The authors report a 58-year-old woman with low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma primarily located in the right paravertebral area with extension to L4 neural foramen. The patient complained lower back pain with radiating pain along the posterolateral aspect of the right lower leg. She underwent subtotal surgical removal and Cyber Knife therapy. Diagnosis was made by strikingly characteristic microscopic appearance of a bland spindle cell sarcoma which contained numerous giant collagen rosettes and was also supported by immunohistological findings. The diagnostic image findings and literatures are reviewed and discussed.
Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma; MRI; Cyber Knife therapy
The cranioplasty and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation have been used to treat a large cranial defect with posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH). The aim of this study was to evlauate the difference of outcomes between in the shunting after the cranioplasty (group 1) and the cranioplasty after the shunting (group 2) in a large flaccid cranial defect with PTH.
In this study, a retrospective review was done on 23 patients undergoing the cranioplasty and VP shunt operation after the decompressive craniectomy for a refractory intracranial hypertension from 2002 to 2005. All of 23 cases had a large flaccid concave cranial defect and PTH. Ten cases belong to group 1 and 13 cases to group 2. The outcomes after operations were compared in two groups 6 months later.
The improvement of Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was seen in 8 cases (80.0%) of total 10 cases in group 1, and 6 cases (46.2%) of 13 cases in group 2. Three (75.0%) of 4 cases with hemiparesis in group 1 and 3 of 6 cases (50.0%) in group 2 were improved. All cases (2 cases) with decrease of visual acuity were improved in each group. Dysphasia was improved in 3 of 5 cases (60%) in group 1 and 4 of 6 cases (66.6%) in group 2.
These results suggest that outcomes in group 1 may be better than in group 2 for a large flaccid concave cranial defect with PTH.
Large flaccid concave cranial defect; Cranioplasty; Shunt
To test the hypothesis that chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) enlarges by the causative factors, this study has performed.
Materials and Methods
In 10 patients with CSDH, coagulation factors in venous blood taken at the time of surgery and hematomic contents aspirated from the CSDH were studied, using both laboratory assays and microscopy.
When compared to the range of normal plasma, the hematoma fluids demonstrated a marked reduction in factor II, V, VII, VIII, and X, moderate reduction of factors IX and XI, and slight reduction of factor XII. Activated protein C and antithrombin III levels were decreased. The FDP (Fibrinogen Degradation Product) levels in chronic subdural hematoma were extremely high. The endothelial cells of the macrocapillaries (also called "sinusoid") showed numerous gap junctions between adjacent endothelial cells and a thinness or absence of the basement membrane, suggesting that the macrocapillaries are very fragile and susceptible to bleeding.
Excessive coagulation in the hematoma, predominantly via the extrinsic clotting pathway, local hyperfibrinolysis, transmitted pulsations, and characteristics of the macrocapillaries play an important role in the leakage of blood and the enlargement of CSDH.
Chronic subdural hematoma; coagulation; hyperfibrinolysis; transmitted pulsation; macrocapillary
This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year.
The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different.
In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.
Herniated intervertebral disc; adolescent; prevalence; conscription
To assess the therapeutic value of two different drainage catheters in treating chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH).
Materials and Methods
Two types of drainage catheters can be used to treat CSDH according to the position of holes in the catheter: open-type or closed-type catheter. In this retrospective study, 199 total patients with CSDH were reviewed according to catheter type. Among them, 84 patients were and 113 in the closed-type group (holes positioned within the distal-most 1 cm of the catheter). The surgeon selected the catheter type. Total drainage volume, initial drainage volume within 2 days, percentage of initial drainage volume per total drainage volume, duration of catheter insertion, and reoperation rate were compared.
Total drainage volume was not different between the two groups (p=0.333). The initial drainage volume within 2 days was larger in the open-type group than closed-type group (p=0.024), but the percentage of initial drainage volume per total drainage volume was not different (p=0.354). The duration of catheter insertion was shorter in the open-type group than closed-type group (p=0.015). The reoperation rate of CSDH was also higher in the open-type group than closed-type group (p=0.004).
CSDH drainage with an open-type catheter is faster compared with a closed-type catheter, but total drainage volume is similar and reoperation rate is higher. Therefore, the open-type catheter for CSDH drainage has limited clinical value.
