A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p < 0.05) but no significance difference was observed among the age groups and body condition score of camels (p > 0.05). The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry.
Camel; Mange mite; Raya-Azebo; Sarcoptes
Wrist pain is very common and there are several causes for this condition. It is extremely important to establish an accurate diagnosis so that appropriate treatment can be directed at the cause.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We describe a case of a young man who presented to us with wrist pain of insidious onset. He had previous (ganglion) excision from the same wrist. Clinically there was tenderness in the base of second metacarpal with no swelling. The radiograph and MRI scan were suggestive of Brodie's abscess. But surgical exploration and subsequent histopathology showed evidence of osteoid osteoma. The patient had full resolution of symptoms after 3 months of surgery.
Osteoid osteoma of the wrist bones is rare. They usually present with atypical pain. The diagnosis of osteoid osteoma is challenging and often missed. A high index of suspicion and appropriate investigations are essential in the diagnosis.
We conclude that the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma should be considered in case of wrist pain of unknown aetiology with cystic lesions in the carpal or metacarpal bones.
Wrist pain; Brodie's abscess; Osteoid osteoma
In resource-poor areas of China and India, the cardiovascular disease burden is high, but availability of and access to quality healthcare is limited. Establishing a management scheme that utilizes the local infrastructure and builds healthcare capacity is essential for cardiovascular disease prevention and management. The study aims to develop, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a simplified, evidence-based cardiovascular management program delivered by community healthcare workers in resource-constrained areas in Tibet, China and Haryana, India.
This yearlong cluster-randomized controlled trial will be conducted in 20 villages in Tibet and 20 villages in Haryana. Randomization of villages to usual care or intervention will be stratified by country. High cardiovascular disease risk individuals (aged 40 years or older, history of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or measured systolic blood pressure of 160 mmHg or higher) will be screened at baseline. Community health workers in the intervention villages will be trained to manage and follow up high-risk patients on a monthly basis following a simplified ‘2 + 2’ intervention model involving two lifestyle recommendations and the appropriate prescription of two medications. A customized electronic decision support system based on the intervention strategy will be developed to assist the community health workers with patient management. Baseline and follow-up surveys will be conducted in a standardized fashion in all villages. The primary outcome will be the net difference between-group in the proportion of high-risk patients taking antihypertensive medication pre- and post-intervention. Secondary outcomes will include the proportion of patients taking aspirin and changes in blood pressure. Process and economic evaluations will also be conducted.
To our knowledge, this will be the first study to evaluate the effect of a simplified management program delivered by community health workers with the help of electronic decision support system on improving the health of high cardiovascular disease risk patients. If effective, this intervention strategy can serve as a model that can be implemented, where applicable, in rural China, India, and other resource-constrained areas.
The trial was registered in the clinicaltrials.gov database on 30 December, 2011 and the registration number is
Cardiovascular diseases prevention and control; Research design; Developing countries; Rural population; Community health workers; Risk reduction; Electronic decision support system
To examine β-cell function across a spectrum of glycemia among Asian Indians, a population experiencing type 2 diabetes development at young ages despite low BMI.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
One-thousand two-hundred sixty-four individuals without known diabetes in the Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program in Chennai, India, had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, with glucose and insulin measured at 0, 30, and 120 min. Type 2 diabetes, isolated impaired fasting glucose (iIFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT), combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were defined by American Diabetes Association guidelines. Measures included insulin resistance and sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], modified Matsuda Index, 1/fasting insulin) and β-cell function (oral disposition index = [Δinsulin0–30/Δglucose0–30] × [1/fasting insulin]).
Mean age was 44.2 years (SD, 9.3) and BMI 27.4 kg/m2 (SD, 3.8); 341 individuals had NGT, 672 had iIFG, IGT, or IFG plus IGT, and 251 had diabetes. Patterns of insulin resistance or sensitivity were similar across glycemic categories. With mild dysglycemia, the absolute differences in age- and sex-adjusted oral disposition index (NGT vs. iIFG, 38%; NGT vs. iIGT, 32%) were greater than the differences in HOMA-IR (NGT vs. iIFG, 25%; NGT vs. iIGT, 23%; each P < 0.0001). Compared with NGT and adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, and family history, the odds of mild dysglycemia were more significant per SD of oral disposition index (iIFG: odds ratio [OR], 0.36; 95% CI, 0.23–0.55; iIGT: OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24–0.56) than per SD of HOMA-IR (iIFG: OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23–2.33; iIGT: OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.11–2.11).
