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1.  Usefulness of Simple Rod Rotation to Correct Curve of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis 
To correct apical vertebral rotation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), direct vertebral derotation (DVD) or simple rod rotation (SRR) might be considered. The aim of the present study is to introduce the surgical experiences of AIS by a Korean neurosurgeon and to evaluate the effectiveness of SRR for apical vertebral rotation.
A total of 9 patients (1 male and 8 females) underwent scoliosis surgery by a neurosurgeon of our hospital. The Lenke classifications of the patients were 1 of 1B, 2 of 1C, 1 of 2A, 1 of 2C, 3 of 5C and 1 of 6C. Surgery was done by manner of simple rod rotation on the concave side and in situ coronal bending. Coronal Cobb's angles, vertebral rotation angles and SRS-22 were measured on a plain standing X-ray and CT before and after surgery.
The mean follow up period was 25.7 months (range : 5–52). The mean number of screw positioning level was nine (6–12). The mean age was 16.4 years (range : 13–25) at surgery. The mean Risser grade was 3.7±0.9. The apical vertebral rotation measured from the CT scans was 25.8±8.5° vs. 9.3±6.7° (p<0.001) and the Coronal Cobb's angle was 53.7±10.4° vs. 15.4±6.5° (p<0.001) preoperatively and postoperative, respectively. The SRS-22 improved from 71.9 preoperatively to 90.3 postoperatively. There were no complications related with the operations.
SRR with pedicle screw instrumentation could be corrected successfully by axial rotation without complications. SRR might serve as a good option to correct AIS deformed curves of AIS.
PMCID: PMC4728091  PMID: 26819688
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Simple rod rotation; Direct vertebral derotation; Neurosurgery
2.  Paralytic Ileus and Prophylactic Gastrointestinal Motility Medication after Spinal Operation 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2015;56(6):1627-1631.
To investigate the prevalence of paralytic ileus after spinal operation in the supine or prone operative position and to determine the efficacy of prophylactic gastrointestinal motility medications in preventing symptomatic paralytic ileus after a spinal operation.
Materials and Methods
All patients received spinal surgery in the supine or prone operative position. The study period was divided into two phases: first, to analyze the prevalence of radiographic and symptomatic paralytic ileus after a spinal operation, and second, to determine the therapeutic effects of prophylactic gastrointestinal motility medications (postoperative intravenous injection of scopolamine butylbromide and metoclopramide hydrochloride) on symptomatic paralytic ileus after a spinal operation.
Basic demographic data were not different. In the first phase of this study, 27 patients (32.9%) with radiographic paralytic ileus and 11 patients (13.4%) with symptomatic paralytic ileus were observed. Radiographic paralytic ileus was more often noted in patients who underwent an operation in the prone position (p=0.044); whereas the occurrence of symptomatic paralytic ileus was not different between the supine and prone positioned patients (p=0.385). In the second phase, prophylactic medications were shown to be ineffective in preventing symptomatic paralytic ileus after spinal surgery [symptomatic paralytic ileus was observed in 11.1% (4/36) with prophylactic medication and 16.7% (5/30) with a placebo, p=0.513].
Spinal surgery in the prone position was shown to increase the likelihood of radiographic paralytic ileus occurrence, but not symptomatic paralytic ileus. Unfortunately, the prophylactic medications to prevent symptomatic paralytic ileus after spine surgery were shown to be ineffective.
PMCID: PMC4630052  PMID: 26446646
Spine surgery; position; prone; supine; paralytic ileus
3.  Isolated Painless Foot Drop due to Cerebral Infarction Mimicking Lumbar Radiculopathy: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2015;12(3):210-212.
Although they usually originate from peripheral problems, foot drop is caused by lesions affecting the neural pathway related to dorsiflexor muscles, whether of central or peripheral origin. We present a patient with sudden isolated foot drop caused by a small infarct in the primary motor cortex mimicking a peripheral origin. This report indicates that patients presenting isolated foot drop should be managed carefully and the possibility of both central and peripheral causes should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sudden isolated foot drop caused by a cortical infarction mimicking lumbar radiculopathy.
