Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a tumor suppressor syndrome characterized by bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) which often result in deafness despite aggressive management. Meningiomas, ependymomas and other cranial nerve and peripheral schwannomas are also commonly found in NF2 and collectively lead to major neurologic morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, the overall survival rate in patients with NF2 is estimated to be 38% at 20 years from diagnosis. Hence, there is a desperate need for new, effective therapies. Recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of NF2 related tumors has aided in the identification of potential therapeutic targets and emerging clinical therapies. In June 2010, representatives of the international NF2 research and clinical community convened under the leadership of Drs. D. Gareth Evans (University of Manchester) and Marco Giovannini (House Research Institute) to review the state of NF2 treatment and clinical trials. This manuscript summarizes the expert opinions about current treatments for NF2 associated tumors and recommendations for advancing therapies emerging from that meeting. The development of effective therapies for NF2 associated tumors has the potential for significant clinical advancement not only for patients with NF2 but for thousands of neuro-oncology patients afflicted with these tumors.
Neurofibromatosis type 2; meningioma; schwannoma; vestibular schwannoma; ependymoma; radiotherapy; molecular therapy; surgery
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients develop benign neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). These incurable peripheral nerve tumors result from loss of NF1 tumor suppressor gene function, causing hyperactive Ras signaling. Activated Ras controls numerous downstream effectors, but specific pathways mediating the effects of hyperactive Ras in NF1 tumors are unknown. We performed cross-species transcriptome analyses of mouse and human neurofibromas and MPNSTs and identified global negative feedback of genes that regulate Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling in both species. Nonetheless, ERK activation was sustained in mouse and human neurofibromas and MPNST. We used a highly selective pharmacological inhibitor of MEK, PD0325901, to test whether sustained Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling contributes to neurofibroma growth in a neurofibromatosis mouse model (Nf1fl/fl;Dhh-Cre) or in NF1 patient MPNST cell xenografts. PD0325901 treatment reduced aberrantly proliferating cells in neurofibroma and MPNST, prolonged survival of mice implanted with human MPNST cells, and shrank neurofibromas in more than 80% of mice tested. Our data demonstrate that deregulated Ras/ERK signaling is critical for the growth of NF1 peripheral nerve tumors and provide a strong rationale for testing MEK inhibitors in NF1 clinical trials.
The neurofibromatoses (NF) encompass the rare diseases NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis. The NFs affect 100,000 Americans; over 2 million persons worldwide; and are caused by mutation of tumor suppressor genes. Individuals with NF1 in particular may develop tumors anywhere in the nervous system; additional manifestations can include learning disabilities, bone dysplasia, cardiovascular defects, unmanageable pain, and physical disfigurement. Ultimately, the NFs can cause blindness, deafness, severe morbidity, and increased mortality and NF1 includes a risk of malignant cancer. Today there is no treatment for the NFs (other than symptomatic); however, research efforts to understand these genetic conditions have made tremendous strides in the past few years. Progress is being made on all fronts, from discovery studies—understanding the molecular signaling deficits that cause the manifestations of NF—to the growth of preclinical drug screening initiatives and the emergence of a number of clinical trials. An important element in fuelling this progress is the sharing of knowledge, and to this end, for over 20 years the Children’s Tumor Foundation has convened an annual NF Conference, bringing together NF professionals to share ideas and build collaborations. The 2010 NF Conference held in Baltimore, MD June 5–8,2010 hosted over 300 NF researchers and clinicians. This paper provides a synthesis of the highlights presented at the Conference and as such, is a “state-of-the-field” for NF research in 2010.
neurofibromatosis; schwannomatosis; NF1; NF2; neurofibroma; learning disabilities; bone dysplasia; MPNST
The axon initial segment (AIS) plays a crucial role: it is the site where neurons initiate their electrical outputs. Its composition in terms of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, as well as its length and localization determine the neuron's spiking properties. Some neurons are able to modulate their AIS length or distance from the soma in order to adapt their excitability properties to their activity level. It is therefore crucial to characterize all these parameters and determine where the myelin sheath begins in order to assess a neuron's excitability properties and ability to display such plasticity mechanisms. If the myelin sheath starts immediately after the AIS, another question then arises as to how would the axon be organized at its first myelin attachment site; since AISs are different from nodes of Ranvier, would this particular axonal region resemble a hemi-node of Ranvier?