Asian Indians with mild dysglycemia have reduced β-cell function, regardless of age, adiposity, insulin sensitivity, or family history. Strategies in diabetes prevention should minimize loss of β-cell function.
Myanmar (formerly Burma) is a southeast Asian country, with a long history of military dictatorship, human rights violations, and poor health indicators. The health situation is particularly dire among pregnant women in the ethnic minorities of the eastern provinces (Kachin, Shan, Mon, Karen and Karenni regions). This integrative review investigates the current status of maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar in the context of armed conflict between various separatist groups and the military regime. The review examines the underlying factors contributing to high maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar and assesses gaps in the existing research, suggesting areas for further research and policy response. Uncovered were a number of underlying factors uniquely contributing to maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar. These could be grouped into the following analytical themes: ongoing conflict, health system deficits, and political and socioeconomic influences. Abortion was interestingly not identified as an important contributor to maternal mortality. Recent political liberalization may provide space to act upon identified roles and opportunities for the Myanmar Government, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a manner that positively impacts on maternal healthcare in the eastern regions of Myanmar. This review makes a number of recommendations to this effect.
Government; Human rights violations; International aid; Liberalization; Maternal health; Maternal mortality; MMR; Policy; Pregnancy; Burma/Myanmar
Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (SCCT) is expected to harbor unique clinico-pathological and molecular genetic features since a significant proportion of patients are young and exhibit no association with tobacco or alcohol.
We determined P53, epidermal growth factor receptor, microsatellite instability, human papilloma virus infection and loss of heterozygosity status at several tumor suppressor loci in one hundred and twenty one oral SCCT (SSCOT) samples and analyzed their association with clinico-pathological features and patient survival.
Our results revealed a significantly higher incidence of p53 nuclear stabilization in early (as against late) onset SCCOT. FHIT loss was significantly associated with p53 nuclear stabilization and the association was stronger in patients with no history of tobacco use. Samples harboring mutation in p53 DNA binding domain or exhibiting p53 nuclear stabilization, were significantly associated with poor survival.
Our study has therefore identified distinct features in SCCOT tumorigenesis with respect to age and tobacco exposure and revealed possible prognostic utility of p53.
Oral tongue cancer; TP53; FHIT; EGFR; Disease specific survival
Low fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally, but much of the world’s population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. It remains unknown whether global supply of FV is sufficient to meet current and growing population needs. We sought to determine whether supply of FV is sufficient to meet current and growing population needs, globally and in individual countries.
Methods and Findings
We used global data on agricultural production and population size to compare supply of FV in 2009 with population need, globally and in individual countries. We found that the global supply of FV falls, on average, 22% short of population need according to nutrition recommendations (supply:need ratio: 0.78 [Range: 0.05–2.01]). This ratio varies widely by country income level, with a median supply:need ratio of 0.42 and 1.02 in low-income and high-income countries, respectively. A sensitivity analysis accounting for need-side food wastage showed similar insufficiency, to a slightly greater extent (global supply:need ratio: 0.66, varying from 0.37 [low-income countries] to 0.77 [high-income countries]). Using agricultural production and population projections, we also estimated supply and need for FV for 2025 and 2050. Assuming medium fertility and projected growth in agricultural production, the global supply:need ratio for FV increases slightly to 0.81 by 2025 and to 0.88 by 2050, with similar patterns seen across country income levels. In a sensitivity analysis assuming no change from current levels of FV production, the global supply:need ratio for FV decreases to 0.66 by 2025 and to 0.57 by 2050.
The global nutrition and agricultural communities need to find innovative ways to increase FV production and consumption to meet population health needs, particularly in low-income countries.
We investigated the role of state-level differences in modifiable cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in contributing to state disparities in cardiovascular mortality rates in the US.
