Unilateral crossbite is a commonly encountered condition in clinical practice. The most frequently employed treatment protocol to manage unilateral crossbite is orthodontic correction or orthognathic surgery or combination of both. When the clinical situation less favours both these modalities of management, a transitional prosthetic appliance—-dentovestibular enhancement prosthetic appliance— can be effectively used to manage this condition.
Unilateral cross bite; Esthetics; Dento vestibular enhancement appliance
Metronidazole, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug against trichomoniasis, is nonspermicidal and thus cannot offer pregnancy protection when used vaginally. Furthermore, increasing resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis to 5-nitro-imidazoles is a cause for serious concern. On the other hand, the vaginal spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9) does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in clinical situations but may in fact increase their incidence due to its nonspecific, surfactant action. We therefore designed dually active, nonsurfactant molecules that were capable of killing Trichomonas vaginalis (both metronidazole-susceptible and -resistant strains) and irreversibly inactivating 100% human sperm at doses that were noncytotoxic to human cervical epithelial (HeLa) cells and vaginal microflora (lactobacilli) in vitro. Anaerobic energy metabolism, cell motility, and defense against reactive oxygen species, which are key to survival of both sperm and Trichomonas in the host after intravaginal inoculation, depend crucially on availability of free thiols. Consequently, molecules were designed with carbodithioic acid moiety as the major pharmacophore, and chemical variations were incorporated to provide high excess of reactive thiols for interacting with accessible thiols on sperm and Trichomonas. We report here the in vitro activities, structure-activity relationships, and safety profiles of these spermicidal antitrichomonas agents, the most promising of which was more effective than N-9 (the OTC spermicide) in inactivating human sperm and more efficacious than metronidazole in killing Trichomonas vaginalis (including metronidazole-resistant strain). It also significantly reduced the available free thiols on human sperm and inhibited the cytoadherence of Trichomonas on HeLa cells. Experimentally in vitro, the new compounds appeared to be safer than N-9 for vaginal use.
The covalent attachment of lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin to the zinc finger domain of IKBKG/NEMO (also known as IKKγ) is necessary for full activation of NF-κB. Impairments of this biochemical mechanism explain the deleterious effects of hypomorphic NEMO mutations on NF-κB signaling function in humans suffering from X-linked ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency. Nevertheless, the biological function of the NEMO zinc finger domain in the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity is poorly understood. Here we show that dendritic cells from patients with EDI caused by a C-terminal E391X deletion of the zinc finger of NEMO exhibit impaired MAPK activation in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Interestingly, DCs from patients with a C417R missense mutation within the zinc finger domain of NEMO in which ubiquitination of NEMO is preserved are also defective in JNK and ERK activity following LPS stimulation. Our findings indicate that the structural integrity of the NEMO ZF domain is more important than its polyubiquitination for full activation of the MAPK. Furthermore, phosphorylation and polyubiquitination of upstream TAK1 were significantly reduced in the E391X zinc finger deleted patients, indicating that the NEMO zinc finger may play an important role in assembling the proximal signaling complex for MAPK activation.
IKBKG; NEMO; IKKγ; MAPK; toll-like receptor; ubiquitination
Ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency (EDI) is an immunological and developmental disorder caused by alterations in the gene encoding NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO; also known as IκB kinase γ subunit [IKKγ]). Missense mutations in the gene encoding NEMO are associated with reduced signal-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB proteins, resulting in defective expression of NF-κB target genes. Here, we report 2 unrelated male patients with EDI, both of whom have normal NEMO coding sequences, but exhibit a marked reduction in expression of full-length NEMO protein. TLR4 stimulation of APCs from these patients induced normal cytoplasmic activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. However, cells deficient in full-length NEMO were defective in expression of NF-κB–regulated cytokines, such as IL-12, suggesting a downstream defect in chromatin accessibility for NF-κB transcription factors. TLR4-stimulated APCs from the patients were defective in IKKα-dependent H3 histone phosphorylation at the IL-12 promoter and recruitment of NF-κB heterodimers RelA and cRel to the promoter. Expression of a super-active form of IKKα restored IL-12 production in a NEMO knockdown human monocytic cell line following LPS treatment. Our findings suggest that NEMO regulates the nuclear function of IKKα and offer new insights into the mechanisms underlying diminished NF-κB signaling in patients with EDI.
