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1.  Mid-Term Results of Computer-Assisted Cervical Pedicle Screw Fixation 
Asian Spine Journal  2014;8(6):759-767.
Study Design
A retrospective study.
Purpose
The present study aimed to evaluate mid-term results of cervical pedicle screw (CPS) fixation for cervical instability.
Overview of Literature
CPS fixation has widely used in the treatment of cervical spinal instability from various causes; however, there are few reports on mid-term surgical results of CPS fixation.
Methods
Record of 19 patients who underwent cervical and/or upper thoracic (C2-T1) pedicle screw fixation for cervical instability was reviewed. The mean observation period was 90.2 months. Evaluated items included Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and C2-7 lordotic angle before surgery and at 5 years after surgery. Postoperative computerized tomography was used to determine the accuracy of screw placement. Visual analog scale (VAS) for neck pain and radiological evidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) at the 5-year follow-up were also evaluated.
Results
Mean JOA score was significantly improved from 9.0 points before surgery to 12.8 at 5 years after surgery (p=0.001). The C2-7 lordotic angle of the neutral position improved from 6.4° to 7.8° at 5 years after surgery, but this was not significant. The major perforation rate was 5.0%. There were no clinically significant complications such as vertebral artery injury, spinal cord injury, or nerve root injury caused by any screw perforation. Mean VAS for neck pain was 49.4 at 5 years after surgery. The rate of ASD was 21.1%.
Conclusions
Our mid-term results showed that CPS fixation was useful for treating cervical instability. Severe complications were prevented with the assistance of a computed tomography-based navigation system.
doi:10.4184/asj.2014.8.6.759
PMCID: PMC4278981  PMID: 25558318
Cervical pedicle screw; Cervical instability; Mid-term results; Adjacent segment degeneration
2.  Comparison of Spinous Process-Splitting Laminectomy versus Conventional Laminectomy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis 
Asian Spine Journal  2014;8(6):768-776.
Study Design
Seventy-five patients who had been treated for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) were reviewed retrospectively.
Purpose
Invasion into the paravertebral muscle can cause major problems after laminectomy for LSS. To address these problems, we performed spinous process-splitting laminectomy. We present a comparative study of decompression of LSS using 2 approaches.
Overview of Literature
There are no other study has investigated the lumbar spinal instability after spinous process-splitting laminectomy.
Methods
This study included 75 patients who underwent laminectomy for the treatment of LSS and who were observed through follow-ups for more than 2 years. Fifty-five patients underwent spinous process-splitting laminectomy (splitting group) and 20 patients underwent conventional laminectomy (conventional group). We evaluated the clinical and radiographic results of each surgical procedure.
Results
Japanese Orthopaedic Association score improved significantly in both groups two years postoperatively. The following values were all significantly lower, as shown with p-values, in the splitting group compared to the conventional group: average operating time (p=0.002), postoperative C-reactive protein level (p=0.006), the mean postoperative number of days until returning to normal body temperature (p=0.047), and the mean change in angulation 2 years postoperatively (p=0.007). The adjacent segment degeneration occurred in 6 patients (10.9%) in the splitting group and 11 patients (55.0%) in the conventional group.
Conclusions
In this study, the spinous process-splitting laminectomy was shown to be less invasive and more stable for patients with LSS, compared to the conventional laminectomy.
doi:10.4184/asj.2014.8.6.768
PMCID: PMC4278982  PMID: 25558319
Lumbar spinal stenosis; Spinous process-splitting laminectomy; Postoperative low back pain; Paravertebral muscle, posterior approach
4.  Stable reconstruction using halo vest for unstable upper cervical spine and occipitocervical instability 
European Spine Journal  2011;21(2):295-303.
Introduction
Upper cervical or occipitocervical disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis present as atlantoaxial subluxation, vertical subluxation of the axis, and subaxial subluxation, which produce myelopathy and severe pain. In such cases, occipitocervical reconstruction surgery may be indicated, and several reports have described reduction of subluxation by fixing the halo vest before this surgery.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using the halo vest before the surgery for unstable upper cervical spine and for occipitocervical instability.
