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1.  A novel, visible light-induced, rapidly cross-linkable gelatin scaffold for osteochondral tissue engineering 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4457.
Osteochondral injuries remain difficult to repair. We developed a novel photo-cross-linkable furfurylamine-conjugated gelatin (gelatin-FA). Gelatin-FA was rapidly cross-linked by visible light with Rose Bengal, a light sensitizer, and was kept gelled for 3 weeks submerged in saline at 37°C. When bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) were suspended in gelatin-FA with 0.05% Rose Bengal, approximately 87% of the cells were viable in the hydrogel at 24 h after photo-cross-linking, and the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs was maintained for up to 3 weeks. BMP4 fusion protein with a collagen binding domain (CBD) was retained in the hydrogels at higher levels than unmodified BMP4. Gelatin-FA was subsequently employed as a scaffold for BMSCs and CBD-BMP4 in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. In both cases, the defect was repaired with articular cartilage-like tissue and regenerated subchondral bone. This novel, photo-cross-linkable gelatin appears to be a promising scaffold for the treatment of osteochondral injury.
doi:10.1038/srep04457
PMCID: PMC3964514  PMID: 24662725
2.  Enhanced in vivo osteogenesis by nanocarrier-fused bone morphogenetic protein-4 
Purpose
Bone defects and nonunions are major clinical skeletal problems. Growth factors are commonly used to promote bone regeneration; however, the clinical impact is limited because the factors do not last long at a given site. The introduction of tissue engineering aimed to deter the diffusion of these factors is a promising therapeutic strategy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo osteogenic capability of an engineered bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) fusion protein.
Methods
BMP4 was fused with a nanosized carrier, collagen-binding domain (CBD), derived from fibronectin. The stability of the CBD-BMP4 fusion protein was examined in vitro and in vivo. Osteogenic effects of CBD-BMP4 were evaluated by computer tomography after intramedullary injection without a collagen–sponge scaffold. Recombinant BMP-4, CBD, or vehicle were used as controls. Expressions of bone-related genes and growth factors were compared among the groups. Osteogenesis induced by CBD-BMP4, BMP4, and CBD was also assessed in a bone-defect model.
Results
In vitro, CBD-BMP4 was retained in a collagen gel for at least 7 days while BMP4 alone was released within 3 hours. In vivo, CBD-BMP4 remained at the given site for at least 2 weeks, both with or without a collagen–sponge scaffold, while BMP4 disappeared from the site within 3 days after injection. CBD-BMP4 induced better bone formation than BMP4 did alone, CBD alone, and vehicle after the intramedullary injection into the mouse femur. Bone-related genes and growth factors were expressed at higher levels in CBD-BMP4-treated mice than in all other groups, including BMP4-treated mice. Finally, CBD-BMP4 potentiated more bone formation than did controls, including BMP4 alone, when applied to cranial bone defects without a collagen scaffold.
Conclusion
Altogether, nanocarrier-CBD enhanced the retention of BMP4 in the bone, thereby promoting augmented osteogenic responses in the absence of a scaffold. These results suggest that CBD-BMP4 may be clinically useful in facilitating bone formation.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S44124
PMCID: PMC3626372  PMID: 23630418
BMP4; bone repair; bone tissue engineering; osteogenesis
3.  Motion Induced Artifact Mimicking Cervical Dens Fracture on the CT Scan: A Case Report 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(3):216-218.
The diagnostic performance of helical computed tomography (CT) is excellent. However, some artifacts have been reported, such as motion, beam hardening and scatter artifacts. We herein report a case of motion-induced artifact mimicking cervical dens fracture. A 60-year-old man was involved in a motorcycle accident that resulted in cervical spinal cord injury and quadri plegia. Reconstructed CT images of the cervical spine showed a dens fracture. We assessed axial CT in detail, and motion artifact was detected.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.3.216
PMCID: PMC3429615  PMID: 22977704
Reconstruction; Motion artifact; Mimicking; Cervical fracture

Results 1-3 (3)