Adults aged 45–74 in 2010 were examined. We constructed a CV risk index summarizing state-level exposure to current smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol abstinence, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and diabetes using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Outcomes were cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between the CV risk index and mortality outcomes. Models accounted for state-level socioeconomic characteristics and other potential confounders.
Risk factors were highly correlated at the state-level (Cronbach's alpha 0.85 (men) and 0.92 (women). Each +1SD difference in the cardiovascular risk index was associated with higher adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates by 41.0 (95%CI = 26.3, 55.7) and 33.3 (95%CI = 24.4, 42.2) deaths per 100,000 for men and women, respectively. The index accounted for 8% (men) and 11% (women) of the variation in state-level cardiovascular mortality. Comparable associations were also observed for coronary heart disease and stroke mortality.
CV risk factors were highly correlated at the state-level and were independently associated with state CV mortality, suggesting the utility of generalized CV risk reduction.
Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future.
Fumariaceae; homaira; homoiridolide; kshetra; phenolic ester glycoside; pitpapra
Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumaraceae) is widely used in traditional as well as folkloric system of medicine from ancient. It is commonly known as ‘Pitpapra’ or ‘Shahtrah’ in Indian traditional system of medicine and used for treating numerous ailments like diarrhea, fever, influenza, blood purifier and other complications. The object of the present study was to evaluate the Antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potential of isolated compound.
Methanolic extract of whole plant of Fumaria parviflora was dried under reduced pressure to obtain a dark brown residue which was adsorbed on silica gel column grade (60–120 mesh) to obtain a slurry and chromatographed over silica gel loaded column in petroleum ether – chloroform (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 v/v). The in vitro antileishmanial evaluation of isolated compound against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was investigated by growth kinetics assay, reversibility assay, analysis of cellular morphology, adverse toxicity and determination of 50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI50). Disc diffusion and broth micro dilution methods were used to study the antibacterial (Gram + Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis; Gram - Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) potential in vitro.
Structure elucidation by spectral data analysis revealed a novel compound, n-octacosan-7β-ol (OC), yield (0.471%), having significant antimicrobial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in vitro with GI50 = 5.35, MIC 250, MIC 250 and MFC 500 and MIC 250 μg ml-1 respectively. The isolated compound did not show adverse effect against mammalian macrophages.
The available evidence of compound suggested that it may be used as antimicrobial agent in future and may provide new platform for drug discovery programmes for leishmaniasis.
Fumaria parviflora; Homaira; Shahtrah; Leishmanial potential; Novel; Isolation
We evaluated the role of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in Indian patients.
Type of Study:
Matched case control type of longitudinal study was conducted in 2006–2007.
Materials and Methods:
Two medical retina specialists examined the eyes having an event of RVO in the last 15 days. A similar number of eyes without RVO were also examined. The serum and urine homocysteine levels of these persons were tested. Matched pair analysis was carried out to determine the risk of RVO among those with hyperhomocysteinemia.
We included 20 cases of RVO and 20 age- and sex-matched persons without RVO. The risk of RVO was significantly higher in persons with hyperhomocysteinemia [difference of mean 31.62 μmol/L (95% Confidence Interval 16.60–47. 86), P = 2.1 × 10−13]. The mean urine homocysteine level among cases and controls was not statistically significant. There were 12 persons with hypertension in both cases and control groups.
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for RVO. Any list of investigations for a case of RVO should include total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels.
Homocysteine; retinal vein occlusion; visual impairment
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare syndrome of unknown cause with an estimated incidence of one case per million. The disease is characterized by a pentad of symptoms: Thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, neurologic changes, renal dysfunction, and fever. It causes thrombosis in the microvasculature of several organs, producing diverse manifestations. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a well-described consequence of TTP. Acute pancreatitis triggering TTP is uncommon.
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia; pancreatitis; thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Phytochemical investigation of hydroalcoholic extract of the root of Inula racemosa Hook.
Materials and Methods:
Open silica gel column chromatographic techniques with different solvent systems was used for isolation of aliphatic and eudesmalolide esters from hydroalcoholic extract of the root of Inula racemosa. The structure elucidation of the compounds was done on the basis of spectral data analysis, chemical reactions and comparision with literature data.
