The purposes of this study were to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of chest radiographs in scoliosis screening and to compare these results with those of thoraco-lumbar standing radiographs (TLSR).
Materials and Methods
During Korean conscription, 419 males were retrospectively examined using both chest radiographs and TLSR to confirm the scoliosis and Cobb angle at the Regional Military Manpower. We compared the types of spinal curves and Cobb angles as measured from different radiographs.
In the pattern of spinal curves, the overall matching rate of chest radiographs using TLSR was about 58.2% (244 of 419 cases). Cobb angle differences between chest radiographs and TLSR with meaningful difference was observed in 156 cases (37.2%); a relatively high proportion (9.5%) of Cobb angle differences more than 10 degrees was also observed. The matching rate of both spinal curve types and Cobb angle accuracy between chest radiographs and TLSR was 27.9% (117 among 419 cases). Chest radiographs for scoliosis screening were observed with 93.94% of sensitivity and 61.67% of specificity in thoracic curves; however, less than 40% of sensitivity (38.27%, 20.00%, and 25.80%) and more than 95% of specificity (97.34%, 99.69%, and 98.45%) were observed in thoraco-lumbar, lumbar, and double major curves, respectively.
The accuracy of chest radiographs for scoliosis screening was low. The incidence of thoracic curve scoliosis was overestimated and lumbar curve scoliosis was easily missed by chest radiography. Scoliosis screening using chest radiography has limited values, nevertheless, it is useful method for detecting thoracic curve scoliosis.
Scoliosis; screening; chest radiographs; thoraco-lumbar standing radiographs
Prospective, randomized, controlled human study.
We checked the proportion of missed syrinx diagnoses among the examinees of the Korean military conscription.
Overview of Literature
A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord or brain stem and causes various neurological symptoms. A syrinx could easily be diagnosed by magnetic resonance image (MRI), but missed diagnoses seldom occur.
In this study, we reviewed 103 cases using cervical images, cervical MRI, or whole spine sagittal MRI, and syrinxes was observed in 18 of these cases. A review of medical certificates or interviews was conducted, and the proportion of syrinx diagnoses was calculated.
The proportion of syrinx diagnoses was about 66.7% (12 cases among 18). Missed diagnoses were not the result of the length of the syrinx, but due to the type of image used for the initial diagnosis.
The missed diagnosis proportion of the syrinx is relatively high, therefore, a more careful imaging review is recommended.
Syrinx; Diagnosis proportion; Conscription; Korea
There are few published studies which have documented psychopathological abnormalities in patients with of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of AIS in Korean 19-year-old males.
The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 105 AIS cases (more than 10 degrees of Cobb's angle without surgical treatment) with the KMPI profiles of 108 normal controls. The AIS group was split depending on Cobb's angle to further evaluate this relation by the severity of AIS.
A significantly decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an significantly increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.012). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were significantly increased in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.010). The severity level of personality disorder and schizophrenia were also significantly increased in the AIS group (p<0.010). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to the severity of AIS.
Young males with AIS tend to have abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test compared to normal volunteers, suggesting that AIS may be related to psychopathology in the young male group in Korea. Although these psychopathology in AIS were differently observed compared to normal controls, but not interfered with military life. Clinicians are recommended to pay attention the psychopathological traits of patients with AIS.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Multiphasic personal inventory; Psychopathology; Korea; Conscription
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Korean 19-year-old males.
Materials and Methods
The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 211 CHD cases (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, or combined CHD) with the KMPI profiles of 300 normal controls. The CHD group was also divided according to whether or not the subjects had undergone open cardiac surgery in order to evaluate the psychopathological effects of an operation among the subjects.
A decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were markedly increased in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The severity level of personality disorder was also increased in the CHD group (p<0.001). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to open cardiac surgery history.
In this study, young males with CHD tended to report more abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test in comparison to normal subjects, suggesting that CHD may be related to psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate the psychopathological traits of patients with CHD.
Congenital heart disease; multiphasic personal inventory; psychopathology; Korea; conscription
Few reports have documented psychopathological abnormalities in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). We analyzed the results of a multiphasic personal inventory test to investigate the psychopathologic impact of PSP in young Korean males.
Materials and Methods
The authors reviewed the results of a Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) administered to military conscripts in South Korea. A total of 234 young males participated in this study. The normal volunteer group (n=175) comprised individuals who did not have any lung disease. The PSP group (n=59) included individuals with PSP. None of the examinees had any psychological problems. The KMPI results of both groups were compared.
