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1.  An Unusual Presentation of Oral Mucocele in Infant and Its Review 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2014;2014:723130.
Mucocele is a benign lesion characterized by an extravasation or retention of mucous in submucosal tissue from minor salivary glands. Mucoceles are known to occur most commonly on the lower lip, followed by the floor of mouth and buccal mucosa being the next most frequent sites. Trauma and lip biting habits are the main cause for these types of lesions. Mucocele is a common oral mucosal lesion but it is rarely observed in the infant. This paper highlights the successful management of a rare case of mucocele in an 11-month-old child. Diagnosis and management of mucocele are challenging. For this reason we felt it would be interesting to review the clinical characteristics, histological features, differential diagnosis, and their treatment and evolution in order to aid decision-making in daily clinical practice.
doi:10.1155/2014/723130
PMCID: PMC4158468  PMID: 25215249
2.  Portal hypertension: A critical appraisal of shunt procedures with emphasis on distal splenorenal shunt in children 
Background:
Extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) is the most common cause of pediatric portal hypertension. We analyzed the investigative protocol and results of portosystemic shunts in this group of patients.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 40 consecutive children aged below 12 years operated with a diagnosis of extra-hepatic portal hypertension formed the study group. Historical data and clinical data were collected. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, ultrasound Doppler and computed tomographic portogram pre-operatively and post-operatively. Results with respect to shunt patency, hypersplenism and efficacy of different radiological investigations were collected.
Results:
A total of 40 patients, 28 boys and 12 girls constituted the study group. Lienorenal shunt (LRS) was performed in 14 patients; distal splenorenal shunt in 21 patients and side-to-side lienorenal shunt in 4 patients, inferior mesenteric renal shunt was performed in 1 patient. Follow-up ranged from 36 to 70 months. At a minimum follow-up of 3 years, 32 (80%) patients were found to have patent shunts. Patent shunts could be visualized in 30/32 patients with computer tomographic portogram (CTP) and 28/32 with ultrasound. Varices regressed completely in 26/32 patients and in the rest incomplete regression was seen. Spleen completely regressed in 19/25 patients. Hypersplenism resolved in all patients with patent shunts.
Conclusions:
Portosystemic shunting in children with EHPVO is a viable option. While long-term cure rates are comparable with sclerotherapy, repeated hospital visits are reduced with one time surgery. Pre-operative and post-operative assessment can be performed with complimentary use of ultrasound, CTP and endoscopy.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.129599
PMCID: PMC3983772  PMID: 24741210
Computer tomographic portogram; distal spleno-renal shunt; endoscopic sclerotherapy; extra-hepatic portal hypertension; extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction; hypersplenism; lieno-renal shunt
3.  Correlation of intracystic pressure with cyst volume, length of common channel, biochemical changes in bile and histopathological changes in liver in choledochal cyst 
Aims:
This study was undertaken to establish correlation between intracholedochal cystic pressure (ICCP) with biochemical changes in bile, liver histology, cyst wall histology, length of common channel, and cyst volume.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, ICCP was measured after surgical access before any mobilization by direct cyst cannulation. Bile was then aspirated for biochemical estimation (bilirubin, amylase, lipase, pH, and electrolytes). Common channel length and cyst volume were determined by preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Liver histology was assessed under parenchymal, bile duct, and portal parameters. Cyst wall was examined for ulceration, inflammation, fibrosis, and metaplasia.
Results:
ICCP was recorded in 31 patients; mean and median ICCP were 15.64 and 14 mmHg, respectively (range = 6-30 mmHg). Cases with median ICCP < 14 had median cyst volume of 48 cc (range = 36-115) and amylase 2052 IU/L (range = 190-5052) whereas those with ICCP ≥ 15 had volume of 20 cc (range = 10-100) (P = 0.004) and amylase 36 IU/L (range = 0-2806) (P = 0.0004) suggesting inverse correlation. No significant correlation was found with bilirubin and electrolytes. ICCP directly correlated with parenchymal changes like hepatocellular damage (P = 0.002) and cholestasis (P = 0.001). It also correlated with bile duct changes. ICCP inversely correlated with cyst wall changes (P = 0.003, 0.0001, 0.023, 0.0013, respectively). High pressure cysts had normal pancreaticobiliary junction.