Human inherited antibody deficiency disorders are generally caused by mutations in genes involved in the pathways regulating B-cell class switch recombination; DNA damage repair; and B-cell development, differentiation, and survival. Sequencing a large set of candidate genes involved in these pathways appears to be a highly efficient way to identify novel mutations. Herein we review several high-throughput sequencing approaches as well as recent improvements in target gene enrichment technologies. Systematic improvement of enrichment and sequencing methods, along with refinement of the experimental process is necessary to develop a cost-effective high-throughput resequencing assay for a large cohort of patient samples. The Hyper-IgM/CVID chip is one example of a resequencing platform that may be used to identify known or novel mutations in patents with various types of inherited antibody deficiency.
High-throughput sequencing; Microarray; Next-generation sequencing; Target sequence enrichment; Sequence capture by hybridization; PCR; Cost-effective; Assay development
Alterations in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) essential modulator (NEMO; HUGO-approved symbol IKBKG) underlie most cases of ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency (EDI), a human disorder characterized by anhidrosis with diminished immunity. EDI has also been associated with a single heterozygous mutation at position Ser32 of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, one of two phosphorylation sites that are essential for targeting IκBα for proteasomal degradation and hence for activation of NF-κB. We report a novel heterozygous nonsense mutation in the IKBA (HUGO-approved symbol, NFKBIA) gene of a 1-year-old male child with EDI that introduces a premature termination codon at position Glu14. An in-frame methionine downstream of the nonsense mutation allows for reinitiation of translation. The resulting N-terminally truncated protein lacks both serine phosphorylation sites and inhibits NF-κB signaling by functioning as a dominant negative on NF-κB activity in lymphocytes and monocytes. These findings support the scanning model for translation initiation in eukaryotes and confirm the critical role of the NF-κB in the human immune response.
primary immunodeficiency; ectodermal dysplasia; EDI; lymphocyte activation; antigen presenting cell; NEMO; NF-κB; IKBKG; IκBα; IKBA; NFKBIA
Pyoderma gangrenosum–like ulcers and cellulitis of the lower extremities associated with recurrent fevers in patients with X-linked (Bruton) agammaglobulinemia have been reported to be caused by Helicobacter bilis (formerly classified as Flexispira rappini and then Helicobacter strain flexispira taxon 8). Consistent themes in these reports are the difficulty in recovering this organism in blood and wound cultures and in maintaining isolates in vitro. We confirmed the presence of this organism in a patient’s culture by using a novel application of gene amplification polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
An adolescent boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia presented with indurated plaques and a chronic leg ulcer whose origin was strongly suspected to be an H bilis organism. Histologic analysis demonstrated positive Warthin-Starry staining of curvilinear rods, which grew in culture but failed to grow when sub-cultured. They could not be identified by conventional techniques. A combination of gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of this organism.
This novel technology was useful in the identification of a difficult-to-grow Helicobacter organism, the cause of pyoderma gangrenosum–like leg ulcers in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Correct identification of this organism as the cause of pyoderma gangrenosum–like ulcers in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia is of great importance for the early initiation of appropriate and curative antibiotic therapy.
Background: CYLD is a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that hydrolyzes Lys-63-linked polyubiquitin chains that are attached covalently to cellular proteins.
Results: CYLD knock-out mice have increased numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral lymphoid organs but not in the thymus.
Conclusion: CYLD regulates lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of Smad7 to control the development of peripheral Tregs.
Significance: TGF-β signaling in T cells is regulated by lysine 63-Linked ubiquitination.
CYLD is a lysine 63-deubiquitinating enzyme that inhibits NF-κB and JNK signaling. Here, we show that CYLD knock-out mice have markedly increased numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral lymphoid organs but not in the thymus. In vitro stimulation of CYLD-deficient naive T cells with anti-CD3/28 in the presence of TGF-β led to a marked increase in the number of Foxp3-expressing T cells when compared with stimulated naive control CD4+ cells. Under endogenous conditions, CYLD formed a complex with Smad7 that facilitated CYLD deubiquitination of Smad7 at lysine 360 and 374 residues. Moreover, this site-specific ubiquitination of Smad7 was required for activation of TAK1 and p38 kinases. Finally, knockdown of Smad7 or inhibition of p38 activity in primary T cells impaired Treg differentiation. Together, our results show that CYLD regulates TGF-β signaling function in T cells and the development of Tregs through deubiquitination of Smad7.