There were more abnormal responses in the PSP group (17.0%) than the normal volunteer group (9.1%, p=0.002). The anxiety scale and depression scale scores of the neurosis category were greater for the PSP group than the normal group (p=0.039 and 0.014, respectively). The personality disorder and paranoia scale scores of the psychopathy category were greater for the PSP group than the normal group (p=0.007 and 0.018, respectively).
Young males with PSP may have greater tendencies to suffer from anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and paranoia compared to normal individuals. Clinicians should be advised to evaluate the psychopathological aspects of patients with PSP.
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax; multiphasic personal inventory test; personality changes; psychopathology
The sub-axial injury classification (SLIC) and severity scale was developed to decide whether to operate the cervical injured patient or not, but the reliability of SLIC and severity scale among the different physicians was not well known. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of SLIC among a spine surgeon, a resident of neurosurgery and a neuro-radiologist.
In retrograde review in single hospital from 2002 to 2009 years, 75 cases of sub-axial spine injured patients underwent operation. Each case was blindly reviewed for the SLIC and severity scale by 3 different observers by two times with 4 weeks interval with randomly allocated. The compared axis was the injury morphology score, the disco-ligamentous complex score, the neurological status score and total SLIC score; the neurological status score was derived from the review of medical record. The kappa value was used for the statistical analysis.
Interobserver agreement of SLIC and severity scale was substantial agreement in the score of injury morphology [intraclass correlation (ICC)=0.603] and total SLIC and severity sacle (ICC value=0.775), but was fair agreement in the disco-ligamentous complex score (ICC value=0.304). Intraobserver agreements were almost perfect agreement in whole scales with ICC of 0.974 in a spine surgeon, 0.948 in a resident of neurosurgery, and 0.963 in a neuro-radiologist.
The SLIC and severity scale is comprehensive and easily applicable tool in spine injured patient. Moreover, it is very useful tool to communicate among spine surgeons, residents of neurosurgery and neuro-radiologists with sufficient reproducibility.
Cervical trauma; Sub-axial injury classification scale; Cervical spine injury; Interobserver agreement; Intraobserver reliability
Thoracic pedicle screw fixation techniques are still controversial for thoracic deformities because of possible complications including neurologic deficit. Methods to aid the surgeon in appropriate screw placement have included the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy and/or radiography as well as image-guided techniques. We describe our technique for free hand pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine without any radiographic guidance and present the results of pedicle screw placement analyzed by computed tomographic scan in two human cadavers. This free hand technique of thoracic pedicle screw placement performed in a step-wise, consistent, and compulsive manner is an accurate, reliable, and safe method of insertion to treat a variety of spinal disorders, including spinal deformity.
Pedicle screw placement; Thoracic spine; Surgical anatomy; Free hand technique; Surgical technique; Cadaveric study
The authors investigated the changes of cortical sensorimotor activity in functional MRI (fMRI) and functional recovery in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients who had been treated by bone marrow cell transplantation.
Nineteen patients with SCI were included in this study; ten patients with clinical improvement and nine without. The cortical sensorimotor activations were studied using the proprioceptive stimulation during the fMRI.
Diagnostic accuracy of fMRI with neurological improvement was 70.0% and 44.4% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Signal activation in the ipsilateral motor cortex in fMRI was commonly observed in the clinically neurological improved group (p-value=0.002). Signal activation in the contralateral temporal lobe and basal ganglia was more commonly found in the neurological unimproved group (p-value<0.001). Signal activation in other locations was not statistically different.
In patients with SCI, activation patterns of fMRI between patients with neurologic recovery and those without varied. Such plasticity should be considered in evaluating SCI interventions based on behavioral and neurological measurements.
Sensorimotor; Functional MRI; Spinal cord injury; Bone marrow cell; Proprioceptive
The purpose of this study is to confirm whether brain disease or brain trauma actually affect psychopathology in young male group in Korea.
The authors manually reviewed the result of Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) in the examination of conscription in Korea from January 2008 to May 2010. There were total 237 young males in this review. Normal volunteers group (n=150) was composed of those who do not have history of brain disease or brain trauma. Brain disease group (n=33) was consisted of those with history of brain disease. Brain trauma group (n=54) was consisted of those with history of brain trauma. The results of KMPI in each group were compared.
Abnormal results of KMPI were found in both brain disease and trauma groups. In the brain disease group, higher tendencies of faking bad response, anxiety, depression, somatization, personality disorder, schizophrenic and paranoid psychopathy was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. In the brain trauma group, higher tendencies of faking-good, depression, somatization and personality disorder was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group.