PMCID: PMC4623187  PMID: 26512287
Foot drop; Cerebral infarction; Lumbar disc herniation; Monoparesis; Corticospinal tract; Radiculopathy
4.  The Clinical and Radiological Effect of Abnormal Axis after Cervical Arthroplasty 
The clinical outcomes according to the radiological results after cervical total disc replacement (TDR) are not well established. Here, the authors reviewed the clinical results according to the asymmetry in radiographs.
This retrospective analysis included patients after TDR (Mobi-C® disc) with at least 12 months follow up, and the clinical and radiological data were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively for 12 months. Clinical outcome measures numerical rating scale (NRS) score for neck pain, visual analog scale (VAS) for arm pain, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) value. The asymmetries of TDRs were evaluated on the anterior-posterior (AP) and the lateral radiographs, and the radiographic adjacent segment degenerations were evaluated for 12 months.
A total of 24 patients (one level cervical TDR; 10 male and 14 female; aged 41.50±8.35 years) were included in this study. The clinical results including NRS for neck pain, VAS for arm pain, and ODIs were similar between the normal and asymmetrized TDRs in AP and lateral radiographs. The radiographic adjacent segment degenerations were significantly increased in deviated TDRs (AP>10 mm asymmetry and lateral>10 mm asymmetry).
Asymmetrical location of TDR is not related to the clinical outcomes, but related to the risk of radiographic adjacent disc segment degeneration.
PMCID: PMC4630353  PMID: 26539265
Cervical arthroplasty; Malposition; Mobi-c; Fusion; Total disc replacement
5.  Brain Activation Evoked by Sensory Stimulation in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury : Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlations with Clinical Features 
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the changes of contralateral sensorimotor cortical activation on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can predict the neurological outcome among spinal cord injury (SCI) patients when the great toes are stimulated without notice.
This study enrolled a total of 49 patients with SCI and investigated each patient's preoperative fMRI, postoperative fMRI, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score, and neuropathic pain occurrence. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the change of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response on perioperative fMRI during proprioceptive stimulation with repetitive passive toe movements : 1) patients with a response of contralateral sensorimotor cortical activation in fMRI were categorized; 2) patients with a response in other regions; and 3) patients with no response. Correlation between the result of fMRI and each parameter was analyzed.
In fMRI data, ASIA score was likely to show greater improvement in patients in group A compared to those belonging to group B or C (p<0.001). No statistical significance was observed between the result of fMRI and neuropathic pain (p=0.709). However, increase in neuropathic pain in response to the signal change of the ipsilateral frontal lobe on fMRI was statistically significant (p=0.030).
When there was change of BOLD response at the contralateral sensorimotor cortex on perioperative fMRI after surgery, relief of neurological symptoms was highly likely for traumatic SCI patients. In addition, development of neuropathic pain was likely to occur when there was change of BOLD response at ipsilateral frontal lobe.
PMCID: PMC4630356  PMID: 26539268
Functional MRI; Spinal cord injury; Proprioceptive; Neuropathic pain
6.  Delayed Vertebral Artery Dissection after Posterior Cervical Fusion with Traumatic Cervical Instability: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2015;12(2):79-83.
Vascular injury presented immediately after the penetration, but delayed onset of vascular symptom caused by an embolism or vessel dissection after cervical fusion or traumatic event is extremely rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old woman who underwent an operation for cervical fusion for type II Odontoid process fracture. She presented symptoms of seizure with hemiparesis in 6 days after the operation. Multifocal acute infarction due to an embolism from the left VA (V3 segment) dissection was observed without a definite screw breach the transverse foramen. We hereby reported the instructive case report of delayed onset of vertebral artery dissection after posterior cervical fusion with type II odontoid process fracture patient. When a cervical operation performed in the cervical trauma patient, even if no apparent VA injury occurs before and during the operation, the surgeon must take caution not to risk cerebral infarction because of the delayed VA dissection.
PMCID: PMC4513173  PMID: 26217387
Cervical trauma; Cervical fusion; Cerebral infarction; Vertebral artery dissection; Embolism
7.  Grisel's Syndrome Induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Korean Journal of Spine  2015;12(2):84-87.
