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author:("cansave, tufa")
1.  Radiological Analysis of the Triangular Working Zone during Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(2):98-104.
Study Design
Clinical study.
Purpose
The dimensions of the working zone for endoscopic lumbar discectomy should be evaluated by preoperative magnetic resonance images. The aim of this study was to analyze the angle of the roots, root area, and foraminal area.
Overview of Literature
Few studies have reported on the triangular working zone during transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy. Many risk factors and restrictions for this procedure have been proposed.
Methods
Images of 39 patients were analyzed bilaterally at the levels of L3-L4 and L4-L5. Bilateral axial and coronal angles of the roots, root area, and foraminal area were calculated.
Results
No significant difference was observed between the axial angle of the left and right L3 root. A significant difference was found between the axial angle of right and left L4 roots. A significant difference was observed when the coronal angle of the right and left L3 roots were compared, but no significant difference was found when the coronal angle of the right and left L4 roots were compared. No significant difference was observed when the foraminal area of the right and left L3 and L4 roots were compared, but a significant difference was observed when the root area of right and left L3 and L4 roots were compared.
Conclusions
We suggest that these radiological measurements should be obtained for safety reasons before endoscopic discectomy surgery.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.2.98
PMCID: PMC3372555  PMID: 22708013
Triangular working zone; Endoscopy; Lumbar
2.  Spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: Does surgery benefit comatose patients? 
Introduction:
Treatment of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is still controversial. We therefore analyzed the comatose patients diagnosed as having spontaneous SICH and treated by surgery.
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively analyzed the collected data of 25 comatose patients with initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8 diagnosed as having spontaneous SICH and they had been treated by surgical evacuation between 1996 and 2008. The outcome was assessed using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). The side and location of the hematoma and ventricular extension of the hematoma were recorded. The hematoma volume was graded as mild (<30 cc), moderate (30–60 cc) and massive (>60 cc).
Results:
Age of the patients ranged from 25 to 78 years (mean: 59.6 ± 15.14 years). Among the 25 patients studied, 11 (44%) were females and 14 (56%) were males. GCS before surgery was <5 in 8 (32%) patients and between 5 and 8 in 17 (68%) patients. The hematoma volume was less than 30 cc in 2 patients, between 30 and 60 cc in 9 patients and more than 60 cc in 14 patients. Fourteen of the patients had no ventricular connection and 11 of the hematomas were connected to ventricle. All the 25 patients were treated with craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma was done within an average of 2 hours on admission to the emergency department. Postoperatively, no rebleeding occurred in our patients. The most important complication was infection in 14 of the patients. The mortality of our surgical series was 56%. GCS before surgery was one of the strongest factors affecting outcome GCS (oGCS) (P = 0.017). Income GCS (iGCS), however, did not affect GOS (P = 0.64). The volume of the hematoma also affected the outcome (P = 0.037). Ventricular extension of the hematoma did affect the oGCS and GOS (P = 0.002), but not the iGCS of the patients (P = 0.139).
Conclusion:
Our data suggest that being surgically oriented is very important to achieve successful outcomes in a select group of patients with SICH.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.70881
PMCID: PMC2981755  PMID: 21085528
Mortality; outcome; spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage; surgery; treatment
3.  Surgical anatomy of the cervical sympathetic trunk during anterolateral approach to cervical spine 
European Spine Journal  2008;17(8):991-995.
The sympathetic trunk is sometimes damaged during the anterior and anterolateral approach to the cervical spine, resulting in Horner’s syndrome. No quantitative regional anatomy in fresh human cadavers describing the course and location of the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) and its relation to the longus colli muscle (LCM) is available in the literature. The aims of this study are to clearly delineate the surgical anatomy and the anatomical variations of CST with respect to the structures around it and to develop a safer surgical method that will diminish the potential risk of CST injury. In this study, 30 cadavers from the Department of Forensic Medicine were dissected to observe the surgical anatomy of the CST. The cadavers used in this study were fresh cadavers chosen at 12–24 h postmortem. The levels of superior and intermediate ganglions of cervical sympathetic chain were determined. The distance of the sympathetic trunk from the medial border of LCM at C6, the diameter of the CST at C6 and the length and width of the superior and intermediate (middle) cervical ganglion were measured. Cervical sympathetic chain is located posteromedial to carotid sheath and just anterior to the longus muscles. It extends longitudinally from the longus capitis to the longus colli over the muscles and under the prevertebral fascia. The average distance between the CST and medial border of the LCM at C6 is 11.6 ± 1.6 mm. The average diameter of the CST at C6 is 3.3 ± 0.6 mm. Superior ganglion of CSC in all dissections was located at the level of C4 vertebra. The length and width of the superior cervical ganglion were 12.5 ± 1.5 and 5.3 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. The location of the intermediate (middle) ganglion of CST showed some variations. The length and width of the middle cervical ganglion were 10.5 ± 1.3 and 6.3 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. The CST’s are at high risk when the LC muscle is cut transversely, or when dissection of the prevertebral fascia is performed. Awareness of the CST’s regional anatomy may help the surgeon to identify and preserve it during anterior cervical surgeries.
doi:10.1007/s00586-008-0696-8
PMCID: PMC2518767  PMID: 18548289
Anatomy; Anterolateral approach; Cervical spine; Cervical sympathetic trunk

Results 1-3 (3)