PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-6 (6)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  High Throughput Measurement of Ca2+ Dynamics for Drug Risk Assessment in Human Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes by Kinetic Image Cytometry 
Current methods to measure physiological properties of cardiomyocytes and predict fatal arrhythmias that can cause sudden death, such as Torsade de Pointes, lack either the automation and throughput needed for early-stage drug discovery and/or have poor predictive value. To increase throughput and predictive power of in vitro assays, we developed kinetic imaging cytometry (KIC) for automated cell-by-cell analyses via intracellular fluorescence Ca2+ indicators. The KIC instrument simultaneously records and analyzes intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i at 30-ms resolution from hundreds of individual cells/well of 96-well plates in seconds, providing kinetic details not previously possible with well averaging technologies such as plate readers. Analyses of human embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes revealed effects of known cardiotoxic and arrhythmogenic drugs on kinetic parameters of Ca2+ dynamics, suggesting that KIC will aid in the assessment of cardiotoxic risk and in the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms of heart disease associated with drugs treatment and/or genetic background.
doi:10.1016/j.vascn.2012.08.167
PMCID: PMC3667588  PMID: 22926323
2.  Differential Phosphorylation of Perilipin 1A at the Initiation of Lipolysis Revealed by Novel Monoclonal Antibodies and High Content Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55511.
Lipolysis in adipocytes is regulated by phosphorylation of lipid droplet-associated proteins, including perilipin 1A and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Perilipin 1A is potentially phosphorylated by cAMP(adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on several sites, including conserved C-terminal residues, serine 497 (PKA-site 5) and serine 522 (PKA-site 6). To characterize perilipin 1A phosphorylation, novel monoclonal antibodies were developed, which selectively recognize perilipin 1A phosphorylation at PKA-site 5 and PKA-site 6. Utilizing these novel antibodies, as well as antibodies selectively recognizing HSL phosphorylation at serine 563 or serine 660, we used high content analysis to examine the phosphorylation of perilipin 1A and HSL in adipocytes exposed to lipolytic agents. We found that perilipin PKA-site 5 and HSL-serine 660 were phosphorylated to a similar extent in response to forskolin (FSK) and L-γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (L-γ-MSH). In contrast, perilipin PKA-site 6 and HSL-serine 563 were phosphorylated more slowly and L-γ-MSH was a stronger agonist for these sites compared to FSK. When a panel of lipolytic agents was tested, including multiple concentrations of isoproterenol, FSK, and L-γ-MSH, the pattern of results was virtually identical for perilipin PKA-site 5 and HSL-serine 660, whereas a distinct pattern was observed for perilipin PKA-site 6 and HSL-serine 563. Notably, perilipin PKA-site 5 and HSL-serine 660 feature two arginine residues upstream from the phospho-acceptor site, which confers high affinity for PKA, whereas perilipin PKA-site 6 and HSL-serine 563 feature only a single arginine. Thus, we suggest perilipin 1A and HSL are differentially phosphorylated in a similar manner at the initiation of lipolysis and arginine residues near the target serines may influence this process.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055511
PMCID: PMC3566132  PMID: 23405163
3.  Quantification of Hormone Sensitive Lipase Phosphorylation and Colocalization with Lipid Droplets in Murine 3T3L1 and Human Subcutaneous Adipocytes via Automated Digital Microscopy and High-Content Analysis 
Abstract
Lipolysis in adipocytes is associated with phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and translocation of HSL to lipid droplets. In this study, adipocytes were cultured in a high-throughput format (96-well dishes), exposed to lipolytic agents, and then fixed and labeled for nuclei, lipid droplets, and HSL (or HSL phosphorylated on serine 660 [pHSLser660]). The cells were imaged via automated digital fluorescence microscopy, and high-content analysis (HCA) methods were used to quantify HSL phosphorylation and the degree to which HSL (or pHSLser660) colocalizes with the lipid droplets. HSL:lipid droplet colocalization was quantified through use of Pearson's correlation, Mander's M1 Colocalization, and the Tanimoto coefficient. For murine 3T3L1 adipocytes, isoproterenol, Lys-γ3-melanocyte stimulating hormone, and forskolin elicited the appearance and colocalization of pHSLser660, whereas atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) did not. For human subcutaneous adipocytes, isoproterenol, forskolin, and ANP activated HSL phosphorylation/colocalization, but Lys-γ3-melanocyte stimulating hormone had little or no effect. Since ANP activates guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase, HSL serine 660 is likely a substrate for cGMP-dependent protein kinase in human adipocytes. For both adipocyte model systems, adipocytes with the greatest lipid content displayed the greatest lipolytic responses. The results for pHSLser660 were consistent with release of glycerol by the cells, a well-established assay of lipolysis, and the HCA methods yielded Z′ values >0.50. The results illustrate several key differences between human and murine adipocytes and demonstrate advantages of utilizing HCA techniques to study lipolysis in cultured adipocytes.
