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1.  Surface Landmarks do not Correspond to Exact Levels of the Cervical Spine: References According to the Sex, Age and Height 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(3):178-182.
Objective
A general orientation along the cervical spine could be estimated by external landmarks, and it was useful, quick and less exposable to radiation, but, sometimes it gave reference confusion of target cervical level. The authors reviewed the corresponding between the neck external landmarks and cervical levels.
Methods
Totally 1,031 cervical lateral radiographs of different patients were reviewed in single university hospital. Its compositions were 534 of males and 497 females; 86 of second decades (10-19 years-old), 169 of third decades, 159 of fourth decades, 209 of fifth decades, 275 of sixth decades, and 133 of more than seventh decades (>60 years-old). Reference external landmarks (mandible, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, and cricothyroid membrane) with compounding factors were reviewed.
Results
The reference levels of cervical landmarks were C2.13 with mandible angle, C3.54 with hyoid bone, C5.12 with thyroid cartilage, and C6.01 with cricothyroid membrane. The reference levels of cervical landmarks were differently observed by sex, age, and somatometric measurement (height) accordingly mandible angle from C1 to C3, hyoid bone from disc level of C2 and C3 to C5, thyroid cartilage from disc level of C3 and C4 to C7, and cricothyroid membrane from C4 to disc level of C7 and T1.
Conclusion
Surface landmarks only provide general reference points, but not correspond to exact levels of the cervical spine. Intraoperative fluoroscopy ensures a more precise placement to the targeted cervical level.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2014.11.3.178
PMCID: PMC4206974  PMID: 25346765
External landmark; Cervical level; Mandible; Hyoid bone; Thyroid cartilage; Cricothyroid membrane
2.  Cervical Arthroplasty for Moderate to Severe Disc Degeneration: Clinical and Radiological Assessments after a Minimum Follow-Up of 18 Months: Pfirrmann Grade and Cervical Arthroplasty 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(4):1072-1079.
Purpose
Clinical outcomes and radiologic results after cervical arthroplasty have been reported in many articles, yet relatively few studies after cervical arthroplasty have been conducted in severe degenerative cervical disc disease.
Materials and Methods
Sixty patients who underwent cervical arthroplasty (Mobi-C®) between April 2006 and November 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 18 months were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to Pfirrmann classification on preoperative cervical MR images: group A (Pfirrmann disc grade III, n=38) and group B (Pfirrmann disc grades IV or V, n=22). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of neck and arm pain, modified Oswestry Disability Index (mODI) score, and radiological results including cervical range of motion (ROM) were assessed before and after surgery.
Results
VAS and mean mODI scores decreased after surgery from 5.1 and 57.6 to 2.7 and 31.5 in group A and from 6.1 and 59.9 to 3.7 and 38.4 in group B, respectively. In both groups, VAS and mODI scores significantly improved postoperatively (p<0.001), although no significant intergroup differences were found. Also, cervical dynamic ROM was preserved or gradually improved up to 18 months after cervical arthroplasty in both groups. Global, segmental and adjacent ROM was similar for both groups during follow-up. No cases of device subsidence or extrusion were recorded.
Conclusion
Clinical and radiological results following cervical arthroplasty in patients with severe degenerative cervical disc disease were no different from those in patients with mild degenerative cervical disc disease after 18 months of follow-up.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.4.1072
PMCID: PMC4075369  PMID: 24954339
Total disc replacement; cervical arthroplasty; disc degeneration; clinical outcome; range of motion
3.  Comparison of Outcomes after Atlantoaxial Fusion with Transarticular Screws and Screw-Rod Constructs 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to compare the radiological and neurological outcomes between two atlantoaxial fusion method for atlantoaxial stabilization; C1 lateral mass-C2 pedicle screws (screw-rod constructs, SRC) versus C1-2 transarticular screws (TAS).
Methods
Forty-one patients in whom atlantoaxial instability was treated with atlantoaxial fixation by SRC group (27 patients, from March 2005 to May 2011) or TAS group (14 patients, from May 2000 to December 2005) were retrospectively reviewed. Numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain assessment, Oswestry disability index (ODI), and Frankel grade were also checked for neurological outcome. In radiologic outcome assessment, proper screw position and fusion rate were checked. Perioperative parameters such as blood loss during operation, operation time, and radiation exposure time were also reviewed.
