Lithium salts are widely used in psychiatric practice and are known to induce thyroid dysfunction. Lithium-induced parathyroid dysfunction is rare. We are reporting a case of hyperparathyroidism in a 28-year-old female patient who was on lithium carbonate for 2 years, when she developed osteopenia and girdle girdle-type muscle weakness. Biochemical parameters showed hyperparathyroidism with shift of calcium creatinine clearance ratio to 0.013, indicating an error in threshold of calcium sensing receptor. The patient eventually required parathyroidectomy and the histology of the gland showed atypical features.
Atypical adenoma; calcium sensing receptor; hyperparathyroidism; lithium
Permanent hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy causes considerable morbidity. This prospective observational study aims to define the factors likely to predict hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy.
Materials and Methods:
Patients who were subjected to total thyroidectomy during January 2005 to December 2009 were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year. Efficacy of an intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay to predict hypocalcaemia was validated.
Overall incidence of hypocalcaemia was 23.6% (n = 190) and that of permanent hypocalcaemia was 1.61% (n = 13). Onset was delayed up to 3rd postoperative day in 13 patients. Hypocalcaemia was significantly associated with thyroidectomy for Grave's Disease (P = 0.001), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (P = 0.003), and with incidental parathyroidectomy (P = 0.006). The intraoperative assay of parathyroid hormone showed low sensitivity (0.5) and satisfactory specificity (0.9) in predicting hypocalcemia.
Hypocalcemia could manifest late in the immediate postoperative period and this may explain latent hypocalcemia. High incidence of hypocalcaemia noted in Grave's Disease could be due to the autoimmunity since same feature was noted associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the incidence of hypocalcaemia was not high in the subgroup with toxic nodular goiter. The incidence of hypocalcemia was not affected by age or sex.
Grave's disease; hyperthyroidism; hypocalcemia; total thyroidectomy
Over the last 10 years there has been increasing evidence of a strong association between Idiopathic Deep vein thrombosis (IDVT) and occult malignancy. A review of world literature puts this new clinical entity as 4 -25%10. This mandates screening all cases of IDVT for a hidden malignancy. We report a case of advanced gastric carcinoma presenting as upper limb DVT with pulmonary embolism.
Idiopathic deep vein thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; occult gastric
Containers for the storage of platelets are made using polyvinyl chloride plasticised with di, (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, n-butyryl, tri (n-hexyl) citrate and tri (2-ethyl hexyl) mellitate or using special poly olefins without plasticiser. Of these, the first two have disadvantages such as plasticiser leaching and impairment of platelet function. Polyolefin bags cannot be HF welded or steam sterilized. Mellitate plasticised bags can store platelets well for five days but they are not completely phthalate free.
Research and Development:
We have developed a new generation of containers made of PVC plasticised with the non DEHP, non aromatic plasticiser,1,2- Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (Hexamoll DINCH) which can store platelets without loss of function for at least six days.
The present studies show that DINCH plasticised PVC bags (TPL-167) are well suited for the storage of platelet concentrates for more than five days.
The present studies show that the PVC plasticised with the non phthalate, non aromatic, non toxic plasticiser DINCH is a viable alternative to other existing containers for the storage of platelets for more than five days.
Hexamoll DINCH plasticiser; Non DEHP plasticizer; platelets; platelet storage bags
We have measured the permeability of rhodamine-6G across Cx43 hemichannels reconstituted on a pipette tip. Cx43 hemichannels were overexpressed in Sf9 cells, and affinity-purified. The hemichannels were reconstituted in a lipid bilayer on a pipette tip by the tip-dip method. R6G in the pipette permeated across the channels into the bath. The permeability of R6G was quantified by measuring R6G concentration in the bath after several hours by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with 100 nm silver colloid particles. The ratio of the permeability of dye to salt, as extracted by this combined electrical-SERS technique, is compatible with similar ratios for other dyes across whole gap junction channels. The results for the permeability ratio were further compared to fluorescence measurements. The novel combination of patch and SERS techniques can be extended to quantifying the transport of biologically significant non-fluorescent molecules, such as cAMP and IP3, across 1 nm sized pores, such as the gap junction channel.