Grisel's syndrome is a non-traumatic subluxation of the atlantoaxial joints, which is caused by an inflammatory process in the upper neck. It is rare to find literary reports of Grisel's syndrome with an evident pathogen in a lesion. For the first time in Korea, we report a 36-year-old female with Grisel's syndrome having an atlantoaxial subluxation, which was caused by a retropharyngeal abscess secondary to pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient was treated with an anti-tuberculosis regimen and was prescribed a Philadelphia collar for the control of torticollis. The result of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an improved atlantoaxial alignment, after drug treatment and immobilization. This patient was neurologically intact and free from symptomatic complaints at follow-up visit. Dynamic cervical radiograph confirmed that the atlantoaxial joints had been stable. The pathophysiology of Grisel's syndrome, along with anatomical attributes, was explained on the basis of the patient's clinical course.
PMCID: PMC4513174  PMID: 26217388
Grisel's syndrome; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Non-traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation; Torticollis
8.  Surface Landmarks do not Correspond to Exact Levels of the Cervical Spine: References According to the Sex, Age and Height 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(3):178-182.
A general orientation along the cervical spine could be estimated by external landmarks, and it was useful, quick and less exposable to radiation, but, sometimes it gave reference confusion of target cervical level. The authors reviewed the corresponding between the neck external landmarks and cervical levels.
Totally 1,031 cervical lateral radiographs of different patients were reviewed in single university hospital. Its compositions were 534 of males and 497 females; 86 of second decades (10-19 years-old), 169 of third decades, 159 of fourth decades, 209 of fifth decades, 275 of sixth decades, and 133 of more than seventh decades (>60 years-old). Reference external landmarks (mandible, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, and cricothyroid membrane) with compounding factors were reviewed.
The reference levels of cervical landmarks were C2.13 with mandible angle, C3.54 with hyoid bone, C5.12 with thyroid cartilage, and C6.01 with cricothyroid membrane. The reference levels of cervical landmarks were differently observed by sex, age, and somatometric measurement (height) accordingly mandible angle from C1 to C3, hyoid bone from disc level of C2 and C3 to C5, thyroid cartilage from disc level of C3 and C4 to C7, and cricothyroid membrane from C4 to disc level of C7 and T1.
Surface landmarks only provide general reference points, but not correspond to exact levels of the cervical spine. Intraoperative fluoroscopy ensures a more precise placement to the targeted cervical level.
PMCID: PMC4206974  PMID: 25346765
External landmark; Cervical level; Mandible; Hyoid bone; Thyroid cartilage; Cricothyroid membrane
9.  Cervical Arthroplasty for Moderate to Severe Disc Degeneration: Clinical and Radiological Assessments after a Minimum Follow-Up of 18 Months: Pfirrmann Grade and Cervical Arthroplasty 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(4):1072-1079.
Clinical outcomes and radiologic results after cervical arthroplasty have been reported in many articles, yet relatively few studies after cervical arthroplasty have been conducted in severe degenerative cervical disc disease.
Materials and Methods
Sixty patients who underwent cervical arthroplasty (Mobi-C®) between April 2006 and November 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 18 months were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to Pfirrmann classification on preoperative cervical MR images: group A (Pfirrmann disc grade III, n=38) and group B (Pfirrmann disc grades IV or V, n=22). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of neck and arm pain, modified Oswestry Disability Index (mODI) score, and radiological results including cervical range of motion (ROM) were assessed before and after surgery.
VAS and mean mODI scores decreased after surgery from 5.1 and 57.6 to 2.7 and 31.5 in group A and from 6.1 and 59.9 to 3.7 and 38.4 in group B, respectively. In both groups, VAS and mODI scores significantly improved postoperatively (p<0.001), although no significant intergroup differences were found. Also, cervical dynamic ROM was preserved or gradually improved up to 18 months after cervical arthroplasty in both groups. Global, segmental and adjacent ROM was similar for both groups during follow-up. No cases of device subsidence or extrusion were recorded.
Clinical and radiological results following cervical arthroplasty in patients with severe degenerative cervical disc disease were no different from those in patients with mild degenerative cervical disc disease after 18 months of follow-up.