Results
The improvement of NRS and ODI were not different between both groups significantly. Good to excellent response in Frankel grade is shown similarly in both groups. Proper screw position and fusion rate were also observed similarly between two groups. Total bleeding amount during operation is lesser in SRC group than TAS group, but not significantly (p=0.06). Operation time and X-ray exposure time were shorter in SRC group than in TAS group (all p<0.001).
Conclusion
Both TAS and SRC could be selected as safe and effective treatment options for C1-2 instability. But the perioperative result, which is technical demanding and X-ray exposure might be expected better in SRC group compared to TAS group.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.5.255
PMCID: PMC4130950  PMID: 25132931
Atlantoaxial fixation; C-1 lateral mass screw; C-2 pedicle screw; Transarticular screw; Complications; Fusion
4.  Repeated Complication Following Atlantoaxial Fusion: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(1):7-11.
A patients with atlantoaixial instability and osodontoideum underwent atlantoaixial fusion (Harms and Melcher technique) with demineralized bone matrix. But, unfortunately, the both pedicle screws in C2 were fractured within 9 weeks follow-up periods after several suspected episode of neck hyper-flexion. Fractured screws were not contact to occipital bone in several imaging studies, but it could irritate the occipital bone when neck extension because the relatively close distance between the occipital bone and C1 posterior arch. The patient underwent revision operation with translaminar screw fixation with autologus iliac bone graft. Postsurgical course were uneventful except donor site pain, but the bony fusion was not satisfied after 4 months follow-up. The patient re-underwent revision operation in other hospital. Continuous complication after atlantoaixial fusion is rare, but the clinical course could be unlucky to patients. Postoperative immobilization could be important to prevent the unintended clinical course of patients.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2014.11.1.7
PMCID: PMC4040632  PMID: 24891865
Atlantoaxial fusion; Cervical spine; Transpedicle screw; Pedicle screw fracture; Bone fusion; Complication
5.  Slip Reduction Rate between Minimal Invasive and Conventional Unilateral Transforaminal Interbody Fusion in Patients with Low-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(4):232-236.
Objective
To compare the slip reduction rate and clinical outcomes between unilateral conventional transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (conventional TLIF) and unilateral minimal invasive TLIF (minimal TLIF) with pedicle screw fixation for treatment of one level low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis.
Methods
Between February 2008 and April 2012, 25 patients with low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis underwent conventional TLIF (12 patients) and minimal TLIF (13 patients) in single university hospital by a single surgeon. Lateral radiographs of lumbar spine were taken 12 months after surgery to analyze the degree of slip reduction and the clinical outcome. All measurements were performed by a single observer.
Results
The demographic data between conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF were not different. Slip percentage was reduced from 15.00% to 8.33% in conventional TLIF, and from 14.15% to 9.62% in minimal TLIF. In both groups, slip percentage was significantly improved postoperatively (p=0.002), but no significant intergroup differences of slip percentage in preoperative and postoperative were found. The reduction rate also not different between conventional TLIF (45.41±28.80%) and minimal TLIF (32.91±32.12%, p=0.318).
Conclusion
Conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF with pedicle screw fixation showed good slip reduction in patients with one level low-grade symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis. The slip percentage and reduction rate were similar in the conventional TLIF and minimal TLIF.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2013.10.4.232
PMCID: PMC4040640  PMID: 24891854
Slip percentage; Reduction rate; Conventional; Minimal invasive; Transforamenal lumbar interbody fusion
6.  Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19-Year-Old Male from 2008 to 2009: A Study Based on Korean Conscription -National and Geographic Prevalence of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19YO Male- 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(5):1098-1103.
Purpose
This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year.
Results
The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different.
Conclusion
In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.5.1098
PMCID: PMC3743194  PMID: 23918557
Herniated intervertebral disc; adolescent; prevalence; conscription
7.  Psychopathological Influence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Male Adolescent 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(4):813-818.
Purpose
There is no report about psychopathological effect causing by disc herniation. The disease could impose psychopathological influence on the social life, the treatment period, and response to the treatment. This study was to evaluate retrospectively the psychopathological influence of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) among Korean 19-year-old males.