Phytochemical investigation of the hydroalcoholic extract of the root of Inula racemosa Hook. f. led to the isolation of (5z, 13z)-n-decanyl-n-docos-5, 13-dienoate, a new fatty acid ester, two new sesquiterpenic ester identified as 15-[(13z, 18′z, 20′z)-n-tricos-13, 18, 20-trienyl]-eudesmal-4 (11), 6, 12 (13)-trien-8,14-olide-15-oate and 15- [(16′z), (21′z)-n- tetracos-16′, 21′- dienyl]-eudesmal-4 (11) 6, 12 (13)-trien-8, 14-olide-15-oate, two new eudesmanolide ester i.e. 15-[(16z)-n-monadec-16′- enyl]-eudesmal-4 (11) 6, 12 (13)-trien-8,14-olide-15-oate and 15-[(16′z)-n-tetracos-16′- enyl]-endesmal-4 (11), 6, 12 (13)-trien-8,14-olide-15-oate along with the known compound n-Hexadecanyl n-docosanoate.
Five new phytoconstituents were identified along with one known compound as aliphatic and eudesmalolide esters from the hydroalcoholic extract of the root of Inula racemosa, as mentioned above.
Aliphatic esters; eudesmalolide esters; Inula racemosa; phytoconstituents; root extract
Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (∼75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids – this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.
Type 2 diabetes has escalated in urban India in the past two decades. Historically a disease of the affluent, recent epidemiological evidence indicates rising diabetes incidence and prevalence in urban India’s middle class and working poor. Although there is substantial qualitative data about people with diabetes from high-income countries, scant resources provide insight into diabetes experiences among those in India, and lower-income groups specifically. In this article, we use individual-level analysis of illness narratives to understand how people experience and understand diabetes across income groups in Delhi, India. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews and administered the Hopkins Symptoms Check-List (HSCL-25) to evaluate depression among 59 people with diabetes in northeast Delhi between December 2011 and February 2012. We analyzed their responses to: 1) what caused your diabetes?; 2) what do you find most stressful in your daily life?; and 3) where do you seek diabetes care? We found few people held diabetes beliefs that were congruent with socio-spiritual or biomedical explanatory models, and higher income participants commonly cited “tension” as a contributor to diabetes. Stress associated with children’s futures, financial security, and family dynamics were most commonly reported, but how these subjective stresses were realized in people’s lives varied across income groups. Depression was most common among the poorest income group (55%) but was also reported among middle- (38%) and high-income (29%) participants. One-quarter of respondents reported diabetes distress, but only those from the low-income community reported co-occurring depression and these respondents often revealed poor access to diabetes care. These data suggest that lower-income populations not only have higher rates of depression but also may be more likely to delay health care and therefore develop diabetes complications. This research has many implications for public health care in India as diabetes prevalence shifts to affect lower income groups who concurrently experience higher rates of depression and poorer access to medical care.
Social Distress; Depression; Type 2 Diabetes; Qualitative Interviews; Urban Health; India
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of umbelliferon-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(2I → 1II)-α-D-glucopyranoside (UFD) from Aegle marmelos Corr. on serum glucose, lipid profile and free radical scavenging activity in normal and STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rats.
Materials and methods
Diabetes was induced by single interperitoneal injecting of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) in the rats. All the rats were divided into following groups; I - nondiabeteic, II - nondiabetic + UFD (40 mg/kg, p.o.), III - diabetic control, IV - UFD (10 mg/kg, p.o.), V - UFD (20 mg/kg, p.o.), VI - UFD (40 mg/kg) and VII - glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Serum glucose level and body weight were determined periodically. Biochemical parameter, antioxidant enzyme and histopathology study were performed on the day 28. Oral glucose tolerance test study was performed to identify the glucose utilization capacity.
All the doses of UFD and glibenclamide decrease the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase. The UFD doses also showed effects on antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase which were significantly increased and the level of malonaldehyde was markedly decreased. Histologically study, focal necrosis, deposition of fats, increased the size of the intercalated disc were observed in the diabetic rat liver, kidney, heart and pancreas but was less obvious in treated groups. The mechanism of action of the UFD emerges to be due to increase the activity of antioxidant enzyme and secretion of pancreatic insulin.