We have characterized the AIS of mouse somatic motor neurons. In addition to constant determinants of excitability properties, we found heterogeneities, in terms of AIS localization and Nav composition. We also identified in all α motor neurons a hemi-node-type organization, with a contactin-associated protein (Caspr)+ paranode-type, as well as a Caspr2+ and Kv1+ juxtaparanode-type compartment, referred to as a para-AIS and a juxtapara (JXP)-AIS, adjacent to the AIS, where the myelin sheath begins. We found that Kv1 channels appear in the AIS, para-AIS and JXP-AIS concomitantly with myelination and are progressively excluded from the para-AIS. Their expression in the AIS and JXP-AIS is independent from transient axonal glycoprotein-1 (TAG-1)/Caspr2, in contrast to juxtaparanodes, and independent from PSD-93. Data from mice lacking the cytoskeletal linker protein 4.1B show that this protein is necessary to form the Caspr+ para-AIS barrier, ensuring the compartmentalization of Kv1 channels and the segregation of the AIS, para-AIS and JXP-AIS.
α Motor neurons have heterogeneous AISs, which underlie different spiking properties. However, they all have a para-AIS and a JXP-AIS contiguous to their AIS, where the myelin sheath begins, which might limit some AIS plasticity. Protein 4.1B plays a key role in ensuring the proper molecular compartmentalization of this hemi-node-type region.
Neurons are characterized by extremely long axons. This exceptional cell shape is likely to depend on multiple factors including interactions between the cytoskeleton and membrane proteins. In many cell types, members of the protein 4.1 family play an important role in tethering the cortical actin-spectrin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. Protein 4.1B is localized in myelinated axons, enriched in paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions, and also all along the internodes, but not at nodes of Ranvier where are localized the voltage-dependent sodium channels responsible for action potential propagation. To shed light on the role of protein 4.1B in the general organization of myelinated peripheral axons, we studied 4.1B knockout mice. These mice displayed a mildly impaired gait and motility. Whereas nodes were unaffected, the distribution of Caspr/paranodin, which anchors 4.1B to the membrane, was disorganized in paranodal regions and its levels were decreased. In juxtaparanodes, the enrichment of Caspr2, which also interacts with 4.1B, and of the associated TAG-1 and Kv1.1, was absent in mutant mice, whereas their levels were unaltered. Ultrastructural abnormalities were observed both at paranodes and juxtaparanodes. Axon calibers were slightly diminished in phrenic nerves and preterminal motor axons were dysmorphic in skeletal muscle. βII spectrin enrichment was decreased along the axolemma. Electrophysiological recordings at 3 post-natal weeks showed the occurrence of spontaneous and evoked repetitive activity indicating neuronal hyperexcitability, without change in conduction velocity. Thus, our results show that in myelinated axons 4.1B contributes to the stabilization of membrane proteins at paranodes, to the clustering of juxtaparanodal proteins, and to the regulation of the internodal axon caliber.
Desmoid tumours (also called deep or aggressive fibromatoses) are potentially life-threatening fibromatous lesions. Hereditary desmoid tumours arise in individuals affected by either familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary desmoid disease (HDD) carrying germline mutations in APC. Most sporadic desmoids carry somatic mutations in CTNNB1. Previous studies identified losses on 5q and 6q, and gains on 8q and 20q as recurrent genetic changes in desmoids. However, virtually all genetic changes were derived from sporadic tumours. To investigate the somatic alterations in FAP-associated desmoids and to compare them with changes occurring in sporadic tumours, we analysed 17 FAP-associated and 38 sporadic desmoids by array comparative genomic hybridisation and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, the desmoids displayed only a limited number of genetic changes, occurring in 44% of cases. Recurrent gains at 8q (7%) and 20q (5%) were almost exclusively found in sporadic tumours. Recurrent losses were observed for a 700 kb region at 5q22.2, comprising the APC gene (11%), a 2 Mb region at 6p21.2-p21.1 (15%), and a relatively large region at 6q15-q23.3 (20%). The FAP-associated desmoids displayed a significantly higher frequency of copy number abnormalities (59%) than the sporadic tumours (37%). As predicted by the APC germline mutations among these patients, a high percentage (29%) of FAP-associated desmoids showed loss of the APC region at 5q22.2, which was infrequently (3%) seen among sporadic tumours. Our data suggest that loss of region 6q15-q16.2 is an important event in FAP-associated as well as sporadic desmoids, most likely of relevance for desmoid tumour progression.