PMCID: PMC4075369  PMID: 24954339
Total disc replacement; cervical arthroplasty; disc degeneration; clinical outcome; range of motion
10.  Comparison of Outcomes after Atlantoaxial Fusion with Transarticular Screws and Screw-Rod Constructs 
The purpose of this study was to compare the radiological and neurological outcomes between two atlantoaxial fusion method for atlantoaxial stabilization; C1 lateral mass-C2 pedicle screws (screw-rod constructs, SRC) versus C1-2 transarticular screws (TAS).
Forty-one patients in whom atlantoaxial instability was treated with atlantoaxial fixation by SRC group (27 patients, from March 2005 to May 2011) or TAS group (14 patients, from May 2000 to December 2005) were retrospectively reviewed. Numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain assessment, Oswestry disability index (ODI), and Frankel grade were also checked for neurological outcome. In radiologic outcome assessment, proper screw position and fusion rate were checked. Perioperative parameters such as blood loss during operation, operation time, and radiation exposure time were also reviewed.
The improvement of NRS and ODI were not different between both groups significantly. Good to excellent response in Frankel grade is shown similarly in both groups. Proper screw position and fusion rate were also observed similarly between two groups. Total bleeding amount during operation is lesser in SRC group than TAS group, but not significantly (p=0.06). Operation time and X-ray exposure time were shorter in SRC group than in TAS group (all p<0.001).
Both TAS and SRC could be selected as safe and effective treatment options for C1-2 instability. But the perioperative result, which is technical demanding and X-ray exposure might be expected better in SRC group compared to TAS group.
PMCID: PMC4130950  PMID: 25132931
Atlantoaxial fixation; C-1 lateral mass screw; C-2 pedicle screw; Transarticular screw; Complications; Fusion
11.  Repeated Complication Following Atlantoaxial Fusion: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(1):7-11.
A patients with atlantoaixial instability and osodontoideum underwent atlantoaixial fusion (Harms and Melcher technique) with demineralized bone matrix. But, unfortunately, the both pedicle screws in C2 were fractured within 9 weeks follow-up periods after several suspected episode of neck hyper-flexion. Fractured screws were not contact to occipital bone in several imaging studies, but it could irritate the occipital bone when neck extension because the relatively close distance between the occipital bone and C1 posterior arch. The patient underwent revision operation with translaminar screw fixation with autologus iliac bone graft. Postsurgical course were uneventful except donor site pain, but the bony fusion was not satisfied after 4 months follow-up. The patient re-underwent revision operation in other hospital. Continuous complication after atlantoaixial fusion is rare, but the clinical course could be unlucky to patients. Postoperative immobilization could be important to prevent the unintended clinical course of patients.
PMCID: PMC4040632  PMID: 24891865
Atlantoaxial fusion; Cervical spine; Transpedicle screw; Pedicle screw fracture; Bone fusion; Complication
12.  Slip Reduction Rate between Minimal Invasive and Conventional Unilateral Transforaminal Interbody Fusion in Patients with Low-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(4):232-236.
To compare the slip reduction rate and clinical outcomes between unilateral conventional transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (conventional TLIF) and unilateral minimal invasive TLIF (minimal TLIF) with pedicle screw fixation for treatment of one level low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis.
Between February 2008 and April 2012, 25 patients with low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent conventional TLIF (12 patients) and minimal TLIF (13 patients) in single university hospital by a single surgeon. Lateral radiographs of lumbar spine were taken 12 months after surgery to analyze the degree of slip reduction and the clinical outcome. All measurements were performed by a single observer.
The demographic data between conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF were not different. Slip percentage was reduced from 15.00% to 8.33% in conventional TLIF, and from 14.15% to 9.62% in minimal TLIF. In both groups, slip percentage was significantly improved postoperatively (p=0.002), but no significant intergroup differences of slip percentage in preoperative and postoperative were found. The reduction rate also not different between conventional TLIF (45.41±28.80%) and minimal TLIF (32.91±32.12%, p=0.318).
Conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF with pedicle screw fixation showed good slip reduction in patients with one level low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis. The slip percentage and reduction rate were similar in the conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF.