Young male with history of brain disease or brain trauma may have higher tendencies to have abnormal results of multiphasic personal inventory test compared to young male without history of brain disease or brain trauma, suggesting that damaged brain may cause psychopathology in young male group in Korea.
Personality inventory; Personality tests; Physical examination; Brain disease; Brain trauma; Young adult
To compare the physical characteristics of detrusor overactivity (DO) induced by intravesical infusion of saline in awake, sham rats and rats with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), by simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats, normal or with a spinal vascular clip at the level of Th9, were investigated cystometrically 1 and 4 weeks after SCI. Intravesical pressure (IVP) and intraabdominal pressure (IAP) were recorded simultaneously to evaluate true DO. During the filling phase, the event of IVP rises, defined as increments that exceeded 2 cmH2O from baseline, were determined as DO according to the absence of simultaneous changes in IAP.
All SCI rats exhibited DO during the filling phase, which was not shown in sham rats. The frequency and pressure of DO had a tendency to decrease with time. The DO frequency of SCI rats after 4 weeks (0.9±0.2 min-1) was decreased compared with that after 1 week (2.1±0.4 min-1; P<0.05). The DO pressure of SCI rats after 4 weeks (8.4±1.9 cmH2O) was decreased compared with that after 1 week (11.6±2.9 cmH2O; P>0.05).
Cystometric studies in awake male SCI rats showed some significant changes in bladder function after SCI. All SCI rats exhibited DO during the filling phase, and showed different physical characteristics of DO over the course of time. The neurological basis of these time-related changes remains poorly understood, but may provide important prognostic information about long-term urological management in SCI patients.
Urodynamics; Overactive detrusor; Spinal cord injuries
The authors report a 58-year-old woman with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma primarily located in the right paravertebral area with extension to L4 neural foramen. The patient complained lower back pain with radiating pain along the posterolateral aspect of the right lower leg. She underwent subtotal surgical removal and Cyber Knife therapy. Diagnosis was made by strikingly characteristic microscopic appearance of a bland spindle cell sarcoma which contained numerous giant collagen rosettes and was also supported by immunohistological findings. The diagnostic image findings and literatures are reviewed and discussed.
Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma; MRI; Cyber Knife therapy
In this study, the authors assessed the ability of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs), in the presence of a growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) and hydroxyapatite, to act as a scaffold for posterolateral spinal fusion in a rat model.
Using a rat posterolateral spine fusion model, the experimental study comprised 3 groups. Group 1 was composed of 6 animals that were implanted with 0.08 gram hydroxyapatite only. Group 2 was composed of 6 animals that were implanted with 0.08 gram hydroxyapatite containing 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs. Group 3 was composed of 6 animals that were implanted with 0.08 gram hydroxyapatite containing 1 × 106/ 60 µL of rat BMDMSCs and FGF-4 1 µG to induce the bony differentiation of the BMDMSCs. Rats were assessed using radiographs obtained at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively. After sacrifice, spines were explanted and assessed by manual palpation, high-resolution microcomputerized tomography, and histological analysis.
Radiographic, high-resolution microcomputerized tomographic, and manual palpation revealed spinal fusion in five rats (83%) in Group 2 at 8 weeks. However, in Group 1, three (60%) rats developed fusion at L4-L5 by radiography and two (40%) by manual palpation in radiographic examination. In addition, in Group 3, bone fusion was observed in only 50% of rats by manual palpation and radiographic examination at this time.
The present study demonstrates that 0.08 gram of hydroxyapatite with 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs induced bone fusion. FGF-4, added to differentiate primitive 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs did not induce fusion. Based on histologic data, FGF-4 appears to induce fibrotic change rather than differentiation to bone by 1 × 106/ 60 µL rat of BMDMSCs.
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell; Fibroblast growth factor-4; Hydroxyapatite; Spinal fusion
This study is to investigate time course of symptom disappearance in patients whose spasm relieved completely after microvascular decompression (MVD).
Of 115 patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) who underwent MVD from April 2003 to December 2006, 89 patients who had no facial paralysis after operation and showed no spasm at last follow-up more than 1.5 years after operation were selected. Symptom disappearance with time after MVD was classified into type 1 (symptom disappearance right after operation), type 2 (delayed symptom disappearance) and type 3 (unusual symptom disappearance). Type 2 was classified into type 2a (with postoperative silent period) and type 2b (without silent period).
