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1.  Intraoperative Three-Dimensional Imaging in Calcaneal Fracture Treatment 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2015;7(4):483-489.
To compare the effectiveness of intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) image and conventional two-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopic images, which are used in the treatment of acute calcaneal fractures.
We retrospectively analyzed 40 patients who suffered calcaneal fracture and underwent surgery at Inje University Busan Paik Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups. Only 2D fluoroscopy was used to evaluate 20 patients of group 1. On the other hand, 3D fluoroscopy was performed on the remaining 20 patients of group 2; 3D fluoroscopy was performed on these patients after they were extensively evaluated by 2D fluoroscopy during surgery. We reviewed the radiographic and clinical outcomes of these patients, whose average follow-up period was 42.6 months.
In group 2, 3D fluoroscopy detected four cases (20%) of articular incongruence and screw misplacement. All these complicated cases were corrected during surgery. At the final follow-up session, the mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hind foot score was 78.3 (range, 65 to 95) in group 1 and 82.3 (range, 68 to 95) in group 2.
Intraoperative 3D imaging of calcaneal fractures is considered to be useful in evaluating the congruence of joints and the placement of implants.
PMCID: PMC4667117  PMID: 26640632
Calcaneus; Fracture; Treatment; Three-dimensional imaging; Fluoroscopy
2.  Clinical Results Comparing Transtibial Technique and Outside in Technique in Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction 
Knee Surgery & Related Research  2013;25(3):133-140.
To compare the clinical results of single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the conventional transtibial technique and the anatomical outside-in technique for femoral tunneling.
Materials and Methods
From 2007 to 2011, 89 patients who received ACL reconstruction were followed for ≥1 year were enrolled in the study. The conventional transtibial technique was used in 41 patients and the outside-in technique, in 48 patients. Femoral tunnel angle measurement and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) were used for radiologic assessment of the location of femoral tunnel and Lysholm score and other tests were used for clinical assessment.
Both techniques did not reveal statistical differences in the clinical assessment. However, in International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee evaluation, the sum of two questionnaire items regarding instability showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.01). In the pivot shift test, the anatomical outside-in technique showed outstanding rotational stability over the transtibial technique (p=0.04). The mean femoral tunnel inclination in coronal plane were 69.2° and 30.3°, respectively, for both techniques, and 21.6° and 50.8°, respectively in sagittal plane, showing statistically significant differences on simple radiography (p=0.04, 0.05). A 3D CT was performed in 17 patients with the conventional transtibial technique and 25 patients with the outside-in technique. Coefficients of variation were 0.33 and 0.13, respectively, from dorsal border of the condyle and 0.67 and 0.24, respectively, from the roof of intercondylar notch.
Femoral tunnels created with the outside-in technique have superior knee joint rotational stability compare to the transtibial technique. Therefore, the outside-in technique could be considered as a valuable technique in single-bundle ACL reconstruction.
PMCID: PMC3767899  PMID: 24032102
Knee; Anterior cruciate ligament; Reconstruction; Transtibial technique; Outside-in technique
3.  Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Compressive Bone Graft with Allograft and Autograft in the Pyogenic Discitis 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(1):15-21.
Study Design
This is a retrospective study.
To evaluate the advantages and effects of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using allograft and posterior instrumentation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis, which are resistant to antibiotics.
Overview of Literature
To present preliminary results of PLIF using a compressive bone graft with allograft and pedicle screw fixation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis.
Fifteen patients who had lumbar pyogenic discitis were treated by posterior approach from May 2004 to July 2008. The mean follow-up duration was 27.2 ± 18.68 months. The standing radiographs of the lumbar spine and clinical results were compared and analyzed in order to assess the bony union, the changes in the distance between the two vertebral bodies and the changes in the lordotic angle formed between the fused bodies immediately after surgery and at the final follow-up.
Fifteen solid unions at an average of 15.2 ± 3.5 weeks after operation. The mean preoperative lordotic angle of the affected segments was 14.3 ± 15.1°, compared to 20.3 ± 12.3° after surgery and 19.8 ± 15.2° at last follow-up. For the functional result according to the Kirkaldy-Willis criteria, the outcome was excellent in 9, good in 5, fair in 1, and there were no poor cases. The average visual analogue scale score was decreased from 7.4 before surgery to 3.4 at 2 weeks postoperative.
The main advantage in the procedure of PLIF using compressive bone graft with allograft and post instrumentation is early ambulation. We believe that this is another good procedure for patients with poor general condition because a further autograft bone harvest is not required.
PMCID: PMC3302910  PMID: 22439083
Lumbar spine; Discitis; Posterior lumbar interbody fusion; Homologous transplantation

Results 1-3 (3)