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1.  Spectrum of malabsorption syndrome among adults & factors differentiating celiac disease & tropical malabsorption 
Background & objectives:
Aetiology of malabsorption syndrome (MAS) differs in tropical and temperate countries over time; clinical and laboratory parameters may differentiate between various causes. This study was undertaken to investigate the spectrum of MAS among Indian adults and to find out the features that may help to differentiate between TM and celiac disease.
Causes of MAS, and factors differentiating tropical malabsorption (TM) from celiac disease (CD) were determined in 275 patients.
Using standard criteria, causes in 275 patients [age 37.5+13.2 yr, 170, (61.5%) male] were, TM 101 (37%), CD 53 (19%), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth 28 (10%), AIDS 15 (5.4%), giardiasis 13 (5%), hypogammaglobulinemia 12 (4%), intestinal tuberculosis 7 (2.5%), strongyloidiasis 6 (2%), immunoproliferative small intestinal disease 5 (2%), Crohn's disease 6 (2%), amyloidosis 4 (1.5%), intestinal lymphangiectasia 3 (1%) and unknown 22 (8%). On univariate analysis, patients with CD were younger than TM (30.6+12 vs. 39.3+12.6 yr, P<0.001), had lower body weight (41.3+11.8 vs. 49.9+11.2 kg, P<0.001), longer diarrhoea duration (median 36 inter-quartile range 17.8-120 vs. 24-months, 8-48, P<0.01), lower stool frequency (6/day, 5-8 vs. 8, 5-10, P<0.05), lower haemoglobin (9.4+3.2 vs. 10.4+2.7 g/dl, P<0.05), higher platelet count (2,58,000, range 1,35,500-3,23,500 vs. 1,60,000, 1,26,000-2,58,000/mm3, P<0.05), and more often had hepatomegaly (9/53, 17% vs. 4/101, 4%, P<0.01), and subtotal or partial villous atrophy (36/50, 72% vs. 28/87, 32%, P<0.001). Younger age (<35 yr), longer diarrhoea duration, higher platelet count and villous atrophy were significant on multivariate analysis.
Interpretation & conclusions:
TM and CD are common causes of MAS among Indian adults. Younger age (<35 yr), longer diarrhoea duration, higher platelet count and villous atrophy were found to be associated with CD.
PMCID: PMC3510892  PMID: 23041739
Chronic diarrhoea; Crohn's disease; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; small intestinal diseases; tropical enteropathy; tropical sprue
2.  Evaluation of antigen detection and polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess in patients on anti-amoebic treatment 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:416.
Diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in patients on anti-amoebic drugs is difficult. There is scanty data on this issue using Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) lectin antigen and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We studied utility of lectin antigen, PCR, and IgG antibody in diagnosis of liver abscess in patients on anti-amoebic treatment. Liver aspirate of 200 patients, of which 170 had anti-amoebic drug prior to drainage, was tested for E. histolytica lectin antigen by (ELISA), PCR, bacterial culture, and serum IgG antibody by (ELISA). Classification of abscesses was based on result of anti-amoebic IgG antibody and bacterial culture, E. histolytica PCR and bacterial culture, and E. histolytica lectin antigen and bacterial culture.
Using anti-amoebic IgG antibody and bacterial culture, 136/200 (68.0%) were classified as ALA, 12/200 (6.0%) as pyogenic liver abscess (PLA), 29/200 (14.5%) as mixed infection, and 23/200 (11.5%) remained unclassified. Using amoebic PCR and bacterial culture 151/200 (75.5%) were classified as ALA, 25/200 (12.5%) as PLA, 16/200 (8.0%) as mixed infection, and 8/200 (4.0%) remained unclassified. With E. histolytica lectin antigen and bacterial culture, 22/200 (11.0%) patients were classified as ALA, 39/200 (19.5%) as PLA, 2/200 (1.0%) as mixed infection, and 137/200 (68.5%) remained unclassified.
E. histolytica lectin antigen was not suitable for classification of ALA patients who had prior anti-amoebic treatment. However, PCR may be used as alternative test to anti-amoebic antibody in diagnosis of ALA.
PMCID: PMC3477060  PMID: 22870930
Entamoeba histolytica; Amoebiasis; Pyogenic liver abscess; Anti-amoebic IgG antibody
3.  Seroprevalence of malaria in blood donors and multi-transfused patients in Northern India: Relevance to prevention of transfusion-transmissible malaria 
Transfusion-transmissible malaria (TTM) is a major concern in malaria endemic countries. A study was therefore conducted to know sero-prevalence of malaria in blood donors and the risk of TTM to multi-transfused patients at our hospital.
Materials and Methods:
Study subjects were: eligible blood donors (n = 1000), donors deferred due to history of fever in the last 3 months (n = 100), and multi-transfused patients (n = 200). Screening for malaria was done by slide microscopy, immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria antigen, and anti-malaria antibody by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
Malaria antibody prevalence in eligible donors and donors with history of fever, thalassemia patients, and in other multi-transfused patients was 16.9%, 22%, 6%, and 15%, respectively. None of the donors were positive for malaria on microscopic examination. None of the blood donors except one donor with history of fever, tested positive with RDT.
Malaria antibody prevalence in blood donors at our center is high. As blood units donated by such donors have high-risk potential, special processing may be undertaken to reduce the risk of TTM.