Reduction in the FBG (fasting blood glucose), glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxides, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL levels and improvement in the level of the plasma insulin, hexokinase, HDL was observed by the UFD treated rats. The result indicates that UFD has anti-diabetic activity along with anti hyperlipidemic and antioxidant efficacy and provides a scientific rationale to be used as an Anti-diabetic agent.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-639) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Umbelliferon-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(2I → 1II)-α-D-glucopyranoside; Streptozotocin; Antidiabetic; Antihyperlipidemic; Glibenclamide
Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension (HT). The co-presentation of HT and insulin resistance (IR) suggests a role for IR in blood pressure (BP) dysregulation. To test this hypothesis peripheral IR has been genetically subtracted in a model of obesity by crossing leptin receptor mutant mice (KdbHPTP) with mice lacking protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (insulin desensitizer, HdbKPTP) to generate obese insulin sensitive mice (KdbKPTP). BP was recorded in lean (HdbHPTP, HdbKPTP) and obese (KdbHPTP, KdbKPTP) mice via telemetry and a frequency analysis of the recording was performed to determine BP variability. Correction of IR in obese mice normalized BP values to baseline levels (HdbHPTP: 116±2 mmHg; KdbHPTP: 129±4; KdbKPTP: 114±5mmHg) and restored BP variability by decreasing its standard deviation and the frequency of BP values over the upper autoregulatory limit of the kidneys. However, while IR-induced increases in proteinuria (vs. 53±13μg/day, HdbHPTP) were corrected in KdbKPTP (112±39 vs. 422±159 μg/day, KdbHPTP), glomerular hypertrophy was not. IR reduced plasma aldosterone levels ruling out a role for mineralocorticoids in the development of hypertension. Taken together, these data indicate that correction of IR prevents hypertension, BP variability and microalbuminuria in obese mice. While the mechanism remains to be fully determined, increases in aldosterone or sympathoactivation of the cardiovascular system seem to be less likely contributors.
aldosterone; obese mice; db/db mice; pressure variability; Hypertension; Obesity; Insulin Resistance; Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B; Blood Pressure Variability
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with diabetes in South Asia. The CARRS translation trial tests the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of a clinic-based multi-component CVD risk reduction intervention among people with diabetes in India and Pakistan.
We randomly assigned 1,146 adults with diabetes recruited from 10 urban clinic sites, to receive usual care by physicians or to receive an integrated multi-component CVD risk reduction intervention. The intervention involves electronic health record management, decision-support prompts to the healthcare team, and the support of a care coordinator to actively facilitate patient and provider adherence to evidence-based guidelines. The primary outcome is a composite of multiple CVD risk factor control (blood glucose and either blood pressure or cholesterol, or all three). Other outcomes include control of the individual CVD risk factors, process and patient-centered measures, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability/feasibility.
The CARRS translation trial tests a low-cost diabetes care delivery model in urban South Asia to achieve comprehensive cardio-metabolic disease case-management of high-risk patients (clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01212328).
diabetes; cardiovascular risk; South Asia; translation research; healthcare delivery
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat.
Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test.
Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in fasting blood glucose level and improve plasma insulin level as compared to the diabetic control group. Also it significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of hexokinase. UFG treatment decreased liver MDA and increased the level of SOD, GPx and CAT. UFG treatment of lipids it’s increased the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, LDL cholesterol and decreased the level of HDL cholesterol. Histologically, inflammatory cell in blood vessels, intercalated disc, fat degeneration and focal necrosis observed in diabetic rat organ but was less obvious in UFG treated groups. The mechanism of action of UFG may be due to the increased level of pancreatic insulin secretion and effect on the antioxidant marker.
UFG posses an antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect on the STZ induced diabetic rat. Hence it could be the better choice to cure the diabetes.
Umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside; Streptozotocin; Antidiabetic; Antihyperlipidemic; Glibenclamide
Acute pancreatitis is a multisystem disorder which can result in a variety of complications. Vascular complications can occur commonly in acute pancreatitis. Splenic artery rupture, aneurysms; gastro duodenal artery aneurysms; splenic venous thrombosis; portal venous thrombosis and rarely, superior mesenteric venous thrombosis, are the vascular complications of pancreatitis. Ischaemic stricture of the small bowel can occur secondary to pancreatitis, but it is extremely rare. Hence, we are reporting this case of a proximal jejunal stricture which occurred secondary to the pancreatitis which was caused by a superior mesenteric thrombosis.
