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1.  Using a Reconstruction Locking Compression Plate as External Fixator in Infected Open Clavicle Fracture 
Orthopedic Reviews  2013;5(2):e11.
Open clavicle fracture is an uncommon injury mostly caused by severe direct trauma. It is often associated with multiple organ injuries. Generally, surgical intervention with debridement and fracture repair is always indicated in order to prevent infection, non-union, and malalignment. In situations of bony exposure and significant contamination concomitant with severe soft tissue damage, the external fixation is the treatment of choice because of the possibility it offers of providing stable fixation with minimal local tissue damage resulting in excellent union rates and better soft tissue outcome. Nevertheless, traditional external fixation encountered some potential problems as its bulkiness and sharp edges caused discomfort to the patient. In this study, we present an interesting case of a polytraumatized patient with a gunshot injury with complex open clavicle fracture that was successfully treated with external fixation using reconstruction with a locking compression plate as definitive treatment.
doi:10.4081/or.2013.e11
PMCID: PMC3718235  PMID: 23888201
open clavicle fracture; LCP external fixation; damage control surgery
2.  Anteromedial Marginal Fracture of Medial Tibial Plateau without Significant Knee Ligamentous Injury in Hypermobility Patient: a Case Report and Review of Literature 
Orthopedic Reviews  2013;5(2):e12.
Anteromedial rim fracture of medial tibial plateau is a rare fracture pattern with only a small number of case reports in the literature. However, it is highly likely that is associated with specific significant soft tissue injuries, especially posterior and posterolateral corner structure, and medial meniscus injury. It is thought this fracture is caused by hyperextension and varus rotation mechanism. The previous reports highlight the typical pattern of severe concomitant knee ligament injury associated with this fracture that always require surgical repair to restore knee stability and function. In this report, we present an unusual case with a history of generalized joint laxity and acute anteromedial marginal fracture of medial tibial plateau without associated significant ligament damage, together with a literature review of this condition. We believe this case report introduces new insights into this unique fracture pattern.
doi:10.4081/or.2013.e12
PMCID: PMC3718236  PMID: 23888202
anteromedial marginal fracture; rim fracture; impingement fracture; anterior part medial plateau fracture; compression fracture
3.  Dear Editor of Asian Spinal Journal 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(3):220.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.3.220
PMCID: PMC3429617  PMID: 22977706
4.  Lumbopelvic alignment on standing lateral radiograph of adult volunteers and the classification in the sagittal alignment of lumbar spine 
European Spine Journal  2010;20(5):706-712.
The analysis of the sagittal balance is important for the understanding of the lumbopelvic biomechanics. Results from previous studies documented the correlation between sacro-pelvic orientation and lumbar lordosis and a uniqueness of spino-pelvic alignment in an individual person. This study was subjected to determine the lumbopelvic orientation using pelvic radius measurement technique. The standing lateral radiographs in a standardized standing position were taken from 100 healthy volunteers. The measurements which included hip axis (HA), pelvic radius (PR), pelvic angle (PA), pelvic morphology (PR-S1), sacral translation distance (HA-S1), total lumbosacral lordosis (T12-S1), total lumbopelvic lordosis (PR-T12) and regional lumbopelvic lordosis angles (PR-L2, PR-L4 and PR-L5) were carried out with two independent observers. The relationships between the parameters were as follows. PR-S1 demonstrated positive correlation to regional lumbopelvic lordosis and revealed negative correlation to T12-S1. PA showed negative correlation to PR-S1 and regional lumbopelvic lordosis, but revealed positive correlation to HA-S1. T12-S1 was significantly increased when PR-S1 was lesser than average (35°–45°) and was significantly decreased when PR-S1 was above the average. PR-L4 and PR-L5 were significantly reduced when PR-S1 was smaller than average and only PR-L5 was significantly increased when PR-S1 was above the average. In conclusion, this present study supports that lumbar spine and pelvis work together in order to maintain lumbopelvic balance.
doi:10.1007/s00586-010-1626-0
PMCID: PMC3082671  PMID: 21107987
Pelvic radius technique; Pelvic morphology; Lumbosacral lordosis; Sagittal balance
5.  The correlation between the sagittal lumbopelvic alignments in standing position and the risk factors influencing low back pain 
Orthopedic Reviews  2012;4(1):e11.
Low back pain (LBP) is the most common health problem. Many factors have been demonstrated to be fundamental risk factors of LBP such as body mass index (BMI), age and sex. However, so far there have been few studies demonstrating the association between lumbo-pelvic alignment (LPA) and these factors. This present study was aimed to clarify the correlation between the LPA and the risk factors contributing to LBP. Standing lateral X-rays were taken from 100 healthy volunteers (70 males and 30 females) with no history of low back pain before their participation. Average age of subjects was 33.3±6.8 years (rang 21–50). Mean body weight was 59.1±7.9kg (range 40–82), mean body height was 163.6±7.2 cm (range 145–178) and mean BMI was 22.1±2.4 kg/m2 (range 18.0–29.3). The LPA was classified into 3 types according to the recently proposed pelvic orientation guidelines. No direct correlation was found between the pelvic orientation and age or BMI. Each LPA type was associated with sex but not BMI and age (P=0.00, 0.71, and 0.36, respectively). The results from this study demonstrated the differences in LPA between male and female, and also confirmed that the sagittal orientation of the pelvis remained constant in adults. The high prevalence of LPA type 1 in males may reduce the occurrence of LBP in obese male individuals.
doi:10.4081/or.2012.e11
PMCID: PMC3348686  PMID: 22577499
pelvic morphology; lumbar lordosis; sagittal spinal alignments; low back pain; risk factors.
