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author:("hrtem, Gözen")
1.  Correlation Between the Extent of Catalytic Activity and Charge Density of Montmorillonites 
Astrobiology  2010;10(7):743-749.
Abstract
The clay mineral montmorillonite is a member of the phyllosilicate group of minerals, which has been detected on martian soil. Montmorillonite catalyzes the condensation of activated monomers to form RNA-like oligomers. Extent of catalysis, that is, the yield of oligomers, and the length of the longest oligomer formed in these reactions widely varies with the source of montmorillonite (i.e., the locality where the mineral is mined). This study was undertaken to establish whether there exists a correlation between the extent of catalytic property and the charge density of montmorillonites. Charge density was determined by saturating the montmorillonites with alkyl ammonium cations that contained increasing lengths of alkyl chains, [CH3-(CH2)n-NH3]+, where n = 3–16 and 18, and then measuring d(001), interlayer spacing of the resulting montmorillonite-alkyl ammonium-montmorillonite complex by X-ray diffractometry (XRD).
Results demonstrate that catalytic activity of montmorillonites with lower charge density is superior to that of higher charge density montmorillonite. They produce longer oligomers that contain 9 to 10 monomer units, while montmorillonite with high charge density catalyzes the formation of oligomers that contain only 4 monomer units.
The charge density of montmorillonites can also be calculated from the chemical composition if elemental analysis data of the pure mineral are available. In the next mission to Mars, CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy), a combined X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence instrument, will provide information on the mineralogical and elemental analysis of the samples. Possible significance of these results for planning the future missions to Mars for the search of organic compounds and extinct or extant life is discussed. Key Words: Mars—Origin of life—Montmorillonite—Mineral catalysis—Layer charge density—X–ray diffractometry. Astrobiology 10, 743–749.
doi:10.1089/ast.2009.0436
PMCID: PMC2992397  PMID: 20854214
2.  Enhanced transfection efficiency of a systemically delivered tumor-targeting immunolipoplex by inclusion of a pH-sensitive histidylated oligolysine peptide 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(5):e48.
Successful cancer gene therapy depends on the development of non-toxic, efficient, tumor cell- specific systemic gene delivery systems. Our laboratory has developed a systemically administered, ligand–liposome complex that can effectively and preferentially deliver its therapeutic payload to both primary and metastatic tumors. To further improve the transfection efficiency of this targeting complex, a synthetic pH-sensitive histidylated oligolysine K[K(H)KKK]5-K(H)KKC (HoKC), designed to aid in endosomal escape and condensation of DNA, was included in the complex. The presence of HoKC increased the in vitro transfection efficiency over that of the original complex. Moreover, no increase in cytotoxicity was observed due to the presence of the HoKC peptide. In a DU145 human prostate cancer xenograft tumor model in athymic nude mice, inclusion of the HoKC peptide did not interfere with the tumor targeting specificity of the i.v. administered ligand/liposome/DNA complex. Most importantly, the level of transgene expression was significantly elevated in the tumors, but not in the normal tissue in those animals receiving the complex incorporating HoKC. The in vivo enhancement of transfection efficiency by this modified gene delivery vehicle could lead to a reduction in the number of administrations required for antitumor efficacy.
doi:10.1093/nar/gnh049
PMCID: PMC390349  PMID: 15026537

Results 1-2 (2)