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1.  Clinical Comparative Study: Efficacy and Tolerability of Tolperisone and Thiocolchicoside in Acute Low Back Pain and Spinal Muscle Spasticity 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(2):115-122.
Study Design
We performed a multicentric, randomized, comparative clinical trial. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive 150 mg of Tolperisone thrice daily or 8 mg of Thiocolchicoside twice daily for 7 days.
Purpose
To assess the efficacy and tolerability of Tolperisone in comparison with Thiocolchicoside in the treatment of acute low back pain with spasm of spinal muscles.
Overview of Literature
No head on clinical trial of Tolperisone with Thiocolchicoside is available and so this study is done.
Methods
The assessment of muscle spasm was made by measuring the finger-to-floor distance (FFD), articular excursion in degrees on performing Lasegue's maneuver and modified Schober's test. Assessment of pain on movement and spontaneous pain (pain at rest) of the lumbar spine was made with the help of visual analogue scale score.
Results
The improvement in articular excursion on Lasegue's maneuver was significantly greater on day 3 (p = 0.017) and day 7 (p = 0.0001) with Tolperisone as compared to Thiocolchicoside. The reduction in FFD score was greater on day 7 (p = 0.0001) with Tolperisone. However there was no significant difference in improvement in Schober's test score on day 3 (p = 0.664) and day 7 (p = 0.192). The improvement in pain score at rest and on movement was significantly greater with Tolperisone (p = 0.0001).
Conclusions
Tolperisone is an effective and well tolerated option for treatment of patients with skeletal muscle spasm associated with pain.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.2.115
PMCID: PMC3372546  PMID: 22708015
Tolperisone; Thiocolchicoside; Skeletal muscle relaxant; Low back pain; Muscle; Spasm
2.  Primary repair of capsuloligamentous structures of trapeziometacarpal joint: A preliminary study 
Background
Isolated trapezio-metacarpal joint dislocation is uncommon and challenging since controversy still exists regarding its management.
Description
We present a short case series in which direct repair of trapezio-metacarpal ligaments was done in three patients who had isolated, unstable dislocation of the thumb carpometacarpal joint. All of them were engaged in tasks where no compromise in hand functions and grip strength was affordable. The dislocation was addressed primarily by repair of volar oblique and dorsoradial ligaments with suture anchors. The joint was immobilised in a cast for 4 weeks followed by gradual mobilisation.
Results
At an average follow up of 15 months, all the three patients have no restriction in the range of motion. There are no symptoms and signs of instability. In two patients, there is no pain at all; while one patient has occasional pain which is mild and does not interfere with the hand function. Radiographic examination showed normal joint alignment and no signs of subluxation or early osteoarthritis.
Conclusion
Repair of the capsuloligamentous complex with suture anchors may be considered as a treatment option in unstable trapezio-metacarpal joint dislocations in high demand patients.
doi:10.1016/j.jcot.2014.09.009
PMCID: PMC4264062
Carpometacarpal joint; Suture anchors; Dislocation; Ligament
3.  Comparison of conventional MRI and MR arthrography in the evaluation of wrist ligament tears: A preliminary experience 
Aims:
To compare conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography in the evaluation of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and intrinsic wrist ligament tears.
Materials and Methods:
T1-weighted, fat suppressed (FS) proton density plus T2-weighted (FS PD/T2), 3D multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) sequences and direct MR arthrography were performed in 53 patients with wrist pain. Images were evaluated for the presence and location of TFCC, scapholunate ligament (SLL) and lunatotriquetral ligament (LTL) tears, and imaging findings were compared with operative findings in 16 patients who underwent arthroscopy or open surgery (gold standard).
Results:
Sixteen patients underwent arthroscopy/open surgery: 12 TFCC tears were detected arthroscopically out of which 9 were detected on FS PD/T2 sequence, 10 on MEDIC sequence, and all 12 were detected on MR arthrography. The sensitivities of FS PD/T2, MEDIC sequences, and MR arthrography in the detection of TFCC tears were 75%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. Out of the eight arthroscopically confirmed SLL tears, three tears were detected on FS PD/T2 sequence, five on MEDIC sequence, and all eight were visualized on MR arthrography. The sensitivities of FS PD/T2, MEDIC sequences, and MR arthrography in detecting SLL tears were 37.5%, 62.5%, and 100%, respectively. One arthroscopically confirmed LTL tear was diagnosed on FS PD/T2 sequence, three on MEDIC sequence, and all five arthroscopically confirmed LTL tears were detected with MR arthrography. The sensitivities of PD, MEDIC sequences, and MR arthrography in detecting LTL tears were 20%, 40%, and 100%, respectively.