6.  Treatment of Acute Tuberculous Spondylitis by the Spinal Shortening Osteotomy: A Technical Notes and Case Illustrations 
Asian Spine Journal  2011;5(4):237-244.
Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis is necessary in particular cases that a large amount of necrotic tissue is encountered and there is spinal cord compression. A spinal shortening osteotomy procedure has previously been described for the correction of the sagittal balance in a late kyphotic deformity, but there have been no reports on this as a surgical treatment in the acute stage. Thus, the aim of this report is to present the surgical techniques and clinical results of 3 patients who were treated with this procedure. Three patients with tuberculous spondylitis at the thoracic spine were surgically treated with this procedure. All the patients presented with severe progressive back pain, kyphotic deformity and neurological deficit. The patients recovered uneventfully from surgery without further neurological deterioration. Their pain was improved and the patients remained free of pain during the follow-up period. In conclusion, posterior spinal shortening osteotomy is an alternative method for the management of tuberculous spondylitis.
doi:10.4184/asj.2011.5.4.237
PMCID: PMC3230651  PMID: 22164318
Tuberculosis; TB spine; Shortening osteotomy; Surgical treatment
7.  A genetic association study between growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF 5) polymorphism and knee osteoarthritis in Thai population 
Objective
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multi-factorial disease and genetic factor is one of the important etiologic risk factors. Various genetic polymorphisms have been elucidated that they might be associated with OA. Recently, several studies have shown an association between Growth Differentiation Factor 5(GDF5) polymorphism and knee OA. However, the role of genetic predisposing factor in each ethnic group cannot be replicated to all, with conflicting data in the literatures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between GDF5 polymorphism and knee OA in Thai population.
Materials and Methods
One hundred and ninety three patients aged 54-88 years who attended Ramathibodi Hospital were enrolled. Ninety cases with knee OA according to American College of Rheumatology criteria and one hundred and three cases in control group gave informed consent. Blood sample (5 ml) were collected for identification of GDF5 (rs143383) single nucleotide polymorphism by PCR/RFLP according to a standard protocol. This study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee on human experimentation of Ramathibodi Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the risk of knee OA by genotype (TT, TC and CC) and allele (T/C) analyses.
Results
The baseline characteristics between two groups including job, smoking and activity were not different, except age and BMI. The entire cases and controls were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p > 0.05). The OA knee group (n = 90) had genotypic figure which has shown by TT 42.2% (n = 38), TC 45.6% (n = 41) and CC 12% (n = 11), whereas the control group (n = 103) revealed TT 32% (n = 33), TC 45.6% (n = 47), and CC 22.3% (n = 23), respectively. Genotypic TT increased risk of knee OA as compared to CC [OR = 2.41 (P = 0.04, 95%CI = 1.02-5.67)]. In the allele analysis, the T allele was found to be significantly associated with knee OA [OR = 1.53 (P = 0.043, 95%CI = 1.01-2.30)].
Conclusion
These data suggested that GDF5 polymorphism has an association with knee OA in Thai ethnic. This finding also supports the hypothesis that OA has an important genetic component in its etiology, and GDF5 protein might play important role in the pathophysiology of the disease.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-6-47
PMCID: PMC3189142  PMID: 21936909
Osteoarthritis; Growth Differentiation Factor 5; GDF5; SNP; RFLP; Thais
8.  Reliability and validity of an adapted Thai version of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire 
Purpose
The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire is a widely accepted questionnaire used to assess the health-related quality of life for scoliosis patients in the United States. However, its adaptation in other languages is necessary for its multinational use. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of an adapted Thai version of the SRS-22 questionnaire.
Methods
An expert committee performed translation/retranslation of the English version of the SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as a cross-cultural adaptation process. Later, SRS-22 questionnaires and previously validated Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) outcome instruments were given to patients treated for idiopathic scoliosis with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. Internal consistency and reproducibility were determined by Cronbach’s alpha statistics and the intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively. Concurrent validity was measured by comparing SRS-22 results with a previously validated questionnaire (SF-36v2). Measurement was made using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r).
Results
The study showed satisfactory internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha values for all of the corresponding domains (pain, 0.72; self-image/appearance, 0.87; mental health, 0.83; satisfaction with management, 0.63; and function/activity, 0.83). The test–retest reproducibility was also excellent or good for all domains (pain, 0.72; self-image/appearance, 0.85; mental health, 0.82; satisfaction, 0.62; and function/activity, 0.81). For concurrent validity, excellent correlation was found in two domains, good in six domains, moderate in five domains, and poor in five domains of the 18 relevant domains.