Rhodamine-6G; permeability; patch clamp; surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy
Samia cynthia ricini (Lepidoptera:Saturniidae), the Indian eri silkworm, contributes significantly to the production of commercial silk and is widely distributed in the Brahmaputra river valley in North-Eastern India. Due to over exploitation coupled with rapid deforestation, most of the natural populations of S. cynthia ricini are dwindling rapidly and its preservation has become an important goal. Assessment of the genetic structure of each population is a prerequisite for a sustainable conservation program. DNA fingerprinting to detect genetic variation has been used in different insect species not only between populations, but also between individuals within a population. Since, information on the genetic basis of phenotypic variability and genetic diversity within the S. cynthia ricini populations is scanty, inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) system was used to assess genetic diversity and differentiation among six commercially exploited S. cynthia ricini populations. Twenty ISSR primers produced 87% of inter population variability among the six populations. Genetic distance was lowest between the populations Khanapara (E5) and Mendipathar (E6) (0.0654) and highest between Dhanubhanga (E4) and Titabar (E3) (0.3811). Within population, heterozygosity was higher in Borduar (E2) (0.1093) and lowest in Titabar (E3) (0.0510). Highest gene flow (0.9035) was between E5 and E6 and the lowest (0.2172) was between E3 and E5. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance among the populations. The high GST value (0.657) among the populations combined with low gene flow contributes significantly to the genetic differentiation among the S. cynthia ricini populations. Based on genetic diversity, these populations can be considered as different ecotypes and in situ conservation of them is recommended.
Eri phenotype; geographic isolation; gene flow; heterozygosity
bak; apoptosis; cervical cancer; mutation; radiotherapy
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and cancer are important health problems worldwide, yet our knowledge of these conditions is derived principally from populations of European descent. To investigate ethnic variations in major causes of death in Canada, the authors examined total and cause-specific mortality among European, south Asian, and Chinese Canadians. METHODS: Canadians of European, south Asian and Chinese origin were identified in the Canadian Mortality Database by last name and country of birth and in the population census by self-reported ethnicity. Age-standardized death rates by cause, per 100,000 population, were calculated for ages 35 to 74 years from 1979 to 1993 and in 5-year intervals grouped around census years (1979/83, 1984/88 and 1989/93). RESULTS: Rates of death from ischemic heart disease were highest among Canadians of south Asian origin (men 320.2, women 144.5) and European origin (men 319.6, women 109.9) and were markedly lower among Canadians of Chinese origin (men 107.0, women 40.0); the rates declined significantly in all 3 groups over the study period. Rates of death from cerebrovascular disease were relatively low and showed less ethnic variation (Canadian men of European, south Asian and Chinese origin 49.5, 47.0 and 45.8 respectively; Canadian women of European, south Asian and Chinese origin 34.8, 39.0 and 42.2 respectively) and declined similarly in all groups over time. Rates of death from cancer were highest among Canadians of European origin (men 343.6, women 236.2), intermediate among those of Chinese origin (men 258.1, women 161.6) and lowest among those of south Asian origin (men 122.3, women 131.3). Over time, cancer mortality increased in Canadians of European origin but remained constant or declined in those of south Asian and Chinese origin. INTERPRETATION: Substantial differences exist in rates of death from ischemic heart disease and cancer among European, south Asian and Chinese Canadians.
A cDNA for human FKBP51 has been cloned and sequenced, and protein products have been expressed in both in vitro and bacterial systems. The deduced amino acid sequence for human FKBP51 is 90% identical to sequences of recently described murine proteins and is 55% identical to the sequence of human FKBP52. Human FKBP51 mRNA is expressed in a wide range of tissues, and the protein has peptidylprolyl isomerase activity that is inhibited by FK506 but not cyclosporine. FKBP51 is the same as a previously described progesterone receptor-associated immunophilin that, similar to FKBP52 and cyclophilin 40, is an Hsp90-binding protein and appears in functionally mature steroid receptor complexes along with Hsp90 and p23. Each of the three receptor-associated immunophilins displays interactions with progesterone receptor that are more dynamic than Hsp90-receptor interactions. Whereas FKBP52 and FKBP51 compete about equally well for binding to Hsp90 in a purified system, FKBP51 accumulates preferentially in progesterone receptor complexes assembled in a cell-free system. This observation provides a precedent for differential interactions between Hsp90-associated immunophilins and target proteins such as steroid receptors.