Patients with blood-related cancers (BRC) suffer from a substantial symptom burden, including several pain syndromes sustained by different causes and pathogenetic mechanisms. So, with regard to pain, a multifaceted clinical scenario may be observed in this setting. Indeed, pain may be correlated to disease itself, to disease-associated complications, to iatrogenic causes or may be due to unrelated clinical conditions. A close diagnostic procedure for the assessment of the underlying causes of the pain and of its pathogenetic mechanisms may direct the treatment approach which should be based on a multidisciplinary management and requires the integration of etiology-targeted interventions and painkilling drugs. The World Health Organization's three-step analgesic ladder for cancer pain relief can provide adequate pain control using oral drugs in most patients with BRC on pain, although more complex interventions may be necessary for many difficult-to-treat pain syndromes which are not infrequently encountered in this setting.
Blood-related cancers; Hematological malignancies; Pain
The case of an 86-year-old man suffering from acute myeloid leukemia and end-stage renal disease, managed at home, with continuous peritoneal dialysis regimen, is described.
Peritoneal dialysis; Hematological malignancies; Palliative care; Home care
Current models imply that the FERM domain protein Merlin, encoded by the tumor suppressor NF2, inhibits mitogenic signaling at or near the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the closed, growth inhibitory form of Merlin accumulates in the nucleus, binds to the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4DCAF1, and suppresses its activity. Depletion of DCAF1 blocks the promitogenic effect of inactivation of Merlin. Conversely, enforced expression of a Merlin-insensitive mutant of DCAF1 counteracts the antimitogenic effect of Merlin. Re-expression of Merlin and silencing of DCAF1 induce a similar, tumor-suppressive program of gene expression. Tumor-derived mutations invariably disrupt Merlin’s ability to interact with or inhibit CRL4DCAF1. Finally, depletion of DCAF1 inhibits the hyperproliferation of Schwannoma cells from NF2 patients and suppresses the oncogenic potential of Merlin-deficient tumor cell lines. We propose that Merlin suppresses tumorigenesis by translocating to the nucleus to inhibit CRL4DCAF1
In addition to CNS tumors, more than 50% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) develop posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs). This study demonstrated that conditional deletion of Nf2 from the lens causes defects in fiber cell proliferation, terminal differentiation, and polarity. The lens provides an assay system to identify pathways critical for fiber cell differentiation and could shed light on how PSCs form in NF2 patients.
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal-dominant CNS tumor syndrome that affects 1:25,000 children and young adults. More than 50% of NF2 patients also develop posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs). The authors deleted Nf2 from the lens to determine its role in fiber cell differentiation.
Nf2 was conditionally deleted from murine lenses using the LeCre transgene. Standard histology and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent methods were used to analyze lens morphology and markers of cell cycle progression, differentiation, and cell junctions in wild-type and knockout lenses from embryonic day 10.5 through postnatal day 3.
Fiber cells lacking Nf2 did not fully exit the cell cycle and continued to express epithelial cell markers, such as FoxE3 and E-cadherin, despite expressing the fiber cell marker Prox1. Many fiber cells lost their elongated morphology. Markers of apical-basal polarity, such as ZO-1, were mislocalized along the lateral and basal membranes of fiber cells. The lens vesicle failed to separate from the surface ectoderm, and prospective lens and corneal epithelial cells formed a multilayered mass of cells at the surface of the eye. Herniation of this membrane caused the fiber mass to erupt through the cornea.
