; Quality of life; Rheumatoid arthritis
Background: Fibromyalgia is a common chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome, however its characteristics, diagnosis and management have not always been well understood. There is now increasing understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of fibromyalgia and development of more effective management strategies.
Objective: To explain the characteristics and diagnostic features of fibromyalgia. A discussion of current management strategies is included.
Discussion: Fibromyalgia patients have a central pain system problem that results in widespread musculoskeletal pain, and many other disabling features in the absence of tissue damage. The ability to exclude other pathology and recognize the disorder is important, as there are very real management options available. Management is most effective as a multidisciplinary, layered approach. It is important to involve the patient in their own treatment program, to enhance its success.
PMCID: PMC2051079  PMID: 17987178
Fibromyalgia; diagnosis; management
PMCID: PMC2051072
Fibromyalgia; diagnosis; management; clinical challenge

Results 1-5 (5)