Materials and Methods
We compared the Korean military multiphasic personality inventory (KMPI) profiles of 74 LDH cases with the KMPI profiles of 150 controls. The LDH groups were categorized to 2 groups according to the presence of thecal sac compression by disc materials, and evaluated the relation between the KMPI and LDH.
Results
The decrease of the faking-good response scale and increase of the faking-bad response scale were observed more in the LDH group than in the normal volunteer group (p<0.05). The neurosis set such as anxiety, depression and somatization was markedly increased in the LDH group compared to the normal volunteers group (p<0.05). The scale of personality disorder was also increased more in the LDH group (p=0.002). The differences of KMPI scales were not correlated with the severe pathology of LDH.
Conclusion
Young male with LDH may tend to have more abnormal results of multiphasic personality inventory test compared to the normal volunteers, suggesting that LDH may be related to the psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate and treat the psychopathological aspects in patients with LDH.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.4.813
PMCID: PMC3663227  PMID: 23709412
Lumbar disc herniation; multiphasic personal inventory; psychopathology; lumbar disc herniation; conscription
8.  Technical Report of Free Hand Pedicle Screw Placement using the Entry Points with Junction of Proximal Edge of Transverse Process and Lamina in Lumbar Spine: Analysis of 2601 Consecutive Screws 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(1):7-13.
Objective
A variety of different pedicle screws entry point techniques are used for the lumbar pedicle screws placement. This study reported Kim's entry point of lumbar pedicle screws with free hand technique and the accuracy of this technique.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the 584 cases with free hand placed lumbar pedicle screw placement. The diagnosis included 491 cases with degenerative spine, 59 cases with trauma, 29 cases with metastatic disease, and 5 cases with scoliosis. A total of 2601 lumbar pedicle screws were placed, and the entry points of lumbar pedicle screws were the junction of proximal edge of transverse process and lamina. Incidence and extent of cortical breach by misplaced pedicle screw was determined by review of intra-operative and post-operative radiographs and/or computed tomography.
Results
Among the total 2601 lumbar free hand placed pedicle screws, 114 screws (4.4%) in 79 patients (13.5%) were repositioned screws with suspected screw malposition during operation, and 37 screws (1.4%) in 31 patients (5.3%) were identified as moderate to severe breaching the pedicle after post-operative imaging studies. Among the patient with malpositioned screws, 3 patients showed nerve irritation sign of the lesion, and 2 cases were symptom improved after nerve block and conservative management, and 1 case was removed the screw after the failure of the treatment.
Conclusion
Free hand pedicle screw placement based on external landmark with the junction of proximal edge of transverse process and lamina showed acceptable safety and accuracy and avoidance of radiation exposure.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2013.10.1.7
PMCID: PMC3941737  PMID: 24757450
Lumbar spine; Pedicle screw placement; Free hand technique; Surgical technique
9.  The Psychopathological Influence of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Korean Male : An Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test Results 
Objective
There are few published studies which have documented psychopathological abnormalities in patients with of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of AIS in Korean 19-year-old males.
Methods
The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 105 AIS cases (more than 10 degrees of Cobb's angle without surgical treatment) with the KMPI profiles of 108 normal controls. The AIS group was split depending on Cobb's angle to further evaluate this relation by the severity of AIS.
Results
A significantly decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an significantly increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.012). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were significantly increased in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.010). The severity level of personality disorder and schizophrenia were also significantly increased in the AIS group (p<0.010). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to the severity of AIS.
Conclusion
Young males with AIS tend to have abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test compared to normal volunteers, suggesting that AIS may be related to psychopathology in the young male group in Korea. Although these psychopathology in AIS were differently observed compared to normal controls, but not interfered with military life. Clinicians are recommended to pay attention the psychopathological traits of patients with AIS.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.53.1.13
PMCID: PMC3579076  PMID: 23440382
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Multiphasic personal inventory; Psychopathology; Korea; Conscription
10.  Usefulness of Chest Radiographs for Scoliosis Screening: A Comparison with Thoraco-Lumbar Standing Radiographs 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(6):1183-1189.
Purpose
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of chest radiographs in scoliosis screening and to compare these results with those of thoraco-lumbar standing radiographs (TLSR).
Materials and Methods
During Korean conscription, 419 males were retrospectively examined using both chest radiographs and TLSR to confirm the scoliosis and Cobb angle at the Regional Military Manpower. We compared the types of spinal curves and Cobb angles as measured from different radiographs.