Nf2 is required for complete fiber cell terminal differentiation, maintenance of cell polarity, and separation of lens vesicle from corneal epithelium. Defects identified in fiber cell differentiation may explain the formation of PSCs in patients with NF2. The lens provides an assay system to identify pathways critical for fiber cell differentiation and to test therapies for the tumors that occur in patients with NF2.
Anticoagulants (AC) and anti-platelet (AP) agents are widely administered to patients with hematological malignancies (HM). However, HM patients may be at high risk of bleeding and hemorrhagic complications, because of different form of coagulopathies and several degrees of thrombocytopenia.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective evaluation of the use of anticoagulant and anti-thrombotic agents as well as of bleeding and thrombotic complications in a consecutive cohort of patients, which were followed during the first semester of 2010 by our home care service, was performed. In this regard, three pharmacological class of agents, such as oral anticoagulants (warfarin and acenocumarine), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and anti-platelet (AP) drugs were considered.
Out of 129 patients, 26 (20%) were treated with AC/AP drugs. Warfarin, acenocumarine, LMWH as well as AP were used in 7, 11 and 12 patients, respectively. Adverse events (bleeding) were observed in 3 patients (11.5%), 2 cases being on warfarin (replaced by LMWH) and 1 being AP (suspension without replacement); out of the 3 patients with bleeding, none presented thrombocytopenia.
Despite the frequent findings of hemostatic disorders in a population of frail patients managed in a home care setting, our experience demonstrated that the use of AC/AP drugs has been very rarely responsible for significant complications.
Acenocumarine; Bleeding; Hematological malignancies; Low molecular weight heparin; Warfarin
The conserved Hippo signaling pathway regulates organ size in both Drosophila and mammals. While a core kinase cascade leading from the protein kinase Hippo (Hpo) (Mst1 and Mst2 in mammals) to the transcription coactivator Yorkie (Yki) (YAP in mammals) has been established, upstream regulators of the Hippo kinase cascade are less well defined, especially in mammals. Using liver-specific conditional knockout mice, we demonstrate that the Merlin/NF2 tumor suppressor and the YAP oncoprotein function antagonistically to regulate liver development. While inactivation of Yap led to loss of hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells, inactivation of Nf2 led to hepatocellular carcinoma and bile duct hamartoma. Strikingly, the Nf2-deficient phenotype was largely suppressed by heterozygous deletion of Yap, suggesting that YAP is a major effector of Merlin/NF2 in growth regulation. Our studies link Merlin/NF2 to mammalian Hippo signaling and implicate YAP activation as a mediator of pathologies relevant to Neurofibromatosis 2.
Vestibular schwannomas (VS) frequently express high levels of activated AKT. Small-molecule inhibitors of AKT signaling may have therapeutic potential in suppressing the growth of benign VS and malignant schwannomas.
Primary VS and Schwann cells, human malignant schwannoma HMS-97 cells, and mouse Nf2−/− Schwann cells and schwannoma cells were prepared to investigate the growth inhibitory and anti-tumour activities of OSU-03012, a celecoxib-derived small-molecule inhibitor of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1. Cell proliferation assays, apoptosis, Western blot, in vivo xenograft analysis using SCID mice, and immunohistochemistry were performed.
OSU-03012 inhibited cell proliferation more effectively in both VS and HMS-97 cells than in normal human Schwann cells. The IC50 of OSU-03012 at 48 hours was approximately 3.1 μM for VS cells and 2.6 μM for HMS-97 cells, compared with the IC50 of greater than 12 μM for human Schwann cells. Similarly, mouse Nf2−/− schwannoma and Nf2−/− Schwann cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition by OSU-03012 than wild-type mouse Schwann cells and mouse schwannoma cells established from transgenic mice carrying the NF2 promoter-driven SV40 T-antigen gene. Like VS cells, malignant schwannoma HMS-97 cells expressed high levels of activated AKT. OSU-03012 induced apoptosis in both VS and HMS-97 cells and caused a marked reduction of AKT phosphorylation at both the Ser-308 and Thr-473 sites in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo xenograft analysis showed that OSU-03012 was well-tolerated and inhibited the growth of HMS-97 schwannoma xenografts by 55% after nine weeks of oral treatment. The anti-tumour activity correlated with reduced AKT phosphorylation.