Type 1, type 2a, type 2b and type 3 were 38.2%, 48.37%, 12.4% and 1.1%, respectively. Delayed disappearance group (type 2) was 60.7%. Post-operative symptom duration in all cases ranged from 0 to 900 days, average was 74.6 days and median was 14 days. In case of type 2, average post-operative symptom duration was 115.1 days and median was 42 days. Five and 3 patients required more than 1 year and 2 years, respectively, until complete disappearance of spasm. In type 2a, postoperative silent period ranged from 1 to 10 days, with an average of 2.4 days.
Surgeons should be aware that delayed symptom disappearance after MVD for HFS is more common than it has been reported, silent period can be as long as 10 days and time course of symptom disappearance is various as well as unpredictable.
Hemifacial spasm; Microvascular decompression; Delayed resolution
The cranioplasty and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation have been used to treat a large cranial defect with posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH). The aim of this study was to evlauate the difference of outcomes between in the shunting after the cranioplasty (group 1) and the cranioplasty after the shunting (group 2) in a large flaccid cranial defect with PTH.
In this study, a retrospective review was done on 23 patients undergoing the cranioplasty and VP shunt operation after the decompressive craniectomy for a refractory intracranial hypertension from 2002 to 2005. All of 23 cases had a large flaccid concave cranial defect and PTH. Ten cases belong to group 1 and 13 cases to group 2. The outcomes after operations were compared in two groups 6 months later.
The improvement of Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was seen in 8 cases (80.0%) of total 10 cases in group 1, and 6 cases (46.2%) of 13 cases in group 2. Three (75.0%) of 4 cases with hemiparesis in group 1 and 3 of 6 cases (50.0%) in group 2 were improved. All cases (2 cases) with decrease of visual acuity were improved in each group. Dysphasia was improved in 3 of 5 cases (60%) in group 1 and 4 of 6 cases (66.6%) in group 2.
These results suggest that outcomes in group 1 may be better than in group 2 for a large flaccid concave cranial defect with PTH.
Large flaccid concave cranial defect; Cranioplasty; Shunt
This multi-center clinical study was designed to determine the long-term results of patients who received a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion with expandable cage (Tyche® cage) for degenerative spinal diseases during the same period in each hospital.
Fifty-seven patients with low back pain who had a one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion using a newly designed expandable cage were enrolled in this study at five centers from June 2003 to December 2004 and followed up for 24 months. Pain improvement was checked with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and their disability was evaluated with the Oswestry Disability Index. Radiographs were obtained before and after surgery. At the final follow-up, dynamic stability, quality of bone fusion, interveretebral disc height, and lumbar lordosis were assessed. In some cases, a lumbar computed tomography scan was also obtained.
The mean VAS score of back pain was improved from 6.44 points preoperatively to 0.44 at the final visit and the score of sciatica was reduced from 4.84 to 0.26. Also, the Oswestry Disability Index was improved from 32.62 points preoperatively to 18.25 at the final visit. The fusion rate was 92.5%. Intervertebral disc height, recorded as 9.94±2.69 mm before surgery was increased to 12.23±3.31 mm at postoperative 1 month and was stabilized at 11.43±2.23 mm on final visit. The segmental angle of lordosis was changed significantly from 3.54±3.70° before surgery to 6.37±3.97° by 24 months postoperative, and total lumbar lordosis was 20.37±11.30° preoperatively and 24.71±11.70° at 24 months postoperative.
There have been no special complications regarding the expandable cage during the follow-up period and the results of this study demonstrates a high fusion rate and clinical success.
Expandable cage; Degeneration; Interbody fusion; Lumbar spine
To test the hypothesis that chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) enlarges by the causative factors, this study has performed.
Materials and Methods
In 10 patients with CSDH, coagulation factors in venous blood taken at the time of surgery and hematomic contents aspirated from the CSDH were studied, using both laboratory assays and microscopy.
When compared to the range of normal plasma, the hematoma fluids demonstrated a marked reduction in factor II, V, VII, VIII, and X, moderate reduction of factors IX and XI, and slight reduction of factor XII. Activated protein C and antithrombin III levels were decreased. The FDP (Fibrinogen Degradation Product) levels in chronic subdural hematoma were extremely high. The endothelial cells of the macrocapillaries (also called "sinusoid") showed numerous gap junctions between adjacent endothelial cells and a thinness or absence of the basement membrane, suggesting that the macrocapillaries are very fragile and susceptible to bleeding.
Excessive coagulation in the hematoma, predominantly via the extrinsic clotting pathway, local hyperfibrinolysis, transmitted pulsations, and characteristics of the macrocapillaries play an important role in the leakage of blood and the enlargement of CSDH.
Chronic subdural hematoma; coagulation; hyperfibrinolysis; transmitted pulsation; macrocapillary