Results
In the pattern of spinal curves, the overall matching rate of chest radiographs using TLSR was about 58.2% (244 of 419 cases). Cobb angle differences between chest radiographs and TLSR with meaningful difference was observed in 156 cases (37.2%); a relatively high proportion (9.5%) of Cobb angle differences more than 10 degrees was also observed. The matching rate of both spinal curve types and Cobb angle accuracy between chest radiographs and TLSR was 27.9% (117 among 419 cases). Chest radiographs for scoliosis screening were observed with 93.94% of sensitivity and 61.67% of specificity in thoracic curves; however, less than 40% of sensitivity (38.27%, 20.00%, and 25.80%) and more than 95% of specificity (97.34%, 99.69%, and 98.45%) were observed in thoraco-lumbar, lumbar, and double major curves, respectively.
Conclusion
The accuracy of chest radiographs for scoliosis screening was low. The incidence of thoracic curve scoliosis was overestimated and lumbar curve scoliosis was easily missed by chest radiography. Scoliosis screening using chest radiography has limited values, nevertheless, it is useful method for detecting thoracic curve scoliosis.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.6.1183
PMCID: PMC3481372  PMID: 23074120
Scoliosis; screening; chest radiographs; thoraco-lumbar standing radiographs
11.  The Psychopathological Influence of Congenital Heart Disease in Korean Male Adolescents: An Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test Results 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(6):1107-1112.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Korean 19-year-old males.
Materials and Methods
The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 211 CHD cases (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, or combined CHD) with the KMPI profiles of 300 normal controls. The CHD group was also divided according to whether or not the subjects had undergone open cardiac surgery in order to evaluate the psychopathological effects of an operation among the subjects.
Results
A decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were markedly increased in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The severity level of personality disorder was also increased in the CHD group (p<0.001). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to open cardiac surgery history.
Conclusion
In this study, young males with CHD tended to report more abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test in comparison to normal subjects, suggesting that CHD may be related to psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate the psychopathological traits of patients with CHD.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.6.1107
PMCID: PMC3481384  PMID: 23074109
Congenital heart disease; multiphasic personal inventory; psychopathology; Korea; conscription
12.  Interobserver and Intraobserver Reliability of Sub-Axial Injury Classification and Severity Scale between Radiologist, Resident and Spine Surgeon 
Objective
The sub-axial injury classification (SLIC) and severity scale was developed to decide whether to operate the cervical injured patient or not, but the reliability of SLIC and severity scale among the different physicians was not well known. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of SLIC among a spine surgeon, a resident of neurosurgery and a neuro-radiologist.
Methods
In retrograde review in single hospital from 2002 to 2009 years, 75 cases of sub-axial spine injured patients underwent operation. Each case was blindly reviewed for the SLIC and severity scale by 3 different observers by two times with 4 weeks interval with randomly allocated. The compared axis was the injury morphology score, the disco-ligamentous complex score, the neurological status score and total SLIC score; the neurological status score was derived from the review of medical record. The kappa value was used for the statistical analysis.
Results
Interobserver agreement of SLIC and severity scale was substantial agreement in the score of injury morphology [intraclass correlation (ICC)=0.603] and total SLIC and severity sacle (ICC value=0.775), but was fair agreement in the disco-ligamentous complex score (ICC value=0.304). Intraobserver agreements were almost perfect agreement in whole scales with ICC of 0.974 in a spine surgeon, 0.948 in a resident of neurosurgery, and 0.963 in a neuro-radiologist.
Conclusion
The SLIC and severity scale is comprehensive and easily applicable tool in spine injured patient. Moreover, it is very useful tool to communicate among spine surgeons, residents of neurosurgery and neuro-radiologists with sufficient reproducibility.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.200
PMCID: PMC3483319  PMID: 23115661
Cervical trauma; Sub-axial injury classification scale; Cervical spine injury; Interobserver agreement; Intraobserver reliability
13.  Missed Diagnosis of Syrinx 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(1):1-5.
Study Design
Prospective, randomized, controlled human study.
Purpose
We checked the proportion of missed syrinx diagnoses among the examinees of the Korean military conscription.
Overview of Literature
A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord or brain stem and causes various neurological symptoms. A syrinx could easily be diagnosed by magnetic resonance image (MRI), but missed diagnoses seldom occur.
