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1.  Ulnar Nerve Palsy Following Closed Fracture of the Distal Radius: A Report of 2 Cases 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2010;2(1):55-58.
Ulnar nerve palsy subsequent to a fracture of the distal radius is extremely rare compared to a median nerve injury. The lesion tends to occur in younger patents with a high-energy mechanism of injury and a severe injury pattern consisting of wide displacement, comminution, combined distal ulnar fracture and open fracture. The mechanism of injury can contribute to a direct contusion and traction, compression secondary to prolonged edema and tissue fibrosis, intraneural fibrosis and laceration. We report 2 cases of progressive ulnar nerve palsy subsequent to closed fractures of the distal radius. The neurological symptoms recovered in all cases who underwent nerve decompression and neurolysis at 2 or 3 months after the trauma. It is recommended that cases with high-energy, widely displaced or comminuted fractures of the distal radius be evaluated carefully for ulnar nerve as well as median nerve injury.
doi:10.4055/cios.2010.2.1.55
PMCID: PMC2824096  PMID: 20191002
Radius fracture; Closed; Distal; Ulnar nerve; Palsy
2.  Novel Metagenome-Derived, Cold-Adapted Alkaline Phospholipase with Superior Lipase Activity as an Intermediate between Phospholipase and Lipase 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2012;78(14):4959-4966.
A novel lipolytic enzyme was isolated from a metagenomic library obtained from tidal flat sediments on the Korean west coast. Its putative functional domain, designated MPlaG, showed the highest similarity to phospholipase A from Grimontia hollisae CIP 101886, though it was screened from an emulsified tricaprylin plate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MPlaG is far from family I.6 lipases, including Staphylococcus hyicus lipase, a unique lipase which can hydrolyze phospholipids, and is more evolutionarily related to the bacterial phospholipase A1 family. The specific activities of MPlaG against olive oil and phosphatidylcholine were determined to be 2,957 ± 144 and 1,735 ± 147 U mg−1, respectively, which means that MPlaG is a lipid-preferred phospholipase. Among different synthetic esters, triglycerides, and phosphatidylcholine, purified MPlaG exhibited the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl palmitate (C16), tributyrin (C4), and 1,2-dihexanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (C8). Finally, MPlaG was identified as a phospholipase A1 with lipase activity by cleavage of the sn-1 position of OPPC, interfacial activity, and triolein hydrolysis. These findings suggest that MPlaG is the first experimentally characterized phospholipase A1 with lipase activity obtained from a metagenomic library. Our study provides an opportunity to improve our insight into the evolution of lipases and phospholipases.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00260-12
PMCID: PMC3416371  PMID: 22544255
3.  Results of Total Knee Arthroplasty with NexGen LPS-flex Implant Using Navigation System (Brain Lab): Results with a 5-year Follow-up 
Knee Surgery & Related Research  2012;24(4):208-213.
Purpose
To evaluate the clinical and radiological results of patients that underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a NexGen LPS-Flex implant using a Navigation system (Brain Lab).
Materials and Methods
Between January 2001 and December 2005, 55 knees in 46 patients which used the NexGen LPS-Flex implant with a Navigation system (Brain Lab) for primary TKA were clinically and radiologically evaluated after a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Evaluation included preoperative and postoperative range of motion (ROM), Knee Society Score (KSS), tibio-femoral angle and postoperative complications.
Results
Knee ROM was increased from 118.9° preoperatively to 126.9° at the last follow up. In addition, the preoperative flexion contracture improved from 6.5° to 1.8° postoperatively. The mean KSS and functional score were improved from 59.8 and 51.2 to postoperative scores of 86.4 and 85.2 respectively. The rate of appearance of radiolucency in X-ray was 21.8%. One case of superficial skin infection and one case of aseptic loosening were noted as complications but, did not require a revision surgery.
Conclusions
TKA with NexGen LPS-Flex implant using Navigation system (Brain Lab) showed satisfactory improvement in pain and function, but more long term follow up will be needed to complete verification.
doi:10.5792/ksrr.2012.24.4.208
PMCID: PMC3526757  PMID: 23269958
Navigation system; NexGen; Total knee arthroplasty
4.  Surgical Treatment of T1-2 Disc Herniation with T1 Radiculopathy: A Case Report with Review of the Literature 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(3):199-202.
The prevalence of intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) of the thoracic spine is rare compared to the cervical or lumbar spine. In particular, IDH of the upper thoracic spine is extremely rare. We report the case of T1-2 IDH and its treatment, with a literature review. A 37-year-old male patient visited our hospital due to radiating pain at the left upper extremity and weakness of grip power. In cervical spine magnetic resonance images, T1-2 disc space showed herniated disc material and compressed T1 root was identified. Laminoforaminotomy was performed with a posterior approach. The radiating pain and weakness of grip power improved immediately after the surgery. Of patients who show radiating pain or numbness at the medial aspect of forearm, or weakness of intrinsic muscle of hand, can be suspected to have T1 radiculopathy. A detailed physical examination and a radiologic evaluation including this area should be required for the T1 radiculopathy.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.3.199
PMCID: PMC3429611  PMID: 22977700
Thoracic Vertebrae; Intervertebral Disc; Radiculopathy; Laminotomy
5.  A novel family VII esterase with industrial potential from compost metagenomic library 
Background
Among the vast microbial genomic resources now available, most microbes are unculturable in the laboratory. A culture-independent metagenomic approach is a novel technique that circumvents this culture limitation. For the screening of novel lipolytic enzymes, a metagenomic library was constructed from compost, and the clone of estCS2 was selected for lipolytic properties on a tributyrin-containing medium.
Results
The estCS2 sequence encodes a protein of 570 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 63 kDa, and based on amino acid identity it most closely matches (45%) the carboxylesterase from Haliangium ochraceum DSM 14365. EstCS2 belong to family VII, according to the lipolytic enzyme classification proposed by Arpigny and Jaeger, and it retains the catalytic triad Ser245-Glu363-His466 that is typical of an α/β hydrolase. The Ser245 residue in the catalytic triad of EstCS2 is located in the consensus active site motif GXSXG. The EstCS2 exhibits strong activity toward p-nitrophenyl caproate (C6), and it is stable up to 60°C with an optimal enzymatic activity at 55°C. The maximal activity is observed at pH 9, and it remains active between pH 6-10. EstCS2 shows remarkable stability in up to 50% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or dimethylformamide (DMF). The enzyme has the ability to cleave sterically hindered esters of tertiary alcohol, as well as to degrade polyurethanes, which are widely used in various industries.
Conclusions
The high stability of EstCS2 in organic solvents and its activity towards esters of ketoprofen and tertiary alcohols, and in polyurethane suggests that it has potential uses for many applications in biotransformation and bioremediation.
doi:10.1186/1475-2859-10-41
PMCID: PMC3120640  PMID: 21619698
6.  Novel Cold-Adapted Alkaline Lipase from an Intertidal Flat Metagenome and Proposal for a New Family of Bacterial Lipases ▿ †  
A new lipase, LipEH166, isolated from an intertidal flat metagenome, showed no amino acid similarity to any known lipolytic enzyme except in the consensus region. This suggested that LipEH166 and its homologues belong to a new family of lipolytic enzymes. Partial characterization indicated that LipEH166 is a novel cold-adapted alkaline lipase.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01400-08
PMCID: PMC2612223  PMID: 18931297

Results 1-6 (6)