PMCID: PMC3439759  PMID: 22988385
Anti-malaria antibody; blood donor; multi-transfused patients; serology; transfusion-transmitted malaria
4.  The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Friend or Foe? 
Progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), once thought to be a purely psychosomatic disease, has advanced considerably and low-grade inflammation and changes in the gut microbiota now feature as potentially important. The human gut harbours a huge microbial ecosystem, which is equipped to perform a variety of functions such as digestion of food, metabolism of drugs, detoxification of toxic compounds, production of essential vitamins, prevention of attachment of pathogenic bacteria to the gut wall, and maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. A subset of patients with IBS may have a quantitative increase in bacteria in the small bowel (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth). Qualitative changes in gut microbiota have also been associated with IBS. Targeting the gut microbiota using probiotics and antibiotics has emerged as a potentially effective approach to the treatment of this, hitherto enigmatic, functional bowel disorder. The gut microbiota in health, quantitative and qualitative microbiota changes, and therapeutic manipulations targeting the microbiota in patients with IBS are reviewed in this paper.
PMCID: PMC3346986  PMID: 22577594
5.  Differentiation of Crohn’s disease from intestinal tuberculosis in India in 2010 
Differentiating intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn’s disease (CD) is an important clinical challenge of considerable therapeutic significance. The problem is of greatest magnitude in countries where tuberculosis continues to be highly prevalent, and where the incidence of CD is increasing. The final clinical diagnosis is based on a combination of the clinical history with endoscopic studies, culture and polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, biopsy pathology, radiological investigations and response to therapy. In a subset of patients, surgery is required and intraoperative findings with pathological study of the resected bowel provide a definitive diagnosis. Awareness of the parameters useful in distinguishing these two disorders in each of the different diagnostic modalities is crucial to accurate decision making. Newer techniques, such as capsule endoscopy, small bowel enteroscopy and immunological assays for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have a role to play in the differentiation of intestinal tuberculosis and CD. This review presents currently available evidence regarding the usefulness and limitations of all these different modalities available for the evaluation of these two disorders.
PMCID: PMC3027009  PMID: 21274372
Tuberculosis; Crohn’s disease; Clinical features; Endoscopy; Serology; Enteroscopy; Histology; Radiology; Surgery; Therapy
6.  Partially responsive celiac disease resulting from small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance 
BMC Gastroenterology  2004;4:10.
Celiac disease is a common cause of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption syndrome all over the world. Though it was considered uncommon in India in past, it is being described frequently recently. Some patients with celiac disease do not improve despite gluten free diet (GFD). A study described 15 cases of celiac disease unresponsive to GFD in whom small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) or lactose intolerance was the cause for unresponsiveness.
Case presentation
During a three-year period, 12 adult patients with celiac disease were seen in the Luminal Gastroenterology Clinic in a tertiary referral center in northern India. Two of these 12 patients (16.6%), who did not fully respond to GFD initially, are presented here. Unresponsiveness resulted from SIBO in one and lactose intolerance in the other. The former patient responded to antibiotics and the latter to lactose withdrawal in addition to standard GFD.
In patients with celiac disease partially responsive or unresponsive to GFD, SIBO and lactose intolerance should be suspected; appropriate investigations and treatment for these may result in complete recovery.
PMCID: PMC420464  PMID: 15154971
7.  Spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria contaminating the upper gut in patients with malabsorption syndrome from the tropics 
Various causes of malabsorption syndrome (MAS) are associated with intestinal stasis that may cause small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Frequency, nature and antibiotic sensitivity of SIBO in patients with MAS are not well understood.
Jejunal aspirates of 50 consecutive patients with MAS were cultured for bacteria and colony counts and antibiotic sensitivity were performed. Twelve patients with irritable bowel syndrome were studied as controls.
Culture revealed growth of bacteria in 34/50 (68%) patients with MAS and 3/12 controls (p < 0.05). Colony counts ranged from 3 × 102 to 1015 (median 105) in MAS and 100 to 1000 (median 700) CFU/ml in controls (p 0.003). 21/50 (42%) patients had counts ≥105 CFU/ml in MAS and none of controls (p < 0.05). Aerobes were isolated in 34/34 and anaerobe in 1/34. Commonest Gram positive and negative bacteria were Streptococcus species and Escherichia coli respectively. The isolated bacteria were more often sensitive to quinolones than to tetracycline (ciprofloxacin: 39/47 and norfloxacin: 34/47 vs. tetracycline 19/47, <0.01), ampicillin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole (21/44, 14/22 and 24/47 respectively vs. tetracycline, p = ns).
SIBO is common in patients with MAS due to various causes and quinolones may be the preferred treatment. This needs to be proved further by a randomized controlled trial.
PMCID: PMC165422  PMID: 12769832
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth; jejunal aspirate culture; gut flora; India; antibiogram; tropical sprue
8.  Gastric adenocarcinoma in a patient re-infected with H. pylori after regression of MALT lymphoma with successful anti-H. pylori therapy and gastric resection: a case report 
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been etiologically linked with primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) and gastric carcinoma (GC). There are a few reports of occurrence of both diseases in the same patient with H. pylori infection.
Case presentation
We report a patient with PGL in whom the tumor regressed after surgical resection combined with eradication of H. pylori infection. However, he developed GC on follow up; this was temporally associated with recrudescence / re-infection of H. pylori. This is perhaps first report of such occurrence.
Possible cause and effect relationship between H. pylori infection and both PGL and GC is discussed. This case also documents a unique problem in management of PGL in tropical countries where re-infection with H. pylori is supposed to be high.
PMCID: PMC102757  PMID: 11914140

Results 1-8 (8)