Methods
In this study, we reviewed 103 cases using cervical images, cervical MRI, or whole spine sagittal MRI, and syrinxes was observed in 18 of these cases. A review of medical certificates or interviews was conducted, and the proportion of syrinx diagnoses was calculated.
Results
The proportion of syrinx diagnoses was about 66.7% (12 cases among 18). Missed diagnoses were not the result of the length of the syrinx, but due to the type of image used for the initial diagnosis.
Conclusions
The missed diagnosis proportion of the syrinx is relatively high, therefore, a more careful imaging review is recommended.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.1.1
PMCID: PMC3302909  PMID: 22439081
Syrinx; Diagnosis proportion; Conscription; Korea
14.  Outcome Evaluation with Signal Activation of Functional MRI in Spinal Cord Injury 
Objective
The authors investigated the changes of cortical sensorimotor activity in functional MRI (fMRI) and functional recovery in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients who had been treated by bone marrow cell transplantation.
Methods
Nineteen patients with SCI were included in this study; ten patients with clinical improvement and nine without. The cortical sensorimotor activations were studied using the proprioceptive stimulation during the fMRI.
Results
Diagnostic accuracy of fMRI with neurological improvement was 70.0% and 44.4% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Signal activation in the ipsilateral motor cortex in fMRI was commonly observed in the clinically neurological improved group (p-value=0.002). Signal activation in the contralateral temporal lobe and basal ganglia was more commonly found in the neurological unimproved group (p-value<0.001). Signal activation in other locations was not statistically different.
Conclusion
In patients with SCI, activation patterns of fMRI between patients with neurologic recovery and those without varied. Such plasticity should be considered in evaluating SCI interventions based on behavioral and neurological measurements.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.3.209
PMCID: PMC3218180  PMID: 22102951
Sensorimotor; Functional MRI; Spinal cord injury; Bone marrow cell; Proprioceptive
15.  Evaluation of Spinal Fusion Using Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with or without Fibroblast Growth Factor-4 
Objective
In this study, the authors assessed the ability of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs), in the presence of a growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) and hydroxyapatite, to act as a scaffold for posterolateral spinal fusion in a rat model.
Methods
Using a rat posterolateral spine fusion model, the experimental study comprised 3 groups. Group 1 was composed of 6 animals that were implanted with 0.08 gram hydroxyapatite only. Group 2 was composed of 6 animals that were implanted with 0.08 gram hydroxyapatite containing 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs. Group 3 was composed of 6 animals that were implanted with 0.08 gram hydroxyapatite containing 1 × 106/ 60 µL of rat BMDMSCs and FGF-4 1 µG to induce the bony differentiation of the BMDMSCs. Rats were assessed using radiographs obtained at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively. After sacrifice, spines were explanted and assessed by manual palpation, high-resolution microcomputerized tomography, and histological analysis.
Results
Radiographic, high-resolution microcomputerized tomographic, and manual palpation revealed spinal fusion in five rats (83%) in Group 2 at 8 weeks. However, in Group 1, three (60%) rats developed fusion at L4-L5 by radiography and two (40%) by manual palpation in radiographic examination. In addition, in Group 3, bone fusion was observed in only 50% of rats by manual palpation and radiographic examination at this time.
Conclusion
The present study demonstrates that 0.08 gram of hydroxyapatite with 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs induced bone fusion. FGF-4, added to differentiate primitive 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs did not induce fusion. Based on histologic data, FGF-4 appears to induce fibrotic change rather than differentiation to bone by 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.4.397
PMCID: PMC2773401  PMID: 19893733
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell; Fibroblast growth factor-4; Hydroxyapatite; Spinal fusion
16.  Endovascular Treatment of Symptomatic High-Flow Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula as a Complication after C1 Screw Insertion 
High-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are rare complications of cervical spine surgery and characterized by iatrogenic direct-communication of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) to the surrounding venous plexuses. The authors describe two patients with VAVF presenting with ischemic presentation after C1 pedicle screw insertion for a treatment of C2 fracture and nontraumatic atlatoaxial subluxation. The first patient presented with drowsy consciousness with blurred vision. The diffusion MRI showed an acute infarction on bilateral cerebellum and occipital lobes. The second patient presented with pulsatile tinnitus, dysarthria and a subjective weakness and numbness of extremities. In both cases, digital subtraction angiography demonstrated high-flow direct VAVFs adjacent to C1 screws. The VAVF of the second case occurred near the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery originated from the persistent first intersegmental artery of the left VA. Both cases were successfully treated by complete occlusion of the fistulous portion and the involved segment of the left VA using endovascular coil embolization. The authors reviewed the VAVFs after the upper-cervical spine surgery including C1 screw insertion and the feasibility with the attention notes of its endovascular treatment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.4.348
PMCID: PMC4219195  PMID: 25371787
Vertebral arteriovenous fistula; C1 screw; Endovascular treatment
17.  Comparison of Drainage Volume of Chronic Subdural Hematoma According to Drainage Catheter Type 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(5):1091-1097.