OSU-03012 is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for VS and malignant schwannomas.
Vestibular schwannoma; Malignant schwannoma HMS-97; Neurofibromatosis type 2; The Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene; Merlin; PI3K/AKT pathway; OSU-03012; Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor; Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1; Xenograft; Magnetic resonance imaging
Individuals with the inherited cancer predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) develop several central nervous system (CNS) malignancies, including glial cell neoplasms (ependymomas). Recent studies have suggested that the NF2 protein, merlin (or schwannomin), may regulate receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, intracellular mitogenic growth control pathways, or adherens junction organization in non-nervous-system cell types. For this report, we used glial fibrillary acidic protein conditional knockout mice and derivative glia to determine how merlin regulates CNS glial cell proliferation. We show that the loss of merlin in glial cells results in increased proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Merlin regulation of glial cell growth reflects deregulated Src activity, such that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of Src activation reduces Nf2−/− glial cell growth to wild-type levels. We further show that Src regulates Nf2−/− glial cell growth by sequentially regulating FAK and paxillin phosphorylation/activity. Next, we demonstrate that Src activation results from merlin regulation of ErbB2 activation and that genetic or pharmacologic ErbB2 inhibition reduces Nf2−/− glial cell Src/Src effector activation and proliferation to wild-type levels. Lastly, we show that merlin competes with Src for direct binding to ErbB2 and present a novel molecular mechanism for merlin regulation of ErbB2-dependent Src signaling and growth control.
Understanding the biological pathways critical for common neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) peripheral nerve tumours is essential, as there is a lack of tumour biomarkers, prognostic factors and therapeutics. We used gene expression profiling to define transcriptional changes between primary normal Schwann cells (n = 10), NF1-derived primary benign neurofibroma Schwann cells (NFSCs) (n = 22), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) cell lines (n = 13), benign neurofibromas (NF) (n = 26) and MPNST (n = 6). Dermal and plexiform NFs were indistinguishable. A prominent theme in the analysis was aberrant differentiation. NFs repressed gene programs normally active in Schwann cell precursors and immature Schwann cells. MPNST signatures strongly differed; genes up-regulated in sarcomas were significantly enriched for genes activated in neural crest cells. We validated the differential expression of 82 genes including the neural crest transcription factor SOX9 and SOX9 predicted targets. SOX9 immunoreactivity was robust in NF and MPSNT tissue sections and targeting SOX9 – strongly expressed in NF1-related tumours – caused MPNST cell death. SOX9 is a biomarker of NF and MPNST, and possibly a therapeutic target in NF1.
MPNST; neurofibroma; NF1; Schwann cell; Sox9
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with a poor prognosis. The genetics and pathophysiology of AMKL are not well understood. We generated a knockin mouse model of the one twenty-two–megakaryocytic acute leukemia (OTT-MAL) fusion oncogene that results from the t(1;22)(p13;q13) translocation specifically associated with a subtype of pediatric AMKL. We report here that OTT-MAL expression deregulated transcriptional activity of the canonical Notch signaling pathway transcription factor recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin κ J region (RBPJ) and caused abnormal fetal megakaryopoiesis. Furthermore, cooperation between OTT-MAL and an activating mutation of the thrombopoietin receptor myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) efficiently induced a short-latency AMKL that recapitulated all the features of human AMKL, including megakaryoblast hyperproliferation and maturation block, thrombocytopenia, organomegaly, and extensive fibrosis. Our results establish that concomitant activation of RBPJ (Notch signaling) and MPL (cytokine signaling) transforms cells of the megakaryocytic lineage and suggest that specific targeting of these pathways could be of therapeutic value for human AMKL.