Methods
Twenty-eight patients (9 men and 19 women; mean age, 61.8 years at surgery) who presented with atlantoaxial or occipitocervical fusion were studied. In all cases, the halo vest was fixed in the conscious condition, and subluxation was reduced before the surgery. The mean follow-up period was 45 months. Roentgenologic measurement and clinical evaluation were performed before the surgery and at the final follow-up.
Results
Using the halo vest resulted in significant reductions in the atlantodental interval, the space available for the spinal cord, and the Ranawat value (p < 0.05), and these were maintained until the final follow-up. The mean Japanese Orthopedic Association score significantly improved from 9.5 before surgery to 12.2 at the final follow-up (p = 0.01). Nineteen cases (68%) improved by more than 1 grade by Ranawat’s classification after surgery and 16 cases (57%) maintained the same at the follow-up visit.
Conclusion
Conscious preoperative reduction using the halo vest for occipitocervical disorders is a useful and safe technique.
doi:10.1007/s00586-011-1973-5
PMCID: PMC3265589  PMID: 21833572
Occipitocervical disorders; Occipitocervical reconstruction; Halo vest
5.  Cervical Pedicle Screw Fixation Combined with Laminoplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy with Instability 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(4):241-248.
Study Design
A retrospective study.
Purpose
To evaluate the surgical results of cervical pedicle screw (CPS) fixation combined with laminoplasty for treating cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with instability.
Overview of Literature
Cervical fixation and spinal cord decompression are required for CSM patients with instability. However, only a few studies have reported on CPS fixation combined with posterior decompression for unstable CSM patients.
Methods
Thirteen patients that underwent CPS fixation combined with laminoplasty for CSM with instability were evaluated in this study. We assessed the clinical and radiological results of the surgical procedures. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system was used to evaluate the clinical results. The percentages of sli p, difference in sli p angle between maximum flexion and maximum extension of unstable intervertebrae, and perforation rate of CPS were evaluated.
Results
The mean JOA scores before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow-up were 9.1, 13.3, and 12.6, respectively. The mean percentages of sli p before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow-up were 9.1%, 3.2%, and 3.5%, respectively; there were significant improvements immediately after surgery and at final follow-up. The difference in sli p angle between the maximum flexion and maximum extension of the unstable intervertebrae changed from 9.0° before surgery to 1.6° at the final follow-up. The perforation rate of CPS was 10.9%.
Conclusions
The results suggest that CPS fixation combined with laminoplasty is an effective surgical procedure for treating CSM with instability.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.4.241
PMCID: PMC3530698  PMID: 23275807
Cervical spondylosis; Myelopathy; Instability; Cervical fixation
6.  A Case of Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis Caused by Campylobacter fetus for Which Early Diagnosis by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Was Difficult 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(4):274-278.
The purpose of this case report was to report a rare case of pyogenic spondylodiscitis caused by Campylobacter fetus. A 37-year-old male presented with fever and low back pain. By lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), no abnormal finding was observed at the first presentation. However, low back pain was aggravated, and fever did not improve. Thus, lumbar MRI was repeated on the 26 day after the onset of symptoms, showing abnormal signals at vertebrae and disc spaces, and pyogenic spondylitis was diagnosed. The possibility of pyogenic spondylodiscitis should be taken into account if a patient presents with low back pain and fever, and areas of low signal intensity on a T1-weighted MRI should be carefully examined. When initial MRI does not reveal abnormal findings, repeated MRI after one or two weeks or, more favorably, immediate gadolinium enhancement MRI, are important for patients who have persistent low back pain and fever.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.4.274
PMCID: PMC3530702  PMID: 23275811
Resonance imaging; Campylobacter fetus
7.  Computer-assisted C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation "Magerl Technique" for Atlantoaxial Instability 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(3):168-177.