Purpose
To assess the therapeutic value of two different drainage catheters in treating chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH).
Materials and Methods
Two types of drainage catheters can be used to treat CSDH according to the position of holes in the catheter: open-type or closed-type catheter. In this retrospective study, 199 total patients with CSDH were reviewed according to catheter type. Among them, 84 patients were and 113 in the closed-type group (holes positioned within the distal-most 1 cm of the catheter). The surgeon selected the catheter type. Total drainage volume, initial drainage volume within 2 days, percentage of initial drainage volume per total drainage volume, duration of catheter insertion, and reoperation rate were compared.
Results
Total drainage volume was not different between the two groups (p=0.333). The initial drainage volume within 2 days was larger in the open-type group than closed-type group (p=0.024), but the percentage of initial drainage volume per total drainage volume was not different (p=0.354). The duration of catheter insertion was shorter in the open-type group than closed-type group (p=0.015). The reoperation rate of CSDH was also higher in the open-type group than closed-type group (p=0.004).
Conclusion
CSDH drainage with an open-type catheter is faster compared with a closed-type catheter, but total drainage volume is similar and reoperation rate is higher. Therefore, the open-type catheter for CSDH drainage has limited clinical value.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.5.1091
PMCID: PMC3743203  PMID: 23918556
Chronic subdural hematoma; catheter; drainage
18.  The Impact of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax on Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test Results in Young South Korean Males 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(5):901-905.
Purpose
Few reports have documented psychopathological abnormalities in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). We analyzed the results of a multiphasic personal inventory test to investigate the psychopathologic impact of PSP in young Korean males.
Materials and Methods
The authors reviewed the results of a Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) administered to military conscripts in South Korea. A total of 234 young males participated in this study. The normal volunteer group (n=175) comprised individuals who did not have any lung disease. The PSP group (n=59) included individuals with PSP. None of the examinees had any psychological problems. The KMPI results of both groups were compared.
Results
There were more abnormal responses in the PSP group (17.0%) than the normal volunteer group (9.1%, p=0.002). The anxiety scale and depression scale scores of the neurosis category were greater for the PSP group than the normal group (p=0.039 and 0.014, respectively). The personality disorder and paranoia scale scores of the psychopathy category were greater for the PSP group than the normal group (p=0.007 and 0.018, respectively).
Conclusion
Young males with PSP may have greater tendencies to suffer from anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and paranoia compared to normal individuals. Clinicians should be advised to evaluate the psychopathological aspects of patients with PSP.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.5.901
PMCID: PMC3423837  PMID: 22869471
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax; multiphasic personal inventory test; personality changes; psychopathology
19.  Free Hand Pedicle Screw Placement in the Thoracic Spine without Any Radiographic Guidance : Technical Note, a Cadaveric Study 
Thoracic pedicle screw fixation techniques are still controversial for thoracic deformities because of possible complications including neurologic deficit. Methods to aid the surgeon in appropriate screw placement have included the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy and/or radiography as well as image-guided techniques. We describe our technique for free hand pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine without any radiographic guidance and present the results of pedicle screw placement analyzed by computed tomographic scan in two human cadavers. This free hand technique of thoracic pedicle screw placement performed in a step-wise, consistent, and compulsive manner is an accurate, reliable, and safe method of insertion to treat a variety of spinal disorders, including spinal deformity.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.1.66
PMCID: PMC3291712  PMID: 22396849
Pedicle screw placement; Thoracic spine; Surgical anatomy; Free hand technique; Surgical technique; Cadaveric study
20.  Influence of History of Brain Disease or Brain Trauma on Psychopathological Abnormality in Young Male in Korea : Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test 
Objective
The purpose of this study is to confirm whether brain disease or brain trauma actually affect psychopathology in young male group in Korea.