Kras is commonly mutated in colon cancers, but mutations in Nras are rare. We have used genetically engineered mice to determine whether and how these related oncogenes regulate homeostasis and tumorigenesis in the colon. Expression of K-RasG12D in the colonic epithelium stimulated hyperproliferation in a Mek-dependent manner. N-RasG12D did not alter the growth properties of the epithelium, but was able to confer resistance to apoptosis. In the context of an Apc-mutant colonic tumor, activation of K-Ras led to defects in terminal differentiation and expansion of putative stem cells within the tumor epithelium. This K-Ras tumor phenotype was associated with attenuated signaling through the MAPK pathway, and human colon cancer cells expressing mutant K-Ras were hypersensitive to inhibition of Raf, but not Mek. These studies demonstrate clear phenotypic differences between mutant Kras and Nras, and suggest that the oncogenic phenotype of mutant K-Ras might be mediated by noncanonical signaling through Ras effector pathways.
Nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2) is a component of the innate immunity known to be involved in the homeostasis of Peyer patches (PPs) in mice. However, little is known about its role during gut infection in vivo. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis, adenolymphitis and septicaemia which is able to invade its host through PPs. We investigated the role of Nod2 during Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Death was delayed in Nod2 deleted and Crohn's disease associated Nod2 mutated mice orogastrically inoculated with Y. pseudotuberculosis. In PPs, the local immune response was characterized by a higher KC level and a more intense infiltration by neutrophils and macrophages. The apoptotic and bacterial cell counts were decreased. Finally, Nod2 deleted mice had a lower systemic bacterial dissemination and less damage of the haematopoeitic organs. This resistance phenotype was lost in case of intraperitoneal infection. We concluded that Nod2 contributes to the susceptibility to Y. pseudotuberculosis in mice.
Meningiomas account for approximately 30% of all primary central nervous system tumors and are found in half of neurofibromatosis type 2 patients often causing significant morbidity. Although most meningiomas are benign, 10% are classified as atypical or anaplastic, displaying aggressive clinical behavior. Biallelic inactivation of the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor is associated with meningioma formation in all NF2 patients and 60% of sporadic meningiomas. Deletion of the p16INK4a/p14ARF locus is found in both benign and malignant meningiomas, while mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is uncommon. Previously, we inactivated Nf2 in homozygous conditional knockout mice by adenoviral Cre delivery and showed that Nf2 loss in arachnoid cells is rate-limiting for meningioma formation. Here, we report that additional nullizygosity for p16Ink4a increases the frequency of meningioma and meningothelial proliferation in these mice without modifying the tumor grade. In addition, by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to screen a large cohort of mutant mice, we were able to detect meningothelial proliferation and meningioma development opening the way to future studies in which therapeutic interventions can be tested as preclinical assessment of their potential clinical application.
CARD15/NOD2 mutations are associated with susceptibility to Crohn's Disease (CD) and Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD). CD and GVHD are suspected to be related with the dysfunction of Peyer's patches (PP) and isolated lymphoid follicles (LFs). Using a new mouse model invalidated for Card15/Nod2 (KO), we thus analysed the impact of the gene in these lymphoid formations together with the development of experimental colitis.
At weeks 4, 12 and 52, the numbers of PPs and LFs were higher in KO mice while no difference was observed at birth. At weeks 4 and 12, the size and cellular composition of PPs were analysed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. PPs of KO mice were larger with an increased proportion of M cells and CD4+ T-cells. KO mice were also characterised by higher concentrations of TNFα, IFNγ, IL12 and IL4 measured by ELISA. In contrast, little differences were found in the PP-free ileum and the spleen of KO mice. By Ussing chamber experiments, we found that this PP phenotype is associated with an increased of both paracellular permeability and yeast/bacterial translocation. Finally, KO mice were more susceptible to the colitis induced by TNBS.
Card15/Nod2 deficiency induces an abnormal development and function of the PPs characterised by an exaggerated immune response and an increased permeability. These observations provide a comprehensive link between the molecular defect and the Human CARD15/NOD2 associated disorders: CD and GVHD.