doi:10.1089/adt.2010.0302
PMCID: PMC3102254  PMID: 21186937
4.  Quantification of Lipid Droplets and Associated Proteins in Cellular Models of Obesity via High-Content/High-Throughput Microscopy and Automated Image Analysis 
Intracellular lipid droplets are associated with a myriad of afflictions including obesity, fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, and infectious diseases (eg, HCV and tuberculosis). To develop high-content analysis (HCA) techniques to analyze lipid droplets and associated proteins, primary human preadipocytes were plated in 96-well dishes in the presence of rosiglitazone (rosi), a PPAR-© agonist that promotes adipogenesis. The cells were then labeled for nuclei, lipid droplets, and proteins such as perilipin, protein kinase C (PKC), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). The cells were imaged via automated digital microscopy and algorithms were developed to quantify lipid droplet (Lipid Droplet algorithm) and protein expression and colocalization (Colocalization algorithm). The algorithms, which were incorporated into Vala Science Inc’s CyteSeer® image cytometry program, quantified the rosi-induced increases in lipid droplet number, size, and intensity, and the expression of perilipin with exceptional consistency (Z′ values of 0.54–0.71). Regarding colocalization with lipid droplets, Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.38 (highly colocalized), 0.16 (moderate), and −0.0010 (random) were found for perilipin, PKC, and HSL, respectively. For hepatocytes (AML12, HuH-7, and primary cells), the algorithms also quantified the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of oleic acid and triacsin C on lipid droplets (Z′s > 0.50) and ADFP expression/colocalization. Oleic acid-induced lipid droplets in HeLa cells and macrophages (THP-1) were also well quantified. The results suggest that HCA techniques can be utilized to quantify lipid droplets and associated proteins in many cell models relevant to a variety of diseases.
doi:10.1089/adt.2009.0196
PMCID: PMC2872546  PMID: 19895345
5.  Quantification of lipid droplets and associated proteins in cellular models of obesity via high content/high throughput microscopy and automated image analysis 
Intracellular lipid droplets are associated with a myriad of afflictions including obesity, fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease and infectious diseases (e.g., HCV and tuberculosis). To develop high content assay (HCA) techniques to analyze lipid droplets and associated proteins, primary human pre-adipocytes, were plated in 96-well dishes in the presence of rosiglitazone (rosi), a PPARγ agonist which promotes adipogenesis. The cells were then labeled for nuclei, lipid droplets, and proteins such as perilipin, protein kinase C (PKC), and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). The cells were imaged via automated digital microscopy and algorithms were developed to quantify lipid droplet (Lipid Droplet algorithm) and protein expression and colocalization (Colocalization algorithm). The algorithms, which were incorporated into Vala Science Inc’s CyteSeer® image cytometry program, quantified the rosi-induced increases in lipid droplet number, size, and intensity, and the expression of perilipin with exceptional consistency (Z’ values of 0.54 to 0.71). Regarding colocalization with lipid droplets, Pearson’s Correlation coefficients of 0.38 (highly colocalized), 0.16 (moderate), and − 0.0010 (random) were found for perilipin, PKC, and HSL, respectively. For hepatocytes (AML12, Huh7, and primary cells), the algorithms also quantified the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of oleic acid and triacsin c on lipid droplets (Z’s > 0.50) and ADFP expression/colocalization. Oleic-acid induced lipid droplets in HeLa cells and macrophages (THP-1) were also well quantified. The results suggest that HCA techniques can be utilized to quantify lipid droplets and associated proteins in many cell models relevant to a variety of diseases.
doi:10.1089/adt.2009.0196
PMCID: PMC2872546  PMID: 19895345
6.  A Role for the p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Myocardial Cell Growth, Sarcomeric Organization, and Cardiac-specific Gene Expression  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1997;139(1):115-127.
Three hallmark features of the cardiac hypertrophic growth program are increases in cell size, sarcomeric organization, and the induction of certain cardiac-specific genes. All three features of hypertrophy are induced in cultured myocardial cells by α1- adrenergic receptor agonists, such as phenylephrine (PE) and other growth factors that activate mitogen- activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In this study the MAPK family members extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 were activated by transfecting cultured cardiac myocytes with constructs encoding the appropriate kinases possessing gain-of-function mutations. Transfected cells were then analyzed for changes in cell size, sarcomeric organization, and induction of the genes for the A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (NPs), as well as the α-skeletal actin (α-SkA) gene. While activation of JNK and/or ERK with MEKK1COOH or Raf-1 BXB, respectively, augmented cell size and effected relatively modest increases in NP and α-SkA promoter activities, neither upstream kinase conferred sarcomeric organization. However, transfection with MKK6 (Glu), which specifically activated p38, augmented cell size, induced NP and α-Ska promoter activities by up to 130-fold, and elicited sarcomeric organization in a manner similar to PE. Moreover, all three growth features induced by MKK6 (Glu) or PE were blocked with the p38-specific inhibitor, SB 203580. These results demonstrate novel and potentially central roles for MKK6 and p38 in the regulation of myocardial cell hypertrophy.
PMCID: PMC2139826  PMID: 9314533

Results 1-6 (6)