Methods
The authors manually reviewed the result of Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) in the examination of conscription in Korea from January 2008 to May 2010. There were total 237 young males in this review. Normal volunteers group (n=150) was composed of those who do not have history of brain disease or brain trauma. Brain disease group (n=33) was consisted of those with history of brain disease. Brain trauma group (n=54) was consisted of those with history of brain trauma. The results of KMPI in each group were compared.
Results
Abnormal results of KMPI were found in both brain disease and trauma groups. In the brain disease group, higher tendencies of faking bad response, anxiety, depression, somatization, personality disorder, schizophrenic and paranoid psychopathy was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. In the brain trauma group, higher tendencies of faking-good, depression, somatization and personality disorder was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group.
Conclusion
Young male with history of brain disease or brain trauma may have higher tendencies to have abnormal results of multiphasic personal inventory test compared to young male without history of brain disease or brain trauma, suggesting that damaged brain may cause psychopathology in young male group in Korea.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.2.114
PMCID: PMC3206272  PMID: 22053230
Personality inventory; Personality tests; Physical examination; Brain disease; Brain trauma; Young adult
21.  Time-Related Changes in Detrusor Overactivity in Awake Rats with Spinal Cord Injury Observed by Simultaneous Registrations of Intravesical and Intraabdominal Pressures 
Purpose
To compare the physical characteristics of detrusor overactivity (DO) induced by intravesical infusion of saline in awake, sham rats and rats with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), by simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures.
Methods
Male Sprague-Dawley rats, normal or with a spinal vascular clip at the level of Th9, were investigated cystometrically 1 and 4 weeks after SCI. Intravesical pressure (IVP) and intraabdominal pressure (IAP) were recorded simultaneously to evaluate true DO. During the filling phase, the event of IVP rises, defined as increments that exceeded 2 cmH2O from baseline, were determined as DO according to the absence of simultaneous changes in IAP.
Results
All SCI rats exhibited DO during the filling phase, which was not shown in sham rats. The frequency and pressure of DO had a tendency to decrease with time. The DO frequency of SCI rats after 4 weeks (0.9±0.2 min-1) was decreased compared with that after 1 week (2.1±0.4 min-1; P<0.05). The DO pressure of SCI rats after 4 weeks (8.4±1.9 cmH2O) was decreased compared with that after 1 week (11.6±2.9 cmH2O; P>0.05).
Conclusions
Cystometric studies in awake male SCI rats showed some significant changes in bladder function after SCI. All SCI rats exhibited DO during the filling phase, and showed different physical characteristics of DO over the course of time. The neurological basis of these time-related changes remains poorly understood, but may provide important prognostic information about long-term urological management in SCI patients.
doi:10.5213/inj.2011.15.1.19
PMCID: PMC3070220  PMID: 21468282
Urodynamics; Overactive detrusor; Spinal cord injuries
22.  Primary Paravertebral Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma 
The authors report a 58-year-old woman with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma primarily located in the right paravertebral area with extension to L4 neural foramen. The patient complained lower back pain with radiating pain along the posterolateral aspect of the right lower leg. She underwent subtotal surgical removal and Cyber Knife therapy. Diagnosis was made by strikingly characteristic microscopic appearance of a bland spindle cell sarcoma which contained numerous giant collagen rosettes and was also supported by immunohistological findings. The diagnostic image findings and literatures are reviewed and discussed.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.5.461
PMCID: PMC3030091  PMID: 21286488
Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma; MRI; Cyber Knife therapy
23.  Time Course of Symptom Disappearance after Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm 
Objective
This study is to investigate time course of symptom disappearance in patients whose spasm relieved completely after microvascular decompression (MVD).
Methods
Of 115 patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) who underwent MVD from April 2003 to December 2006, 89 patients who had no facial paralysis after operation and showed no spasm at last follow-up more than 1.5 years after operation were selected. Symptom disappearance with time after MVD was classified into type 1 (symptom disappearance right after operation), type 2 (delayed symptom disappearance) and type 3 (unusual symptom disappearance). Type 2 was classified into type 2a (with postoperative silent period) and type 2b (without silent period).