Deubiquitination; Development; Signaling; Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFbeta); Ubiquitination; CYLD; Smad7; Tregs
Hyper-IgM syndrome and Common Variable Immunodeficiency are heterogeneous disorders characterized by predisposition to serious infection and impaired or absent neutralizing antibody responses. While a number of single gene defects have been associated with these immune deficiency disorders, the genetic basis of many cases is not known. To facilitate mutation screening in patients with these syndromes, we have developed a custom 300-kb resequencing array, the Hyper-IgM/CVID chip, which interrogates 1576 coding exons and intron-exon junction regions from 148 genes implicated in B cell development and immunoglobulin isotype switching. Genomic DNAs extracted from patients were hybridized to the array using a high-throughput protocol for target sequence amplification, pooling, and hybridization. A web-based application, SNP Explorer, was developed to directly analyze and visualize the single nucleotide polymorphism annotation and for quality filtering. Several mutations in known disease-susceptibility genes such as CD40LG, TNFRSF13B, IKBKG, AICDA, as well as rare nucleotide changes in other genes such as TRAF3IP2 were identified in patient DNA samples and validated by direct sequencing. We conclude that the Hyper-IgM/CVID chip combined with SNP Explorer may provide a cost-effective tool for high-throughput discovery of novel mutations among hundreds of disease-relevant genes in patients with inherited antibody deficiency.
Hyper-IgM; CVID; B cell; somatic hypermutation; resequencing microarray; SNP
Patients with CD40 ligand deficiency are susceptible to central nervous system (CNS) infections, but existing reports have not detailed the neurologic progression or long-term outcome of CNS complications. Characterizing the CNS complications of immune deficiencies can result in the identification of new pathogens. We reviewed clinical data on patients with CD40 ligand deficiency who suffered neurodegeneration identified from a larger cohort of 31 patients. Five patients had progressive neurologic and cognitive decline in the absence of clinical signs of acute fulminant encephalitis, with anatomic brain abnormalities, and high mortality (60%). Despite multiple evaluations, pathogens were not identified in four patients, all of whom were on standard intravenous immune globulin therapy at illness presentation. This clinical phenotype of progressive decline without acute fulminant encephalitis is similar to chronic enteroviral encephalitis in X-linked agammaglobulinemia, another condition with severe humoral immune defects. Whether infection secondary to sub-therapeutic levels of CNS IgG, inadequately-protective levels of serum IgG, or impaired CD40 ligand-dependent IgG-independent antiviral responses contributed remains undetermined. Emerging gene-chip techniques applied in patients with primary immune deficiencies may identify hereto unknown viruses. Prospective neurocognitive and evaluation of patients with CD40 ligand deficiency may identify affected patients prior to overt clinical signs.
Encephalitis; Viral infections; CD40 ligand deficiency; X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome; neurodegeneration
Patients with hypomorphic nuclear factor-κB essential modulator (NEMO) mutations have extensive phenotypic variability that can include atypical infectious susceptibility.
This study may provide important insight into immunologic mechanisms of host defense.
Immunologic evaluation, including studies of Toll-like receptor (TLR) function, was performed in a 6-month-old boy with normal ectodermal development who was diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia and cytomegalovirus sepsis.
Genomic and cDNA sequencing demonstrated a novel NEMO missense mutation, 337G->A, predicted to cause a D113N (aspartic acid to asparagine) substitution in the first coiled-coil region of the NEMO protein. Quantitative serum immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subset numbers, and mitogeninduced lymphocyte proliferation were essentially normal. The PBMC responses to TLR ligands were also surprisingly normal, whereas natural killer cell cytolytic activity, T-cell proliferative responses to specific antigens, and T-cell receptor–induced NF-κB activation were diminished.
Unlike the unique NEMO mutation described here, the most commonly reported mutations are clustered at the 3′ end in the tenth exon, which encodes a zinc finger domain. Because specific hypomorphic variants of NEMO are associated with distinctive phenotypes, this particular NEMO mutation highlights a dispensability of the region including amino acid 113 for TLR signaling and ectodysplasin A receptor function. This region is required for certain immunoreceptor functions as demonstrated by his susceptibility to infections as well as natural killer cell and T-cell defects.
