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1.  Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets 
Astrobiology  2011;11(7):601-618.
Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618.
PMCID: PMC3176350  PMID: 21879833
2.  Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2004;8(2):95-106.
We evaluate endovascular treatment (EVT) as an option to deal with multiple intracranial aneurysms(MA). From 1994 to 2001,24 patients underwent EVT for 59 MA. Patients were followed-up clinically and angiographically in a period ranging from 6 to 93 months (mean time of 22.2) and from 4 to 69 months (mean time of 19.3), respectively.
Ten patients (41.6%) were treated either by EVT (n=7, 29,16%) or by mixed treatment (EVT and surgery; n=3, 12.5%). Reasons for treating just ruptured aneurysms: six (25%) had aneurysms smaller than 5 mm; three (12.5%) deaths; two (8.33%) were in the subacute period; two (8.33%) lost to follow-up; one (4.17%) authorised no procedure. No rebleeding was detected at the clinical follow-up, but there were five deaths. At immediate arteriographic control: 28 (85%) aneurysms were fully occluded, four (12%) with neck flow and one (03%) with sac flow. For 20 aneurysms followed-up: stability of occlusion was reached in seven cases (35%) and repermeabilization in 13 (65%). Management of recanalization was close arteriography in seven (54%), re-embolization in five (38%) and surgery in one (08%).
When treating MA, EVT is advisable either alone or in mixed therapy. As a high degree of repermeabilization was disclosed, strict arteriographic control is required. The mechanisms underlying aneurysmal formation may be also involved in the recanalization phenomenon , a possible new manifestation of the fragility of the arterial wall.
PMCID: PMC3576617  PMID: 20594518
multiple intracranial aneurysms, endovascular treatment, subarachnoid hemorrhage
3.  Endovascular Treatment of Berry Intracranial Aneurysms Using a New Detachable Coil System 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2001;7(2):93-102.
We aimed to assess and to demonstrate the efficiency of a new mechanical system in the endovascular treatment of berry intracranial aneurysms.
From September 1999 to October 2000, 38 patients with 40 aneurysms experienced selective embolization using Detach Coils (DCS® - Cook). They were 12 men and 26 women, aged 26 to 77 years, mean age 53.4. The clinical status of patients was graded by Hunt and Hess scale: Stage 0:8 - stage 1:3 - Stage II: 11 - Stage III: 11 - Stage TV: 2 - Stage V: 3. The localization of aneurysms was as follows: internal carotid artery: 11; sylvian artery: 10; anterior communicating artery: 5; anterior cerebral artery Al-A2: 5; intra-cavernous carotid artery: 1; basilar trunk: 5; PICA: 2; posterior cerebral artery: 1. The size of the aneurysms ranged from 2 to 40 mm. For embolization of aneurysms, we utilized 242 coils (mean number 6.05). The shape and size of coils varied as follows: longest J 6.25 - shortest 14-3 - longest S 10-20 - shortest S 2-2.
The mean time of procedure was 43 minutes (max 180 minutes - min 7 minutes). We did not have any technical complications during the procedure and no immediate rebleeding occurred. Initial follow-up of the patients showed angiographic full occlusion.
Detach Coils appear to be a very precise, reliable and rapid system, with high stability during coil detachment (in very small or very giant aneurysms) in the embolization of intracranial aneurysms, with an interesting aspect concerning the low cost of this new mechanical device.
PMCID: PMC3621540  PMID: 20663333
aneurysm, subarachnoid hemorrhagen, endovascular treatment

Results 1-3 (3)