PMCID: PMC4040640  PMID: 24891854
Slip percentage; Reduction rate; Conventional; Minimal invasive; Transforamenal lumbar interbody fusion
13.  Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19-Year-Old Male from 2008 to 2009: A Study Based on Korean Conscription -National and Geographic Prevalence of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19YO Male- 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(5):1098-1103.
This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year.
The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different.
In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.
PMCID: PMC3743194  PMID: 23918557
Herniated intervertebral disc; adolescent; prevalence; conscription
14.  Psychopathological Influence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Male Adolescent 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(4):813-818.
There is no report about psychopathological effect causing by disc herniation. The disease could impose psychopathological influence on the social life, the treatment period, and response to the treatment. This study was to evaluate retrospectively the psychopathological influence of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) among Korean 19-year-old males.
Materials and Methods
We compared the Korean military multiphasic personality inventory (KMPI) profiles of 74 LDH cases with the KMPI profiles of 150 controls. The LDH groups were categorized to 2 groups according to the presence of thecal sac compression by disc materials, and evaluated the relation between the KMPI and LDH.
The decrease of the faking-good response scale and increase of the faking-bad response scale were observed more in the LDH group than in the normal volunteer group (p<0.05). The neurosis set such as anxiety, depression and somatization was markedly increased in the LDH group compared to the normal volunteers group (p<0.05). The scale of personality disorder was also increased more in the LDH group (p=0.002). The differences of KMPI scales were not correlated with the severe pathology of LDH.
Young male with LDH may tend to have more abnormal results of multiphasic personality inventory test compared to the normal volunteers, suggesting that LDH may be related to the psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate and treat the psychopathological aspects in patients with LDH.
PMCID: PMC3663227  PMID: 23709412
Lumbar disc herniation; multiphasic personal inventory; psychopathology; lumbar disc herniation; conscription
15.  Technical Report of Free Hand Pedicle Screw Placement using the Entry Points with Junction of Proximal Edge of Transverse Process and Lamina in Lumbar Spine: Analysis of 2601 Consecutive Screws 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(1):7-13.
A variety of different pedicle screws entry point techniques are used for the lumbar pedicle screws placement. This study reported Kim's entry point of lumbar pedicle screws with free hand technique and the accuracy of this technique.
We retrospectively reviewed the 584 cases with free hand placed lumbar pedicle screw placement. The diagnosis included 491 cases with degenerative spine, 59 cases with trauma, 29 cases with metastatic disease, and 5 cases with scoliosis. A total of 2601 lumbar pedicle screws were placed, and the entry points of lumbar pedicle screws were the junction of proximal edge of transverse process and lamina. Incidence and extent of cortical breach by misplaced pedicle screw was determined by review of intra-operative and post-operative radiographs and/or computed tomography.
Among the total 2601 lumbar free hand placed pedicle screws, 114 screws (4.4%) in 79 patients (13.5%) were repositioned screws with suspected screw malposition during operation, and 37 screws (1.4%) in 31 patients (5.3%) were identified as moderate to severe breaching the pedicle after post-operative imaging studies. Among the patient with malpositioned screws, 3 patients showed nerve irritation sign of the lesion, and 2 cases were symptom improved after nerve block and conservative management, and 1 case was removed the screw after the failure of the treatment.
Free hand pedicle screw placement based on external landmark with the junction of proximal edge of transverse process and lamina showed acceptable safety and accuracy and avoidance of radiation exposure.
PMCID: PMC3941737  PMID: 24757450
Lumbar spine; Pedicle screw placement; Free hand technique; Surgical technique
16.  The Psychopathological Influence of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Korean Male : An Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test Results 
There are few published studies which have documented psychopathological abnormalities in patients with of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of AIS in Korean 19-year-old males.
The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 105 AIS cases (more than 10 degrees of Cobb's angle without surgical treatment) with the KMPI profiles of 108 normal controls. The AIS group was split depending on Cobb's angle to further evaluate this relation by the severity of AIS.
A significantly decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an significantly increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.012). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were significantly increased in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.010). The severity level of personality disorder and schizophrenia were also significantly increased in the AIS group (p<0.010). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to the severity of AIS.