NEMO; Toll-like receptors
Ectodermal dysplasias (ED) are uncommon genetic disorders resulting in abnormalities in ectodermally derived structures. Many ED-associated genes have been described, of which ectodysplasin-A (EDA) is one of the more common. The NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO encoded by the IKBKG gene) is unique in that mutations result in severe humoral and cellular immunologic defects in addition to ED. We describe three unrelated kindreds with defects in both EDA and IKBKG resulting from X-chromosome crossover. This demonstrates the importance of thorough immunologic consideration of patients with ED even when an EDA etiology is confirmed, and raises the possibility of a specific phenotype arising from coincident mutations in EDA and IKBKG.
NEMO; EDA; ectodermal dysplasia; immunodeficiency
The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mechanisms. The authors reviewed human epidemiological studies, cross-sectional observations and longitudinal cohort, case control that evaluated variables exclusively over the past 30 years and the predominant findings from the “certain” articles are summarized in this review. This review clarifies certain queries such as 1) Do periodontal diseases have an effect on the metabolic control of diabetes? 2) Does diabetes act as a risk factor of periodontitis? 3) What are the possible underlying mechanisms relating the connection between these two chronic diseases? 4) What is the effect of periodontal intervention on metabolic control of diabetes? After a thorough survey of literature, it was observed that diabetes acts as a risk factor in development of periodontitis as periodontitis is significantly aggravated in patients suffering from diabetes having long term hyperglycemia. Different mechanisms underlying the association between the accelerated periodontal disease and diabetes are emerging but still more work is required. Major efforts are required to elucidate the impact of periodontal diseases on diabetes. At the same time, patients are needed to be made aware of regular periodontal maintenance schedule and oral hygiene.
Diabetes; hyperglycemia; periodontal disease; risk factors
A nontraumatic spontaneous extradural hematoma, in a fully conscious 10-year-old male child, caused by a solitary eosinophilic granuloma of calvarium presented as a case of localized painful swelling of the head, which rapidly expanded and decreased in size. A plain CT-scan of the head with bone window revealed eroded right parietal bone with subperiosteal debris and extradural hematoma of mixed density. Immediate evacuation of the extradural clot and complete excision of the lesion was performed to prevent the deterioration of the patient and to achieve the histological diagnosis for further management.
Calvarium; eosinophilic granuloma; extradural hematoma
A prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the effect of nitrous oxide (N2O) on the frequency and severity of pain and withdrawal reactions after injection of rocuronium. Eighty ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomised to receive 100% oxygen (O2), or 50% N2O in O2 for 3 minutes followed by a subparalysing dose of rocuronium 0.06 mg/kg. After induction of anaesthesia with thiopentone 5 mg/kg, an intubating dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given. The patients were observed after injection of rocuronium 0.06 mg/kg, and asked to rate pain in the arm on a 4-point (0–3) verbal rating scale (none, mild, moderate or severe). After the intubating dose of rocuronium, withdrawal reactions were recorded. Thirty-six patients (90%) in the group N2O and 15 patients (37.5%) in the group O2 reported no pain (P < 0.001). The pain was mild in 1 (2.5%) and 9 (22.5%) patients in N2O and O2 groups, respectively (P = 0.006). Moderate pain occurred in 2 (5%) patients in group N2O and 15 (37.5%) patients in group O2 (P = 0.001). Severe pain was reported by one patient in each group (P = 0.47). Withdrawal response after an intubating dose of rocuronium was observed in 6 (15%) and 18 (45%) patients in the N2O and O2 groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Inhalation of 50% N2O in O2 reduces the incidence and severity of pain and the withdrawal reactions associated with rocuronium injection.
Nitrous oxide; pain; rocuronium
AIM: To study the seroprevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in healthy blood donors negative for HBsAg and to evaluate whether anti-HBc detection could be adopted in India as a screening assay for HBV in addition to HBsAg.
METHODS: A total of 1700 serum samples collected from HBsAg-negative healthy blood donors were tested for the presence of anti-HBc antibody (IgM + IgG). All samples reactive for anti-HBc antibody were then investigated for presence of anti-HBs and for liver function tests (LFTs). One hundred serum samples reactive for anti-HBc were tested for HBV DNA by PCR method.
RESULTS: Out of 1700 samples tested, 142 (8.4%) blood samples were found to be reactive for anti-HBc. It was significantly lower in voluntary (6.9%) as compared to replacement donors (10.4%, P = 0.011). Seventy-two (50.7%) anti-HBc reactive samples were also reactive for anti-HBs with levels > 10 mIU/mL and 70 (49.3%) samples were non-reactive for anti-HBs, these units were labeled as anti-HBc-only. These 142 anti-HBc reactive units were also tested for liver function test. HBV DNA was detected in only 1 of 100 samples tested.