Results
Type 1, type 2a, type 2b and type 3 were 38.2%, 48.37%, 12.4% and 1.1%, respectively. Delayed disappearance group (type 2) was 60.7%. Post-operative symptom duration in all cases ranged from 0 to 900 days, average was 74.6 days and median was 14 days. In case of type 2, average post-operative symptom duration was 115.1 days and median was 42 days. Five and 3 patients required more than 1 year and 2 years, respectively, until complete disappearance of spasm. In type 2a, postoperative silent period ranged from 1 to 10 days, with an average of 2.4 days.
Conclusion
Surgeons should be aware that delayed symptom disappearance after MVD for HFS is more common than it has been reported, silent period can be as long as 10 days and time course of symptom disappearance is various as well as unpredictable.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.245
PMCID: PMC2588317  PMID: 19096685
Hemifacial spasm; Microvascular decompression; Delayed resolution
24.  Comparative Study of Outcomes between Shunting after Cranioplasty and in Cranioplasty after Shunting in Large Concave Flaccid Cranial Defect with Hydrocephalus 
Objective
The cranioplasty and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation have been used to treat a large cranial defect with posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH). The aim of this study was to evlauate the difference of outcomes between in the shunting after the cranioplasty (group 1) and the cranioplasty after the shunting (group 2) in a large flaccid cranial defect with PTH.
Methods
In this study, a retrospective review was done on 23 patients undergoing the cranioplasty and VP shunt operation after the decompressive craniectomy for a refractory intracranial hypertension from 2002 to 2005. All of 23 cases had a large flaccid concave cranial defect and PTH. Ten cases belong to group 1 and 13 cases to group 2. The outcomes after operations were compared in two groups 6 months later.
Results
The improvement of Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was seen in 8 cases (80.0%) of total 10 cases in group 1, and 6 cases (46.2%) of 13 cases in group 2. Three (75.0%) of 4 cases with hemiparesis in group 1 and 3 of 6 cases (50.0%) in group 2 were improved. All cases (2 cases) with decrease of visual acuity were improved in each group. Dysphasia was improved in 3 of 5 cases (60%) in group 1 and 4 of 6 cases (66.6%) in group 2.
Conclusion
These results suggest that outcomes in group 1 may be better than in group 2 for a large flaccid concave cranial defect with PTH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.211
PMCID: PMC2588309  PMID: 19096679
Large flaccid concave cranial defect; Cranioplasty; Shunt
25.  A Multi-center Clinical Study of Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with the Expandable Stand-alone Cage (Tyche® Cage) for Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Disorders 
Objective
This multi-center clinical study was designed to determine the long-term results of patients who received a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion with expandable cage (Tyche® cage) for degenerative spinal diseases during the same period in each hospital.
Methods
Fifty-seven patients with low back pain who had a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion using a newly designed expandable cage were enrolled in this study at five centers from June 2003 to December 2004 and followed up for 24 months. Pain improvement was checked with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and their disability was evaluated with the Oswestry Disability Index. Radiographs were obtained before and after surgery. At the final follow-up, dynamic stability, quality of bone fusion, interveretebral disc height, and lumbar lordosis were assessed. In some cases, a lumbar computed tomography scan was also obtained.
Results
The mean VAS score of back pain was improved from 6.44 points preoperatively to 0.44 at the final visit and the score of sciatica was reduced from 4.84 to 0.26. Also, the Oswestry Disability Index was improved from 32.62 points preoperatively to 18.25 at the final visit. The fusion rate was 92.5%. Intervertebral disc height, recorded as 9.94±2.69 mm before surgery was increased to 12.23±3.31 mm at postoperative 1 month and was stabilized at 11.43±2.23 mm on final visit. The segmental angle of lordosis was changed significantly from 3.54±3.70° before surgery to 6.37±3.97° by 24 months postoperative, and total lumbar lordosis was 20.37±11.30° preoperatively and 24.71±11.70° at 24 months postoperative.
Conclusion
There have been no special complications regarding the expandable cage during the follow-up period and the results of this study demonstrates a high fusion rate and clinical success.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.4.251
PMCID: PMC2588207  PMID: 19096552
Expandable cage; Degeneration; Interbody fusion; Lumbar spine

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