Chronic subdural hematoma; catheter; drainage
There is no report about psychopathological effect causing by disc herniation. The disease could impose psychopathological influence on the social life, the treatment period, and response to the treatment. This study was to evaluate retrospectively the psychopathological influence of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) among Korean 19-year-old males.
Materials and Methods
We compared the Korean military multiphasic personality inventory (KMPI) profiles of 74 LDH cases with the KMPI profiles of 150 controls. The LDH groups were categorized to 2 groups according to the presence of thecal sac compression by disc materials, and evaluated the relation between the KMPI and LDH.
The decrease of the faking-good response scale and increase of the faking-bad response scale were observed more in the LDH group than in the normal volunteer group (p<0.05). The neurosis set such as anxiety, depression and somatization was markedly increased in the LDH group compared to the normal volunteers group (p<0.05). The scale of personality disorder was also increased more in the LDH group (p=0.002). The differences of KMPI scales were not correlated with the severe pathology of LDH.
Young male with LDH may tend to have more abnormal results of multiphasic personality inventory test compared to the normal volunteers, suggesting that LDH may be related to the psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate and treat the psychopathological aspects in patients with LDH.
Lumbar disc herniation; multiphasic personal inventory; psychopathology; lumbar disc herniation; conscription
There are few published studies which have documented psychopathological abnormalities in patients with of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of AIS in Korean 19-year-old males.
The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 105 AIS cases (more than 10 degrees of Cobb's angle without surgical treatment) with the KMPI profiles of 108 normal controls. The AIS group was split depending on Cobb's angle to further evaluate this relation by the severity of AIS.
A significantly decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an significantly increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.012). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were significantly increased in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.010). The severity level of personality disorder and schizophrenia were also significantly increased in the AIS group (p<0.010). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to the severity of AIS.
Young males with AIS tend to have abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test compared to normal volunteers, suggesting that AIS may be related to psychopathology in the young male group in Korea. Although these psychopathology in AIS were differently observed compared to normal controls, but not interfered with military life. Clinicians are recommended to pay attention the psychopathological traits of patients with AIS.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Multiphasic personal inventory; Psychopathology; Korea; Conscription
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of chest radiographs in scoliosis screening and to compare these results with those of thoraco-lumbar standing radiographs (TLSR).
Materials and Methods
During Korean conscription, 419 males were retrospectively examined using both chest radiographs and TLSR to confirm the scoliosis and Cobb angle at the Regional Military Manpower. We compared the types of spinal curves and Cobb angles as measured from different radiographs.
In the pattern of spinal curves, the overall matching rate of chest radiographs using TLSR was about 58.2% (244 of 419 cases). Cobb angle differences between chest radiographs and TLSR with meaningful difference was observed in 156 cases (37.2%); a relatively high proportion (9.5%) of Cobb angle differences more than 10 degrees was also observed. The matching rate of both spinal curve types and Cobb angle accuracy between chest radiographs and TLSR was 27.9% (117 among 419 cases). Chest radiographs for scoliosis screening were observed with 93.94% of sensitivity and 61.67% of specificity in thoracic curves; however, less than 40% of sensitivity (38.27%, 20.00%, and 25.80%) and more than 95% of specificity (97.34%, 99.69%, and 98.45%) were observed in thoraco-lumbar, lumbar, and double major curves, respectively.
The accuracy of chest radiographs for scoliosis screening was low. The incidence of thoracic curve scoliosis was overestimated and lumbar curve scoliosis was easily missed by chest radiography. Scoliosis screening using chest radiography has limited values, nevertheless, it is useful method for detecting thoracic curve scoliosis.
Scoliosis; screening; chest radiographs; thoraco-lumbar standing radiographs
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Korean 19-year-old males.
Materials and Methods
The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 211 CHD cases (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, or combined CHD) with the KMPI profiles of 300 normal controls. The CHD group was also divided according to whether or not the subjects had undergone open cardiac surgery in order to evaluate the psychopathological effects of an operation among the subjects.
A decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were markedly increased in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The severity level of personality disorder was also increased in the CHD group (p<0.001). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to open cardiac surgery history.
In this study, young males with CHD tended to report more abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test in comparison to normal subjects, suggesting that CHD may be related to psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate the psychopathological traits of patients with CHD.