Young males with AIS tend to have abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test compared to normal volunteers, suggesting that AIS may be related to psychopathology in the young male group in Korea. Although these psychopathology in AIS were differently observed compared to normal controls, but not interfered with military life. Clinicians are recommended to pay attention the psychopathological traits of patients with AIS.
PMCID: PMC3579076  PMID: 23440382
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Multiphasic personal inventory; Psychopathology; Korea; Conscription
17.  Usefulness of Chest Radiographs for Scoliosis Screening: A Comparison with Thoraco-Lumbar Standing Radiographs 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(6):1183-1189.
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of chest radiographs in scoliosis screening and to compare these results with those of thoraco-lumbar standing radiographs (TLSR).
Materials and Methods
During Korean conscription, 419 males were retrospectively examined using both chest radiographs and TLSR to confirm the scoliosis and Cobb angle at the Regional Military Manpower. We compared the types of spinal curves and Cobb angles as measured from different radiographs.
In the pattern of spinal curves, the overall matching rate of chest radiographs using TLSR was about 58.2% (244 of 419 cases). Cobb angle differences between chest radiographs and TLSR with meaningful difference was observed in 156 cases (37.2%); a relatively high proportion (9.5%) of Cobb angle differences more than 10 degrees was also observed. The matching rate of both spinal curve types and Cobb angle accuracy between chest radiographs and TLSR was 27.9% (117 among 419 cases). Chest radiographs for scoliosis screening were observed with 93.94% of sensitivity and 61.67% of specificity in thoracic curves; however, less than 40% of sensitivity (38.27%, 20.00%, and 25.80%) and more than 95% of specificity (97.34%, 99.69%, and 98.45%) were observed in thoraco-lumbar, lumbar, and double major curves, respectively.
The accuracy of chest radiographs for scoliosis screening was low. The incidence of thoracic curve scoliosis was overestimated and lumbar curve scoliosis was easily missed by chest radiography. Scoliosis screening using chest radiography has limited values, nevertheless, it is useful method for detecting thoracic curve scoliosis.
PMCID: PMC3481372  PMID: 23074120
Scoliosis; screening; chest radiographs; thoraco-lumbar standing radiographs
18.  The Psychopathological Influence of Congenital Heart Disease in Korean Male Adolescents: An Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test Results 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(6):1107-1112.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Korean 19-year-old males.
Materials and Methods
The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 211 CHD cases (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, or combined CHD) with the KMPI profiles of 300 normal controls. The CHD group was also divided according to whether or not the subjects had undergone open cardiac surgery in order to evaluate the psychopathological effects of an operation among the subjects.
A decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were markedly increased in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The severity level of personality disorder was also increased in the CHD group (p<0.001). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to open cardiac surgery history.
In this study, young males with CHD tended to report more abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test in comparison to normal subjects, suggesting that CHD may be related to psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate the psychopathological traits of patients with CHD.
PMCID: PMC3481384  PMID: 23074109
Congenital heart disease; multiphasic personal inventory; psychopathology; Korea; conscription
19.  Interobserver and Intraobserver Reliability of Sub-Axial Injury Classification and Severity Scale between Radiologist, Resident and Spine Surgeon 
The sub-axial injury classification (SLIC) and severity scale was developed to decide whether to operate the cervical injured patient or not, but the reliability of SLIC and severity scale among the different physicians was not well known. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of SLIC among a spine surgeon, a resident of neurosurgery and a neuro-radiologist.
In retrograde review in single hospital from 2002 to 2009 years, 75 cases of sub-axial spine injured patients underwent operation. Each case was blindly reviewed for the SLIC and severity scale by 3 different observers by two times with 4 weeks interval with randomly allocated. The compared axis was the injury morphology score, the disco-ligamentous complex score, the neurological status score and total SLIC score; the neurological status score was derived from the review of medical record. The kappa value was used for the statistical analysis.
Interobserver agreement of SLIC and severity scale was substantial agreement in the score of injury morphology [intraclass correlation (ICC)=0.603] and total SLIC and severity sacle (ICC value=0.775), but was fair agreement in the disco-ligamentous complex score (ICC value=0.304). Intraobserver agreements were almost perfect agreement in whole scales with ICC of 0.974 in a spine surgeon, 0.948 in a resident of neurosurgery, and 0.963 in a neuro-radiologist.