Conclusion:
High-pressure cysts tend to be smaller but have more severe backpressure changes in liver parenchyma. Low-pressure cysts have high volume and higher levels of amylase and lipase and therefore have more severe cyst wall changes.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.125946
PMCID: PMC3935293  PMID: 24604978
Choledochal cyst; cyst wall histology; intra choledochal cystic pressure; liver histology; long common channel
4.  Benign papillomatosis of common bile duct in children: A rare case report 
In children benign neoplasms are rare events in the extrahepatic biliary ducts and scanty literary references on the subject are available. We are reporting a rare case of a 3-year-old female child having biliary papillomatosis in lower common bile duct.
doi:10.4103/0971-9261.125966
PMCID: PMC3935301  PMID: 24604985
Extrahepatic biliary papillomatosis; lower common bile duct; polyp
5.  Left-sided Gastroschisis: A Rare Congenital Anomaly 
In gastroschisis, the defect in the abdominal wall is located almost always to the right of the umbilicus. Left-sided gastroschisis is a very rare entity. A case of left sided gastroschisis has been described here, with review of literature.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/6161.3505
PMCID: PMC3843467  PMID: 24298510
Gastroschisis; Left sided
6.  Ceftriaxone-induced hemolysis 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2013;45(5):530-531.
Immune hemolytic anemia is a rare adverse effect of ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, which is a commonly used antibiotic. We describe a 60-years-old lady, a case of community-acquired pneumonia, who developed severe hemolysis after the first dose of ceftriaxone. Her hemoglobin dropped from 9.6 g /dl to 5.5 g /dl. However, she improved after discontinuation of the drug and blood transfusion. This report serves as a reminder to medical fraternity that life-threatening hemolysis can rarely follow administration of ceftriaxone.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.117758
PMCID: PMC3793531  PMID: 24130395
ADRs; ceftriaxone; hemolysis
8.  Derivative 11;22 (Emanuel) Syndrome: A Case Report and A Review 
Case Reports in Pediatrics  2013;2013:237935.
Emanuel syndrome (ES) is a rare anomaly characterized by a distinctive phenotype, consisting of characteristic facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, severe mental retardation, developmental delay, renal anomalies, congenital cardiac defects, and genital anomalies in boys. Here, we report a male neonate, with the classical features of Emanuel syndrome.
doi:10.1155/2013/237935
PMCID: PMC3652044  PMID: 23691404
9.  Tourniquets in orthopedic surgery 
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.106939
PMCID: PMC3601226  PMID: 23533297
10.  Evaluation of Role of Anterior Debridement and Decompression of Spinal Cord and Instrumentation in Treatment of Tubercular Spondylitis 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(3):183-193.
Study Design
Prospective study with simple randomization.
Purpose
To evaluate the results of anterior spinal instrumentation, debridement and decompression of cord and compare it with results of a similar procedure done without the use of anterior instrumentation.
Overview of Literature
Use of anterior spinal instrumentation in treatment of tubercular spondylitis is still an infrequently followed modality of treatment and data regarding its usefulness are still emerging.
Methods
Thirty-two patients of tubercular paraplegia with involvement of dorsal and dorso-lumbar vertebrae were operated with anterior spinal cord decompression, autofibular strut grafting with anterior instrumentation in 18 patients and no implant in 14 patients. Results were compared on the basis of improvement in Frankel grade, correction of local kyphosis, decrease in canal compromise and further progression of kyphosis.
Results
The mean local kyphosis correction in the immediate postoperative period was 24.1° in the instrumented group and was 6.1° in the non instrumented group. The mean late loss of correction of local kyphosis at 3 years follow-up was 1.7° in the instrumented and 6.7° in the non instrumented group. The mean improvement in canal compression was 39.5% in the instrumented group and 34.8% in the non instrumented group.