Study Design
A retrospective study.
Purpose
To evaluate the surgical results of computer-assisted C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation for atlantoaxial instability and the usefulness of the navigation system.
Overview of Literature
We used a computed tomography (CT)-based computer navigation system in planning and screw insertion in Magerl's procedure, which provides the most rigid atlantoaxial fusion, to avoid risk of vertebral artery (VA) tear by avoiding high-riding VA during screw insertion.
Methods
Twenty patients who underwent atlantoaxial fusion under the CT-based navigation system were studied. The mean observation period was 33.5 months. The evaluated items included the existence of VA stenosis by preoperative magnetic resonance angiography, surgical time, blood loss volume, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and Ranawat's pain criteria before surgery and at final follow-up, postoperative screw position evaluated by CT, and bony fusion.
Results
The mean operation time was 205 minutes, with the mean blood loss volume of 242 ml. The mean JOA score was 11.6 points before surgery and 13.7 at final follow-up. Occipital and/or cervical pain presented before operation was remitted or resolved in all patients. Evaluation of screw insertion by CT revealed correct penetration to atlantoaxial joints, with a perforation rate of 2.6%. There was no complication, including VA tear, and all patients who were followed-up during one year or more after surgery achieved bony fusion. Some subjects who appeared inappropriate for surgery from CT images were assessed as eligible for surgery based on the evaluation results obtained using the navigation system.
Conclusions
It was demonstrated that the CT-based navigation system is an effective support device for Magerl's procedure.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.3.168
PMCID: PMC3429607  PMID: 22977696
Atlantoaxial joint; Atlantoaxial instability; CT-based computer navigation system; C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation
8.  Early Changes in Bone Specific Turnover Markers During the Healing Process After Vertebral Fracture 
Background:
The present study measured longitudinal changes in bone turnover markers in elderly patients with vertebral fracture and investigated the relationship among bone turnover markers, duration of bed rest and bone mineral density (BMD).
Methods:
Criteria for patient selection were 50 years in age and older, and presence of VF. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was measured as a marker of bone formation. Urinary crosslinked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) was measured as a marker of bone resorption. In principle, samples were collected just after injury, within 24 h, and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 weeks after. We also measured duration of bed rest and BMD.
Results:
The study population consisted of 42 cases. The average BMD of the lumbar vertebrae was 0.670 ± 0.174 g/cm2. Bed rest period was 17.9 ± 8.8 days. BAP showed significantly higher values at 2 and 3 weeks compared with the baseline value. Thereafter, BAP progressively decreased until 8 weeks. Urinary NTX was increased soon after the onset of pain with the same patterns in BAP. Urinary NTX values reached a peak at 3 weeks, and then they kept significantly higher values until 8 weeks. The peak value of serum BAP was affected by the duration of bed rest, although that of the urinary NTX was not. The peak values of serum BAP and urinary NTX showed negative correlations with the initial BMD values.
Conclusions:
Bone turnover markers remained higher at 8 weeks, even patients symptom was healed after VF. Bone turnover markers were affected on physical activity and BMD.
doi:10.2174/1874325001105010032
PMCID: PMC3087216  PMID: 21552459
Vertebral fracture; bone turnover marker; osteoporosis.
9.  Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Elcatonin Injection for Postmenopausal Women with Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background:
Eel calcitonin (elcatonin) injection is widely used for elderly patients suffering from somatic pain in Japan. However, there have been few reports on the analgesic effects of elcatonin injection. The purpose of this study was to examine the analgesic effects of elcatonin injection in postmenopausal women with lower back pain.
Methods:
This study was designed as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-six women aged ≥50 years with acute lower back pain participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two treatment groups according to whether they received a placebo or a weekly trigger point injection of elcatonin (20 units). They were observed for 5 weeks and the extent of pain at motion and at rest according to the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated. The mean VAS scores for the elcatonin group were then compared with those of the placebo group.