The SLIC and severity scale is comprehensive and easily applicable tool in spine injured patient. Moreover, it is very useful tool to communicate among spine surgeons, residents of neurosurgery and neuro-radiologists with sufficient reproducibility.
PMCID: PMC3483319  PMID: 23115661
Cervical trauma; Sub-axial injury classification scale; Cervical spine injury; Interobserver agreement; Intraobserver reliability
20.  Radiological Efficacy of Cervical Lateral Mass Screw Insertion and Rod Fixation by Modified Magerl's Method (Yoon's Method) with Minimum 2 Years of Follow-up 
Korean Journal of Spine  2012;9(3):137-141.
Cervical lateral mass screw insertion and rod fixation is a useful method for stabilizing the cervical disease, so various modified techniques were present. Many surgeons had reported the biomechanical safety according to the screw positioning method in the cervical spine, but the modified Magerl's method (Yoon's method) was not well studied. So, this study assessed the radiological efficacy of the modified Magerl's method with long-term follow-up.
This study retrospectively reviewed 323 lateral mass screws of 50 patients who had followed-up at least 2 years. Radiologic data were analyzed as parameters of complications after operation, including kyphotic or lordotic change, bone fusion, pull-out or malposition of screw, foraminal stenosis, adjacent disc degeneration or aggravation, pseudoarthrosis, and vertebral artery injury.
The mean follow-up period was 32 (24 to 52) months. There were kyphotic changes in 4.0%(2 of 50 cases). Unsuccessful bone fusion occurred in 4.0%(2 of 50 cases). Among the 323 screws, screw pull-out (4.0%. 2 of 50cases, 3 of 323 screws), foraminal invasion (1.2% of total screws), and facet injury (0.6% of total screws) occurred.
The lateral mass screw insertion and rod fixation by the modified Magerl's method (Yoon's method) is a safe and reliable technique with low rate of complication related to instruments in minimum 2 years follow-up.
PMCID: PMC4430991  PMID: 25983804
Spinal fusion; Radiological assessment; Modified Magerl's method; Yoon's method; Long-term follow-up
21.  Lumbar Disc Screening Using Back Pain Questionnaires: Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire 
Korean Journal of Spine  2012;9(3):153-158.
To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males.
We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple lumbar radiographs, lumbar computed tomography, and magnetic resolutional images), and the severity of lumbar disc herniation was categorized according to the guidelines issued by the Korean military directorate. We calculated the relationship between the back pain questionnaire scores and the severity of lumbar disc herniation.
The scores of back pain questionnaires increased according to the severity of lumbar disc herniation. But, the range of scores was very vague, so it is less predictable to detect lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires. The sensitivity between the back pain questionnaires and the presence of lumbar disc herniation was low (16-64%).
Screening of lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires has limited value.
PMCID: PMC4430994  PMID: 25983807
Mass Screening; Intervertebral Disc Displacement; Korea; Low Back Pain; Questionnaires
22.  Missed Diagnosis of Syrinx 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(1):1-5.
Study Design
Prospective, randomized, controlled human study.
We checked the proportion of missed syrinx diagnoses among the examinees of the Korean military conscription.
Overview of Literature
A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord or brain stem and causes various neurological symptoms. A syrinx could easily be diagnosed by magnetic resonance image (MRI), but missed diagnoses seldom occur.
In this study, we reviewed 103 cases using cervical images, cervical MRI, or whole spine sagittal MRI, and syrinxes was observed in 18 of these cases. A review of medical certificates or interviews was conducted, and the proportion of syrinx diagnoses was calculated.
The proportion of syrinx diagnoses was about 66.7% (12 cases among 18). Missed diagnoses were not the result of the length of the syrinx, but due to the type of image used for the initial diagnosis.
The missed diagnosis proportion of the syrinx is relatively high, therefore, a more careful imaging review is recommended.
PMCID: PMC3302909  PMID: 22439081
Syrinx; Diagnosis proportion; Conscription; Korea
23.  Prevalence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescent Males in Seoul, Korea: Prevalence of Adolescent LDH in Seoul, Korea 
Korean Journal of Spine  2011;8(4):261-266.