Conclusions
In treatment of tubercular spondylitis by anterior debridement and decompression of the spinal cord and autofibular strut grafting, the use of instrumentation has no relation with the improvement in neurological status, however the correction of local kyphosis and prevention of further progression of local kyphosis was better with the use anterior spinal instrumentation.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.3.183
PMCID: PMC3429609  PMID: 22977698
Tuberculosis; Instrumentation; Kyphosis; Paraplegia
11.  Ectomychorrizal DB: a symbiotic association database 
Bioinformation  2012;8(2):104-106.
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species, a “Symbiotic” relationship between tress and fungi in forest has a great ecological and economic importance. Here is an attempt to describe database named “EctomycorrhizalDB”, addressing ECM diversity of Central Himalaya (Kumaun region), with special emphasis on their characterization, physical properties and morphological features along with specifications. This database would help the scientific community to draw a better understanding of the environmental factors that affects species diversity.
Availability
The database is available for free at http://www.kubic.nic.in/ectomychorhiza
PMCID: PMC3282265  PMID: 22359444
Ectomycorrhiza; fungi; Himalayan; HTML; Pubmed; Real time; Database; MeSH; Symbiotic
12.  Diagnostic Dilemma in an Unusual Case of Common Bile Duct Obstruction 
Gut and Liver  2011;5(2):245-247.
Biliary obstructions are rarely caused by a foreign body and have received sparse attention. We present an unusual case with pruritis and abdominal pain caused by impacted full length surgical gauze within the common bile duct. The patient had previously undergone an open cholecystectomy. Radiological investigations were inconclusive and suggestive of either a calculus or a cholangiocarcinoma. Surgical exploration revealed full length surgical gauze within the common bile duct. Because imaging modalities are often non-determinant, the possibility of biliary tract obstruction from a foreign body should be borne in mind for patients with unusual presentations, especially those who have previously undergone surgery.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2011.5.2.245
PMCID: PMC3140675  PMID: 21814610
Foreign body; Bile duct obstruction
13.  Comparative evaluation of 18F-FDOPA, 13N-AMMONIA, 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in primary brain tumors - A pilot study 
Aim:
To determine the diagnostic reliability of 18F-FDOPA, 13N-Ammonia and 18F-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors and comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Materials and Methods:
A total of 23 patients, 8 preoperative and 15 postoperative, undergoing evaluation for primary brain tumors were included in this study. Of them, 9/15 were operated for high grade gliomas (7/9 astrocytomas and 2/9 oligodendrogliomas) and 6/15 for low grade gliomas (5/6 astrocytomas and 1/6 oligodendroglioma). After PET study, 2 of 8 preoperative cases were histopathologically proven to be of benign etiology. 3 low grade and 2 high grade postoperative cases were disease free on 6 months follow-up. Tracer uptake was quantified by standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the SUV max ratio of tumor to normal symmetrical area of contra lateral hemisphere (T/N). 18F-FDOPA uptake was also quantified by SUVmax ratio of tumor to striatum (T/S). Conventional MR studies were done in all patients.
Results:
Both high-grade and low-grade tumors were well visualized with 18F-FDOPA PET. Sensitivity of 18F-FDOPA PET was substantially higher (6/6 preoperative, 3/3 low grade postoperative, 7/7 high grade postoperative) than with 18F-FDG (3/6 preoperative, 1/3 low grade postoperative, 3/7 high grade postoperative) and 13N-Ammonia PET (2/6 preoperative, 1/3 low grade postoperative, 1/7 high grade postoperative). FDOPA was equally specific as FDG and Ammonia PET in operated cases but was falsely positive in two preoperative cases. Sensitivity of FDOPA (16/16) was more than MRI (13/16).
Conclusion:
18F-FDG uptake correlates with tumor grade. Though 18F-FDOPA PET cannot distinguish between tumor grade, it is more reliable than 18F-FDG and 13N-Ammonia PET for evaluating brain tumors. 18F-FDOPA PET may prove to be superior to MRI in evaluating recurrence and residual tumor tissue. 13N-Ammonia PET did not show any encouraging results.
doi:10.4103/0972-3919.90256
PMCID: PMC3237222  PMID: 22174511
13N-Ammonia; 18F-FDG; 18F-FDOPA; brain tumors; MRI; PET; sensitivity

Results 1-13 (13)