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1.  Rationale for the Use of Anticholinergic Agents in Overactive Bladder With Regard to Central Nervous System and Cardiovascular System Side Effects 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(12):806-815.
Central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) side effects of anticholinergic agents used to treat overactive bladder (OAB) are underreported. Hence, this review aimed to focus on the mechanisms of CNS and CVS side effects of anticholinergic drugs used in OAB treatment, which may help urologists in planning the rationale for OAB treatment.
Materials and Methods
PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the key words "OAB," "anticholinergics," "muscarinic receptor selectivity," "blood-brain barrier," "CNS," and "CVS side effects." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search.
CNS and CVS side effects, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, the metabolism of these drugs, and the clinical implications for their use in OAB are presented and discussed in this review.
Trospium, 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine, darifenacin, and solifenacin seem to have favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties with regard to CNS side effects, whereas the pharmacodynamic features of darifenacin, solifenacin, and oxybutynin appear to have an advantage over the other anticholinergic agents (tolterodine, fesoterodine, propiverine, and trospium) with regard to CVS side effects. To determine the real-life situation, head-to-head studies focusing especially on CNS and CVS side effects of OAB anticholinergic agents are urgently needed.
PMCID: PMC3866282  PMID: 24363860
Anticholinergics; Cardiovascular system; Central nervous system; Muscarinic receptors; Overactive bladder
2.  Radiological Analysis of the Triangular Working Zone during Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(2):98-104.
Study Design
Clinical study.
The dimensions of the working zone for endoscopic lumbar discectomy should be evaluated by preoperative magnetic resonance images. The aim of this study was to analyze the angle of the roots, root area, and foraminal area.
Overview of Literature
Few studies have reported on the triangular working zone during transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy. Many risk factors and restrictions for this procedure have been proposed.
Images of 39 patients were analyzed bilaterally at the levels of L3-L4 and L4-L5. Bilateral axial and coronal angles of the roots, root area, and foraminal area were calculated.
No significant difference was observed between the axial angle of the left and right L3 root. A significant difference was found between the axial angle of right and left L4 roots. A significant difference was observed when the coronal angle of the right and left L3 roots were compared, but no significant difference was found when the coronal angle of the right and left L4 roots were compared. No significant difference was observed when the foraminal area of the right and left L3 and L4 roots were compared, but a significant difference was observed when the root area of right and left L3 and L4 roots were compared.
We suggest that these radiological measurements should be obtained for safety reasons before endoscopic discectomy surgery.
PMCID: PMC3372555  PMID: 22708013
Triangular working zone; Endoscopy; Lumbar
3.  Giant Multilocular Cystadenoma of the Prostate: A Rare Cause of Huge Cystic Pelvic Mass 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(3):209-213.
Giant multilocular prostatic cystadenoma is a rare benign tumor that evolves from the prostate gland. Obstructive voiding symptoms occur in all reported cases. These lesions do not invade adjacent structures. Preoperative radiologic evaluation can define the benign nature of the lesion. Here we report a case of large cystic lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging and sonographic findings that caused an extensive mass effect in the pelvis. When retrovesical, huge cystic lesions fill the pelvis completely in young men, with high levels of serum prostate-specific antigen, giant multilocular prostatic cystadenoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case of prostatic cystadenoma reported in the literature.
PMCID: PMC3312072  PMID: 22468219
Cystadenoma; Prostate; Prostatic neoplasms
4.  Adult clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: A case report 
BMC Urology  2006;6:11.
Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) in adults is extremely rare. Optimal treatment of adult patients with CCSK remains unclear.
Case presentation
A 22-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of left flank pain. A color duplex sonography revealed a hypervascular, heterogeneous renal mass. Abdominal and pelvic computerized tomography showed a heterogeneous mass originating from the lower pole of the left kidney and infiltrating to the psoas muscle. Further evaluation including bone scan did not demonstrate any evidence of metastases. A left radical nephrectomy with hilar lymphadenectomy through an intraperitoneal approach with an anterior subcostal incision was performed. The histopathological diagnosis of the mass was a clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. No lymph node metastases were found. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy was performed. Therapy-related serious side effects were not observed. There was no evidence of local recurrence or metastases during the following twenty-four months after therapy.
We believe that the combination therapy is efficacious for preventing the local recurrence and distant metastases. Accurate diagnosis is very important and therapy must also include doxorubicin regardless of the disease stage in adult patients with CCSK.
PMCID: PMC1513593  PMID: 16584570

Results 1-4 (4)