Conclusions:
MR arthrography is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for the evaluation of wrist ligament tears.
doi:10.4103/0971-3026.137038
PMCID: PMC4126141  PMID: 25114389
TFCC; scapholunate ligament; lunatotriquetral ligament; MR arthrography; wrist ligament tear; wrist arthroscopy; TFCC tear
4.  Ewing's Sarcoma of the Sacroiliac Joint Presenting as Tubercular Sacroiliitis: A Diagnostic Dilemma 
Asian Spine Journal  2014;8(1):79-83.
We report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the sacroiliac joint in a 21-year-old male mimicking tubercular sacroiliitis, a rare entity not reported in literature. He presented with pain in the lower back radiating to the right lower limb along with constitutional symptoms of 3 months duration. On examination, the right sacroiliac joint was tender. The laboratory investigations showed anaemia, leukocytosis and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate. On X-ray, features of right sacroiliitis were seen. This was further investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which showed features consistent with tubercular sacroiliitis. Patient was then started on antitubercular treatment, but the improvement was not consistent. So, a contrast MRI was done, which indicated features of primary sarcoma. It was then further confirmed by a computed tomography-guided biopsy, which showed features consistent with Ewing's sarcoma of the sacroiliac joint.
doi:10.4184/asj.2014.8.1.79
PMCID: PMC3939374  PMID: 24596610
Sacroiliac joint; Sacroiliitis; Ewing sarcoma; Magnetic resonance imaging
5.  Zone 2 flexor tendon injuries: Venturing into the no man's land 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2012;46(6):608-615.
Flexor tendon injuries are seen commonly yet the management protocols are still widely debated. The advances in suture techniques, better understanding of the tendon morphology and its biomechanics have resulted in better outcomes. There has been a trend toward the active mobilization protocols with development of multistrand core suture techniques. Zone 2 injuries remain an enigma for the hand surgeons even today but the outcome results have definitely improved. Biomolecular modulation of tendon repair and tissue engineering are now the upcoming fields for future research. This review article focuses on the current concepts in the management of flexor tendon injuries in zone 2.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.104183
PMCID: PMC3543876  PMID: 23325961
Hand injuries; rehabilitation; tendon repair; tendon injuries
6.  Staged reduction of neglected transscaphoid perilunate fracture dislocation: A report of 16 cases 
Background
Transscaphoid perilunate fracture dislocation is a rare injury and can be easily missed at the initial treatment. Once ignored, late reduction is not possible and needs extensive dissection. An alternative treatment such as proximal row carpectomy may be required for neglected injuries, but surgical outcome is not as good as that of an early reduction. We aim to present an alternative technique of staged reduction and fixation in patients of neglected transscaphoid perilunate dislocations and study its outcome.
Material & Methods
16 cases (14 males & 2 females) with neglected transscaphoid perilunate fracture dislocation (> 3 month old) were treated with staged reduction. Mean duration between injury and surgery was 4.5 months. In first stage an external fixator was applied across the wrist and distraction was done at 1 mm/day. Second surgery was done through dorsal approach and we were able to reduce all the fractures & dislocations. Herbert screws and K wires were used for fixation.
Results
The mean duration between two surgeries was 2.4 weeks (range 2–4 weeks). 9 cases had excellent results, 5 had good result. Two patients developed reflex sympathetic dystrophy and had fair results.
Conclusion
Staged reduction should be considered for neglected transscaphoid perilunate dislocations. If properly executed, a good functional pain free range of motion is the usual outcome.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-7-19
PMCID: PMC3489547  PMID: 22607705
7.  Triple jeopardy: transscaphoid, transcapitate, transtriquetral, perilunate fracture dislocation 
Carpal injuries are frequently underdiagnosed and underreported injuries of the hand. Scapholunate perilunate dissociation is the most common perilunate instability pattern seen in clinical practice. Transscaphoid, transtriquetral, transcapitate dislocation with a volar intercalated segment instability pattern is a very rare pattern of carpal injury. We describe a case with this unique pattern of injury, explaining its mechanism and treatment. Good outcome can be achieved in these injuries following open reduction and internal fixation with ligamentous repair.
doi:10.1007/s10195-012-0195-x
PMCID: PMC3751331  PMID: 22476357
Perilunate dislocation; Transscaphoid; Transtriquetral; Transcapitate; Carpal injuries
8.  Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the distal pole of the scaphoid 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2011;45(2):185-187.
Post traumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is very rare. We present a case of 34 years old male, drill operator by occupation with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of the scaphoid. The patient was managed conservatively and was kept under regular follow-up every three months. The patient was also asked to change his profession. Two years later, the patient had no pain and had mild restriction of wrist movements (less than 15 degrees in either direction). The radiographs revealed normal density of the scaphoid suggesting revascularization.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.77142
PMCID: PMC3051129  PMID: 21430877
Scaphoid; AVN scaphoid; nontraumatic AVN scaphoid

Results 1-8 (8)