The authors surveyed the prevalence and the clinical character of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in Korean male adolescents, and the usefulness of current conscription criteria.
The data of 39,673 nineteen-year-old males that underwent a conscription examination at the Seoul Regional Korean Military Manpower Administration (MMA) from October 2010 to May 2011 were investigated. For those diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, prevalences, subject characteristics, herniation severities, levels of herniation, and modified Korean Oswestry low back pain disability scores by MMA physical grade were evaluated. The analysis was performed using medical certificates, medical records, medical images, and electromyographic and radiologic findings.
The prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60%(237 of the 39,673 study subjects), and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH with thecal sac compression or significant discogenic spinal stenosis was 0.28%(110 of the 39,673 study subjects). Of the 237 adolescent LDH cases, 105 (44.3%) were of single level LDH and 132 (55.7%) were of multiple level LDH, and the L4-5 level was the most severely and frequently affected. Oswestry back pain disability scores increased with herniation severity (p<0.01), and were well correlated with MMA grade.
In this large cohort of 19-year-old Korean males, the prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60% and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH, which requires management, was relatively high at 0.28%. MMA physical grade was confirmed to be a useful measure of the disability caused by LDH.
PMCID: PMC4461737  PMID: 26064143
Lumbar disc herniation; Adolescent; Prevalence; Conscription
24.  Outcome Evaluation with Signal Activation of Functional MRI in Spinal Cord Injury 
The authors investigated the changes of cortical sensorimotor activity in functional MRI (fMRI) and functional recovery in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients who had been treated by bone marrow cell transplantation.
Nineteen patients with SCI were included in this study; ten patients with clinical improvement and nine without. The cortical sensorimotor activations were studied using the proprioceptive stimulation during the fMRI.
Diagnostic accuracy of fMRI with neurological improvement was 70.0% and 44.4% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Signal activation in the ipsilateral motor cortex in fMRI was commonly observed in the clinically neurological improved group (p-value=0.002). Signal activation in the contralateral temporal lobe and basal ganglia was more commonly found in the neurological unimproved group (p-value<0.001). Signal activation in other locations was not statistically different.
In patients with SCI, activation patterns of fMRI between patients with neurologic recovery and those without varied. Such plasticity should be considered in evaluating SCI interventions based on behavioral and neurological measurements.
PMCID: PMC3218180  PMID: 22102951
Sensorimotor; Functional MRI; Spinal cord injury; Bone marrow cell; Proprioceptive
25.  Evaluation of Spinal Fusion Using Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with or without Fibroblast Growth Factor-4 
In this study, the authors assessed the ability of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs), in the presence of a growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) and hydroxyapatite, to act as a scaffold for posterolateral spinal fusion in a rat model.
Using a rat posterolateral spine fusion model, the experimental study comprised 3 groups. Group 1 was composed of 6 animals that were implanted with 0.08 gram hydroxyapatite only. Group 2 was composed of 6 animals that were implanted with 0.08 gram hydroxyapatite containing 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs. Group 3 was composed of 6 animals that were implanted with 0.08 gram hydroxyapatite containing 1 × 106/ 60 µL of rat BMDMSCs and FGF-4 1 µG to induce the bony differentiation of the BMDMSCs. Rats were assessed using radiographs obtained at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively. After sacrifice, spines were explanted and assessed by manual palpation, high-resolution microcomputerized tomography, and histological analysis.
Radiographic, high-resolution microcomputerized tomographic, and manual palpation revealed spinal fusion in five rats (83%) in Group 2 at 8 weeks. However, in Group 1, three (60%) rats developed fusion at L4-L5 by radiography and two (40%) by manual palpation in radiographic examination. In addition, in Group 3, bone fusion was observed in only 50% of rats by manual palpation and radiographic examination at this time.
The present study demonstrates that 0.08 gram of hydroxyapatite with 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs induced bone fusion. FGF-4, added to differentiate primitive 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs did not induce fusion. Based on histologic data, FGF-4 appears to induce fibrotic change rather than differentiation to bone by 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs.
PMCID: PMC2773401  PMID: 19893733
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell; Fibroblast growth factor-4; Hydroxyapatite; Spinal fusion

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