Results:
There were no statistically significant differences in the mean VAS scores for pain at rest between the two groups during the 5-week treatment course. However, the mean VAS scores for motion pain in the elcatonin group were significantly lower than those in the placebo group at the third, fifth and sixth weeks.
Conclusions:
Elcatonin injection (20 units) significantly relieved motion pain in the lower back in postmenopausal women after three weeks of treatment. This analgesic effect continued for the subsequent 3 weeks.
doi:10.2174/1874325001004010132
PMCID: PMC2864422  PMID: 20448810
Postmenopause; back pain; anti-nociceptive.
10.  Perforation Rates of Cervical Pedicle Screw Insertion by Disease and Vertebral Level 
Background:
Different perforation rates for cervical pedicle screws by disease are expected in relation to bone quality and pedicle morphology; however, no report comparing pedicle screw perforation rate by disease had previously been published. This study investigated the perforation rates of pedicle screws inserted to cervical pedicle by disease and vertebral level using a CT-based navigation system.
Materials/Methods:
Fifty-three patients who underwent cervical pedicle screw insertion using CT based navigation system were studied. Diseases included rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (24 cases), destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) (10), cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) (9), spine tumor (6), and cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with athetoid cerebral palsy (CP) (4). Screw perforation rates for cervical pedicle screws were studied. Major perforation was defined as perforation 50% of screw diameter or more.
Results:
Major perforation rate by disease from C3 to C7 was as follows: spine tumor (0/24, 0%), RA (2/59, 3.4%), DSA (3/65, 4.6%), CP (2/20, 10.0%), and CSM (6/40, 15.0%). There were no clinically important complications such as vertebra arterial injury, spinal cord injury, or nerve root injury caused by any screw perforation. Major perforation rate by vertebral level was: C2(2/30, 6.7%), C3(4/49, 8.2%), C4(6/43, 14.0%), C5(1/32, 3.1%), C6(1/41, 2.4%), and C7(1/45, 2.2%), showing highest rate for C4, followed by C3.
Conclusions:
Cervical pedicle screw perforation rate by disease was higher in CSM compared to RA and DSA. The perforation rate by vertebral level was higher for C4 and C3, in this order.
doi:10.2174/1874325001004010142
PMCID: PMC2864428  PMID: 20448816
Cervical pedicle screw; image guidance; perforation rate.
11.  Comparison in bone turnover markers during early healing of femoral neck fracture and trochanteric fracture in elderly patients 
Orthopedic Reviews  2009;1(2):e21.
Healing of fractures is different for each bone and bone turnover markers may reflect the fracture healing process. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic changes in bone turnover markers during the fracture healing process. The subjects were consecutive patients with femoral neck or trochanteric fracture who underwent surgery and achieved bone union. There were a total of 39 patients, including 33 women and 6 men. There were 18 patients (16 women and 2 men) with femoral neck fracture and 21 patients (17 women and 4 men) with trochanteric fracture. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was measured as a bone formation marker. Urine and serum levels of N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX), as well as urine levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD), were measured as markers of bone resorption. All bone turnover markers showed similar changes in patients with either type of fracture, but significantly higher levels of both bone formation and resorption markers were observed in trochanteric fracture patients than in neck fracture patients. BAP showed similar levels at one week after surgery and then increased. Bone resorption markers were increased after surgery in patients with either fracture. The markers reached their peak values at three weeks (BAP and urinary NTX), five weeks (serum NTX and DPD), and 2–3 weeks (CTX) after surgery. The increase in bone turnover markers after hip fracture surgery and the subsequent decrease may reflect increased bone formation and remodeling during the healing process. Both fractures had a similar bone turnover marker profile, but the extent of the changes differed between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.
doi:10.4081/or.2009.e21
PMCID: PMC3143987  PMID: 21808683
proximal femoral fracture; bone turnover marker; osteoporosis.

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