Pancreatitis; Small intestinal stricture; Mesenteric venous thrombosis
The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available.
We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models.
Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs.
Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group.
We tested the hypothesis that intensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] <120 mmHg) rather than standard (SBP 130–139 mmHg) blood pressure (BP) control improves health-related quality of life (HRQL) in those with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Subjects were 1,028 ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) BP trial HRQL substudy participants who completed baseline and one or more 12-, 36-, or 48-month HRQL evaluations. Multivariable linear regression assessed impact of BP treatment assignment on change in HRQL.
Over 4.0 years of follow-up, no significant differences occurred in five of six HRQL measures. Those assigned to intensive (vs. standard) BP control had statistically significant worsening of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey (SF36) physical component scores (−0.8 vs. −0.2; P = 0.02), but magnitude of change was not clinically significant. Findings persisted across all prespecified subgroups.
Intensive BP control in the ACCORD trial did not have a clinically significant impact, either positive or negative, on depression or patient-reported HRQL.
Seasonal epidemics of influenza virus result in ∼36,000 deaths annually in the United States. Current vaccines against influenza virus elicit an antibody response specific for the envelope glycoproteins. However, high mutation rates result in the emergence of new viral serotypes, which elude neutralization by preexisting antibodies. T lymphocytes have been reported to be capable of mediating heterosubtypic protection through recognition of internal, more conserved, influenza virus proteins. Here, we demonstrate using a recombinant influenza virus expressing the LCMV GP33-41 epitope that influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cells and virus-specific non-neutralizing antibodies each are relatively ineffective at conferring heterosubtypic protective immunity alone. However, when combined virus-specific CD8 T cells and non-neutralizing antibodies cooperatively elicit robust protective immunity. This synergistic improvement in protective immunity is dependent, at least in part, on alveolar macrophages and/or other lung phagocytes. Overall, our studies suggest that an influenza vaccine capable of eliciting both CD8+ T cells and antibodies specific for highly conserved influenza proteins may be able to provide heterosubtypic protection in humans, and act as the basis for a potential “universal” vaccine.
Influenza virus continues to pose a significant risk to global health and is responsible for thousands of deaths each year in the United States. This threat is largely due to the ability of the influenza virus to undergo rapid changes, allowing it to escape from immune responses elicited by previous infections or vaccinations. Certain internal determinants of the influenza virus are largely conserved across different viral strains and represent attractive targets for potential “universal” influenza vaccines. Here, we demonstrated that cross-subtype protection against the influenza virus could be obtained through simultaneous priming of multiple arms of the immune response against conserved elements of the influenza virus. These results suggest a novel strategy that could potentially form a primary component of a universal influenza vaccine capable of providing long-lasting protection.
Biofilms are organized communities of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM), often with great phylogenetic variety. Bacteria in the subgingival biofilm are key factors that cause periodontal diseases; among these are the Gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The objectives of this study were to characterize the major components of the EPM and to test the effect of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) and proteinase K.
F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis bacterial cells were grown in dynamic and static biofilm models. The effects of DNase I and proteinase K enzymes on the major components of the EPM were tested during biofilm formation and on mature biofilm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used in observing biofilm structure.
Proteins and carbohydrates were the major components of the biofilm matrix, and extracellular DNA (eDNA) was also present. DNase I and proteinase K enzymes had little effect on biofilms in the conditions used. In the flow cell, F. nucleatum was able to grow in partially oxygenated conditions while P. gingivalis failed to form biofilm alone in similar conditions. F. nucleatum supported the growth of P. gingivalis when they were grown together as dual species biofilm.
DNase I and proteinase K had little effect on the biofilm matrix in the conditions used. F. nucleatum formed biofilm easily and supported the growth of P. gingivalis, which preferred anaerobic conditions.
Subgingival biofilm; extracellular polymeric matrix; Fusobacterium nucleatum; Porphyromonas gingivalis; static and dynamic biofilm models; confocal laser scanning microscopy