Conclusions
The Thai version of the SRS-22 outcome instrument has satisfactory internal consistency, excellent reproducibility, and acceptable validity.
doi:10.1007/s11832-010-0312-4
PMCID: PMC3024488  PMID: 21415942
Idiopathic scoliosis; Thai adaptation; Questionnaire; Outcome; SRS-22
9.  Reliability and validity of an adapted Thai version of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire 
Purpose
The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire is a widely accepted questionnaire used to assess the health-related quality of life for scoliosis patients in the United States. However, its adaptation in other languages is necessary for its multinational use. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of an adapted Thai version of the SRS-22 questionnaire.
Methods
An expert committee performed translation/retranslation of the English version of the SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as a cross-cultural adaptation process. Later, SRS-22 questionnaires and previously validated Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) outcome instruments were given to patients treated for idiopathic scoliosis with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. Internal consistency and reproducibility were determined by Cronbach’s alpha statistics and the intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively. Concurrent validity was measured by comparing SRS-22 results with a previously validated questionnaire (SF-36v2). Measurement was made using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r).
Results
The study showed satisfactory internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha values for all of the corresponding domains (pain, 0.72; self-image/appearance, 0.87; mental health, 0.83; satisfaction with management, 0.63; and function/activity, 0.83). The test–retest reproducibility was also excellent or good for all domains (pain, 0.72; self-image/appearance, 0.85; mental health, 0.82; satisfaction, 0.62; and function/activity, 0.81). For concurrent validity, excellent correlation was found in two domains, good in six domains, moderate in five domains, and poor in five domains of the 18 relevant domains.
Conclusions
The Thai version of the SRS-22 outcome instrument has satisfactory internal consistency, excellent reproducibility, and acceptable validity.
doi:10.1007/s11832-010-0312-4
PMCID: PMC3024488  PMID: 21415942
Idiopathic scoliosis; Thai adaptation; Questionnaire; Outcome; SRS-22
10.  Cervical neurofibromatosis with quadriparesis: Management by fibular strut graft 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(1):95-97.
This is a case report of an eight-year old boy with neurofibromatosis and a 120° dystrophic kyphosis of the cervical spine. He presented with progressive quadriparesis caused by spondyloptosis of the C2/C3, and was successfully treated by skull traction and one-stage anterior fibular strut graft lying between the tubercle of the atlas through the C2 body slot and lower vertebrae. At seven years follow-up there was, loosening of lower vertebral screws which allowed growth and residual mobility of lower vertebral joints while the fusion of upper cervical spines was still solid.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.54968
PMCID: PMC2822428  PMID: 20165684
Cervical kyphosis; cervical spondyloptosis; cervical neurofibromatosis; fibular strut graft
11.  The evaluation of short fusion in idiopathic scoliosis 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(1):28-34.
Background:
Selective thoracic fusion in type II curve has been recommended by King et al. since 1983. They suggested that care must be taken to use the vertebra that is neutral and stable so that the lower level of fusion is centered over the sacrum. Since then there has been the trend to do shorter and selective fusion of the major curve. This study was conducted to find out whether short posterior pedicle instrumentation alone could provide efficient correction and maintain trunk balance comparing to the anterior instrumentation.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective study was conducted during 2005-2007 on 39 consecutive cases with idiopathic scoliosis cases King 2 and 3 (Lenke 1A, 1B), 5C and miscellaneous. Only the major curve was instrumented unless both curves were equally rigid and of the same magnitude. The level of fusion was planned as the end vertebra (EVB) to EVB fusion, although minor adjustment was modified by the surgeons intraoperatively. The most common fusion levels in major thoracic curves were T6–T12, whereas the most common fusion levels in the thoraco-lumbar curves were T10–L3. Fusion was performed from the posterior only approach and the implants utilized were uniformly plate and pedicle screw system. All the patients were followed at least 2 years till skeletal maturity. The correction of the curve were assessed according to type of curve (lenke IA, IB and 5), severity of curve (less than 450, 450-890 and more than 900), age at surgery (14 or less and 15 or more) and number of the segment involved in instrumentation (fusion level less than curve, fusion level as of the curve and fusion more than the curve)
Results:
The average long-term curve correction for the thoracic was 40.4% in Lenke 1A, 52.2% in Lenke 1B and 56.3% in Lenke 5. The factors associated with poorer outcome were younger age at surgery (<11 years or Risser 0), fusion at wrong levels (shorter than the measured end vertebra) and rigid curve identified by bending study. However, all patients had significant improved trunk balance and coronal hump at the final assessment at maturity. Two patients underwent late extension fusion because of junctional scoliosis.
Conclusions:
With modern instrumentations, the EVB of the major curve can be used at the end of the instrumentation in most cases of idiopathic scoliosis. In those cases with either severe trunk shift, younger than 11 years old, or extreme rigid curve, an extension of one or more levels might be safer. In particular situations, the concept of centering the lowest vertebra over the sacrum should be adopted.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.58603
PMCID: PMC2822416  PMID: 20165674
Idiopathic scoliosis; short fusion; selective posterior fusion; pedicle screw and plate fixation

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