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author:("Shah, primi")
1.  Jejunal Adenocarcinoma—A Case Report with Review 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2011;75(Suppl 1):82-85.
Primary Small bowel tumours are rare accounting for only 3–6% of GI neoplasm; 1–2% of these are malignant. Their presentation is usually with nonspecific symptoms that causes delay in diagnosis and consequently a worse outcome for the patient. We report a case of Jejunal adenocarcinoma where early diagnosis and treatment lead to good outcome
PMCID: PMC3693333  PMID: 24426522
Small bowel tumors; Small bowel malignancy; Jejunal adenocarcinoma
2.  Spaced cognitive training promotes training transfer 
Cognitive training studies yield wildly inconsistent results. One dimension on which studies vary is the scheduling of training sessions (Morrison and Chein, 2011). In this study, we systematically address whether or not spacing of practice influences training and transfer. We randomly assigned 115 fifth grade children to an active control group or one of four training groups who received working memory training based on a “running span” task (Zhao et al., 2011). All groups received the same total amount of training: 20 sessions of training with 60 trials for an average of 20 min per session. The training was spread across 2, 5, 10, or 20 days. The active control group received 20-min sessions of math instruction for 20 sessions. Before and after training participants in all five groups performed a single transfer test that assessed fluid intelligence, the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test. Overall, participants in all four training groups improved significantly on the training task (at least partially), as reflected by increased speed. More importantly, the only training group to show significant improvement on the Raven's was the group who had the greatest amount of spacing (20 days group) during training and improvement in this group was significantly higher than that of the control group.
PMCID: PMC3989588  PMID: 24782744
cognitive training; working memory; transfer; schedule; spacing; primary school; children; fluid intelligence
3.  Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training 
Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning.
PMCID: PMC4006056  PMID: 24795603
working memory; intervention; motivation; video games; n-back
4.  Deferral pattern in voluntary blood donors on basis of low hemoglobin and effect of application of digital hemoglobinometer on this pattern 
One of the responsibilities of blood center is to provide safety to blood donors. It is mandatory to screen a blood donor for hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit which should not be less than 12.5 g/dl or 38% Hct. Most commonly applied method for hemoglobin estimation is copper sulphate method, but this method has chances of false acceptance as well as false deferral. In order to avoid this chance of error, digital hemoglobinometer is used. This study was planned to analyze effect of application of digital hemoglobinometer for detection of Hb on donors, who are deferred by copper sulphate method.
Materials and Methods:
Total 35,339 voluntary non renumareted altruistic donors were included in this study between the periods of September 2005 to July 2006. Total deferred donors were 8622 (24.39%) and donors deferred due to hemoglobin by copper sulphate method were 4391 (50.92%). Digital hemoglobinometer was applied on 3163 deferred donors (72.03%). Results of digital hemoglobinometer were validated by known controls.
Digital hemoglobinometer was applied on 3163 donors who were deferred by copper sulphate method. Out of this, donors accepted by digital hemoglobinometer were 1196 (37.01%). Total repeat donors were 629 (52.50%) and first time were 567 (47.40%). Male donors were 891 (74.44%) and females were 305 (25.50%). Donors deferred with digital hemoglobinometer were 2135, out of them 1097 (51.14%) were repeat, 1038 (48.38%) were first time, 1349 (60.79%) were male, 786 (34.47%) donors were female donors. Range of hemoglobin in deferred donors was 7.0 to 12.4 and in accepted donors 12.5 to 16.4.
By the application of digital hemoglobinometer 37.81% donors were found hemoglobin >12.5 which were deferred with copper sulphate method and unnecessary deferral of donors can be reduced to a great extent. In country like India, where blood supply is always less than the requirement, this new technique may be helpful to increase donor population but cost benefit ratio should be analyzed.
PMCID: PMC3439760  PMID: 22988386
Copper sulphate; digital hemoglobinometer; hemoglobin
6.  Aging, training, and the brain: A review and future directions 
Neuropsychology review  2009;19(4):504-522.
As the population ages, the need for effective methods to maintain or even improve older adults’ cognitive performance becomes increasingly pressing. Here we provide a brief review of the major intervention approaches that have been the focus of past research with healthy older adults (strategy training, multi-modal interventions, cardiovascular exercise, and process-based training), and new approaches that incorporate neuroimaging. As outcome measures, neuroimaging data on intervention-related changes in volume, structural integrity, and functional activation can provide important insights into the nature and duration of an intervention's effects. Perhaps even more intriguingly, several recent studies have used neuroimaging data as a guide to identify core cognitive processes that can be trained in one task with effective transfer to other tasks that share the same underlying processes. Although many open questions remain, this research has greatly increased our understanding of how to promote successful aging of cognition and the brain.
PMCID: PMC3005345  PMID: 19876740
7.  Cultural Differences in Allocation of Attention in Visual Information Processing 
Previous research has shown that when processing visual scenes, Westerners attend to salient objects and East Asians attend to the relationships between focal objects and background elements. It is possible that cross-cultural differences in attentional allocation contribute to these earlier findings. In this article, the authors investigate cultural differences in attentional allocation in two experiments, using a visual change detection paradigm. They demonstrate that East Asians are better than Americans at detecting color changes when a layout of a set of colored blocks is expanded to cover a wider region and worse when it is shrunk. East Asians are also slower than Americans are at detecting changes in the center of the screen. The data suggest that East Asians allocate their attention more broadly than Americans. The authors consider potential factors that may contribute to the development of such attention allocation differences.
PMCID: PMC2838246  PMID: 20234851
culture; East Asian; Western; cognition; attention; visual working memory; context

Results 1-7 (7)