CONCLUSION: Keeping in view that 8%-18% of donor population in India is anti-HBc reactive, inclusion of anti-HBc testing will lead to high discard rate. Anti-HBs as proposed previously does not seem to predict clearance of the virus. Cost effectiveness of introducing universal anti-HBc screening and discarding large number of blood units versus considering ID NAT (Individual donor nuclic acid testing) needs to be assessed.
Hepatitis B core antigen; Hepatitis B surface antigen; Hepatitis B virus; Transfusion-associated hepatitis B virus; Blood donors
Cylindromatosis (CYLD) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is altered in patients with familial cylindromatosis, a condition characterized by numerous benign adnexal tumors. However, the regulatory function of CYLD remains unsettled. Here we show that the development of B cells, T cells, and myeloid cells was unaffected in CYLD-deficient mice, but that the activation of these cells with mediators of innate and adaptive immunity resulted in enhanced NF-κB and JNK activity associated with increased TNF receptor–associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) ubiquitination. CYLD-deficient mice were more susceptible to induced colonic inflammation and showed a dramatic increase in the incidence of tumors compared with controls in a colitis-associated cancer model. These results suggest that CYLD limits inflammation and tumorigenesis by regulating ubiquitination in vivo.
Hypomorphic mutations in the zinc finger domain of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) cause X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome with ectodermal dysplasia (XHM-ED). Here we report that patient B cells are characterized by an absence of Ig somatic hypermutation (SHM) and defective class switch recombination (CSR) despite normal induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and Iε-Cε transcripts. This indicates that AID expression alone is insufficient to support neutralizing antibody responses. Furthermore, we show that patient B cells stimulated with CD40 ligand are impaired in both p65 and c-Rel activation, and whereas addition of IL-4 can enhance p65 activity, c-Rel activity remains deficient. This suggests that these NF-κB components have different activation requirements and that IL-4 can augment some but not all NEMO-dependent NF-κB signaling. Finally, using microarray analysis of patient B cells we identified downstream effects of impaired NF-κB activation and candidate factors that may be necessary for CSR and SHM in B cells.
Epidemiologic studies have implicated periodontitis as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. However, no prospective studies investigating this potential relationship have been carried out. Age- and sex-matched New Zealand White rabbits were maintained on a diet consisting of 0.5% fat for 13 weeks to induce the accumulation of lipid deposits in the aorta as a model for atherogenesis. One-half of the animals received silk ligatures around their mandibular premolars followed by an application of a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, to induce periodontitis. Animals were sacrificed after 14 weeks. Periodontal disease severity was quantified radiographically, histologically, and by direct visualization of bone loss on defleshed skulls. Lipid deposition was evaluated by computer-assisted morphometry in the aortas en face after lipid deposits were stained with Sudan IV. Animals with experimentally induced periodontitis had more extensive accumulations of lipids in the aorta than did nonperiodontitis animals (P < 0.05), and there was a positive correlation between the severity of periodontal disease and the extent of lipid deposition (r2 = 0.9501). The results provide direct evidence that periodontitis may be a risk factor and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The data support the concept that infections at remote locations can modulate atherosclerotic events distantly.
NF-κB essential modifier (NEMO), also known as IKK-γ, is a member of the I-κB kinase complex responsible for phosphorylating I-κB, allowing the release and activation of NF-κB. Boys with an expressed NEMO mutation have an X-linked syndrome characterized by hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency (HED-ID). The immunophenotype resulting from NEMO mutation is highly variable, with deficits in both T and B cell responses. We evaluated three patients with NEMO mutations (L153R, Q403X, and C417R) and HED-ID who had evidence of defective CD40 signaling. All three patients had normal percentages of peripheral blood NK cells, but impaired NK cell cytotoxic activity. This was not due to a generalized defect in cytotoxicity because antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was intact. This abnormality was partially reversed by in vitro addition of IL-2, which was also able to induce NF-κB activation. In one patient with recurrent cytomegalovirus infections, administration of IL-2 partially corrected the NK cell killing deficit. These data suggest that NEMO participates in signaling pathways leading to NK cell cytotoxicity and that IL-2 can activate NF-κB and partially overcome the NK cell defect in patients with NEMO mutations.