Congenital heart disease; multiphasic personal inventory; psychopathology; Korea; conscription
Cervical lateral mass screw insertion and rod fixation is a useful method for stabilizing the cervical disease, so various modified techniques were present. Many surgeons had reported the biomechanical safety according to the screw positioning method in the cervical spine, but the modified Magerl's method (Yoon's method) was not well studied. So, this study assessed the radiological efficacy of the modified Magerl's method with long-term follow-up.
This study retrospectively reviewed 323 lateral mass screws of 50 patients who had followed-up at least 2 years. Radiologic data were analyzed as parameters of complications after operation, including kyphotic or lordotic change, bone fusion, pull-out or malposition of screw, foraminal stenosis, adjacent disc degeneration or aggravation, pseudoarthrosis, and vertebral artery injury.
The mean follow-up period was 32 (24 to 52) months. There were kyphotic changes in 4.0%(2 of 50 cases). Unsuccessful bone fusion occurred in 4.0%(2 of 50 cases). Among the 323 screws, screw pull-out (4.0%. 2 of 50cases, 3 of 323 screws), foraminal invasion (1.2% of total screws), and facet injury (0.6% of total screws) occurred.
The lateral mass screw insertion and rod fixation by the modified Magerl's method (Yoon's method) is a safe and reliable technique with low rate of complication related to instruments in minimum 2 years follow-up.
Spinal fusion; Radiological assessment; Modified Magerl's method; Yoon's method; Long-term follow-up
To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males.
We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple lumbar radiographs, lumbar computed tomography, and magnetic resolutional images), and the severity of lumbar disc herniation was categorized according to the guidelines issued by the Korean military directorate. We calculated the relationship between the back pain questionnaire scores and the severity of lumbar disc herniation.
The scores of back pain questionnaires increased according to the severity of lumbar disc herniation. But, the range of scores was very vague, so it is less predictable to detect lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires. The sensitivity between the back pain questionnaires and the presence of lumbar disc herniation was low (16-64%).
Screening of lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires has limited value.
Mass Screening; Intervertebral Disc Displacement; Korea; Low Back Pain; Questionnaires
Prospective, randomized, controlled human study.
We checked the proportion of missed syrinx diagnoses among the examinees of the Korean military conscription.
Overview of Literature
A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord or brain stem and causes various neurological symptoms. A syrinx could easily be diagnosed by magnetic resonance image (MRI), but missed diagnoses seldom occur.
In this study, we reviewed 103 cases using cervical images, cervical MRI, or whole spine sagittal MRI, and syrinxes was observed in 18 of these cases. A review of medical certificates or interviews was conducted, and the proportion of syrinx diagnoses was calculated.
The proportion of syrinx diagnoses was about 66.7% (12 cases among 18). Missed diagnoses were not the result of the length of the syrinx, but due to the type of image used for the initial diagnosis.
The missed diagnosis proportion of the syrinx is relatively high, therefore, a more careful imaging review is recommended.
Syrinx; Diagnosis proportion; Conscription; Korea
The authors surveyed the prevalence and the clinical character of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in Korean male adolescents, and the usefulness of current conscription criteria.
The data of 39,673 nineteen-year-old males that underwent a conscription examination at the Seoul Regional Korean Military Manpower Administration (MMA) from October 2010 to May 2011 were investigated. For those diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, prevalences, subject characteristics, herniation severities, levels of herniation, and modified Korean Oswestry low back pain disability scores by MMA physical grade were evaluated. The analysis was performed using medical certificates, medical records, medical images, and electromyographic and radiologic findings.
The prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60%(237 of the 39,673 study subjects), and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH with thecal sac compression or significant discogenic spinal stenosis was 0.28%(110 of the 39,673 study subjects). Of the 237 adolescent LDH cases, 105 (44.3%) were of single level LDH and 132 (55.7%) were of multiple level LDH, and the L4-5 level was the most severely and frequently affected. Oswestry back pain disability scores increased with herniation severity (p<0.01), and were well correlated with MMA grade.
In this large cohort of 19-year-old Korean males, the prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60% and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH, which requires management, was relatively high at 0.28%. MMA physical grade was confirmed to be a useful measure of the disability caused by LDH.
Lumbar disc herniation; Adolescent; Prevalence; Conscription