The assembly of progesterone receptor (PR) heterocomplexes in vitro involves at least eight components of the molecular chaperone machinery, and as earlier reports have shown, these proteins exhibit complex, dynamic, but ordered, interactions with one another and PR. Using the selective hsp90 binding agent geldanamycin (GA), we have found that PR assembly in vitro can be arrested at a previously observed intermediate assembly step. Like mature PR complexes, the intermediate complexes contain hsp90, but they differ from mature complexes by the presence of hsp70, p60, and p48 and the absence of immunophilins and p23. Arrest of PR assembly is likely due to GA's ability to directly block binding of p23 to hsp90. An important functional consequence of GA-mediated assembly arrest in vitro is the inability of the resulting PR complexes to bind progesterone, despite the presence of hsp90 in the receptor complexes. The biological significance of the in vitro observations is demonstrated by GA's ability to (i) rapidly block PR's hormone binding capacity in intact cells and (ii) alter the composition of COS cell PR complexes in a manner similar to that observed during in vitro reconstitutions. An updated model for the cyclic assembly pathway of PR complexes that incorporates the present findings with earlier results is presented.
Amrithadi Churnam – a compound ayurvedic preparation made up of Tinospora cordifolia, Salacia prenoides, Curcuma longa, Tribulus terrestris and Emblica Officinalis was screened for its antidiabetic activity. From the studies it could be established that Amrithadi churnam at a dose level of 100mg/kg b.w. was the optimum dose in alloxan diabetic rats. No toxic effects were observed as evidenced by the study of liver enzymes and blood haematoerit. An extra pancreatic role of the drug cannot be rulled out, since it (100 mg/kg b.w) produced significant decrease in blood sugar level in alloxan diabetic rats.
Amrithapala (Janakia arayalpatra), a rare and endemic plant species found in the Southern forests of Western Ghat region of kerala, is used by the local ‘Kani’ tribe as an effective remedy for peptic ulcer, cancer-like afflictions and as a rejuvenating tonic. Search made in Ayurvedic literature indicates that the plant may be the divine drug named variously as MRITHA SANJEEVINI (the drug that can revive unconscious or dead) or SANJEEVINI, THAMPRA RASAYANI in the Oushadha Nighantu (Dictionary of Medicinal Drugs) of Tayyil Kumaran Krishnan (1906)
This paper presents two important species of plants used by the Kanitribes of Agastyar hills of Trivandrum district of Kerala against snake-poison and insect bite.
A research trial was conducted at in-patient level to compare the efficacy of Sahacharadi taila with that of Nirgundi taila in Saisaveeyavata (Poliomyelitis). Forty cases were selected for the trial and grouped into two at random and treated with Sahacharadi taila and Nirgundi taila respectively. Results in both groups were highly encouraging and statistically significant. The study also revealed that 25% of patients had undergone Polio vaccination and it was not helpful to prevent the disease.
To better understand the significance of 22Na+ accumulation by poliovirus-infected HeLa cells (C. N. Nair, J. W. Stowers, and B. Singfield, J. Virol. 31:184, 1979), measurements of cellular Na+, K+, and Cl- contents, volume, and density were carried out at intervals after infection. In addition, the rates of 22Na+ washout from infected and control cells were determined. Starting at around 3 h postinfection, the Na+ content of infected cells increased, whereas the K+ content decreased progressively, resulting in a net loss in the monovalent cation content decreased progressively, resulting in a net loss in the monovalent cation content per cell. The loss in cellular chloride content exceeded that in monovalent cation content. The kinetics of 22Na+ washout from infected and control cells revealed the presence of an extra Na+ compartment in infected cells. A net loss in the monovalent cation activity of infected cells was indicated by the loss of cell water as reflected in a decrease in cell volume and an increase in cell density. In spite of a net loss in monovalent cation content per cell, Na+ accumulation coupled with cell shrinkage resulted in substantial increases in the concentrations of not only Na+ but also K+. The results suggested a possible role for tonicity change in the morphological lesions of poliovirus cytotoxicity.
Between August 1969, when the amendment to the Criminal Code went into effect, and December 1978 about 397 000 legal abortions were performed in hospitals with therapeutic abortion committees in Canada. During the 5-year period 1974-78 abortions in females under 20 years of age accounted for 30.9% of all the legal abortions performed in Canada on Canadian residents, and the abortion rate per 1000 women aged 15 to 19 years increased from 13.6 to 16.3. During 1974-77 the proportion of women in whom the gestation period was more than 12 weeks at the time of abortion was 25.3% for teenagers (females under 20 years of age) but only 14.6% for women aged 20 years or over. In 1976 the teenage abortion rate was lower in Canada (14.5) than in the United States (36.2%), Sweden (28.5), Hungary (26.4), Denmark (26.0), Norway (22.7), Finland (20.3), and England and Wales (15.4).
The Na+ content of poliovirus-infected HeLa S3 cells increased during the late phase of virus replication, after virus inhibition of host cell protein synthesis and in coincidence with late viral functions. Guanidine hydrochloride blocked the rise in Na+ content, whereas the antiguanidine agent choline fully reversed the guanidine block. Expression of one or more late viral functions was essential for Na+ accumulation to occur because accumulation was inhibited by cycloheximide or guanidine added to the infected culture during the late phase. Increased adenosine triphosphatase activity appears to be primarily responsible for Na+ accumulation by virus-infected cells.
Cordycepin triphosphate inhibited in vitro [3H]GMP incorporation by pricornavirus-specific polymerase complexes isolated from infected HeLa cells. The inhibition of [3H]GMP incorporation could be reversed with ATP added to the reaction mixture along with the inhibitor, but not with GTP so added or with ATP added 10 min after the inhibitor. Products synthesized in vitro in the presence of cordycepin triphosphate lacked full-length single-stranded viral RNA. These results support RNA chain termination by specific competition with ATP as the mechanism of inhibition of picornavirus-specific RNA synthesis by cordycepin triphosphate.
The polyadenylate [poly(A)] content of the genome RNA of human rhinovirus type 14 (HRV-14) is nearly twice as large as that of the genome RNA of poliovirus type 2. The poly(A) content of viral RNA was determined to be the RNase-resistant fraction of 32P-labeled viral RNA extracted from purified virions. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the poly(A) sequences of HRV-14 are more heterogenous and on an average larger than those of poliovirus RNA. On the basis of susceptibility to micrococcal polynucleotide phosphorylase the rhinovirus genome terminates in poly(A). Replication of both viruses is almost totally inhibited by cordycepin at 50 mug/ml. At lower concentrations, rhinovirus replication is more sensitive to cordycepin than poliovirus replication. Addition of cordycepin (75 mug/ml) to infected culture prior to or during viral RNA replication results in more or less complete inhibition of virus-specific RNA synthesis. The results do not indicate that cordycepin sensitivity of either virus is due to preferential inhibition of viral poly(A) synthesis by this antibiotic.
Single-strand breaks in deoxyribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli B/r cells exposed to 20 krads of gamma radiation could be rejoined by incubation of irradiated cells in growth medium. In the presence of 0.25% phenethyl alcohol, this repair was completely inhibited although deoxyribonucleic acid and protein syntheses were suppressed only partially.
Human rhinovirus type 14 contained polyadenylated RNA. Virus growth in HeLa cells was inhibited by cordycepin or polyuridilic acid and stimulated by polyadenylic acid. Polyadenylic acid also reversed cordycepin inhibition of virus-induced cytopathology of infected HeLa cells.
A class of RNA in HeLa cytoplasm with a sedimentation value of 22S is described. This RNA is a true cytoplasmic component and is not an artifact of cell rupture or of the method of RNA preparation. The 22S RNA sediments in a sucrose gradient with those ribosomal structures containing 28S ribosomal RNA (60S and 74S particles and polyribosomes). It has a base composition and methyl content similar to those of 28S RNA. The kinetics of formation of 22S suggest that it is not a direct product of transcription but is derived in vivo from "old" molecules of 28S RNA.