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author:("apob, Yasmin")
1.  Quality indicators for discarding blood in the National Blood Center, Kuala Lumpur 
Background and Objective:
The implementation of quality system and continuous evaluation of all activities of the Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) can help to achieve the maximum quantity and quality of safe blood. Optimizing blood collection and processing would reduce the rate of discard and improve the efficiency of the BTS. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of discard of blood and blood component and identify its reasons at the National Blood Centre (NBC), Kuala Lumpur, during the year of 2007 in order to introduce appropriate intervention.
Study Designs and Methods:
Data on the number of discarded whole blood units and its components, reasons for discard, and the number of blood components processed as well as the number of collected blood units were obtained from the Blood Bank Information System - NBC database. These were analyzed.
Results:
The total number of blood units collected in 2007 was 171169 from which 390636 units of components were prepared. The total number of discarded whole blood units and its components was 8968 (2.3%). Platelet concentrate recorded the highest of discard at 6% (3909) followed by whole blood at 3.7% (647), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) at 2.5% (2839), and cryoprecipitate at 2% (620). The rate of discarded packed red blood cells RBCs, plasma aphaeresis, and PLT aphaeresis was less than 1% at 0.6% (902), 0.6% (37), and 0.29% (14), respectively. RBC contamination of PLT and plasma were the major cause of discard at 40% (3558). Other causes include leakage (26% - 2306), lipemia (25% - 2208), and underweight (4% - 353).
Conclusion:
Good donor selection, training and evaluation of the staff, as well as implementation of automation will help to improve processes and output of BTS. This would reduce discard of blood components and wastage caused by non conformance.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.95045
PMCID: PMC3353623  PMID: 22623837
Discard blood; National Blood Centre Kuala Lumpur; quality indicators
2.  Red cell phenotyping of blood from donors at the National blood center of Malaysia 
Background:
Human blood groups are polymorphic and inherited integral structures of the red cell membrane. More than 300 red cell antigens have been identified and further categorized into 30 major discrete systems. Their distribution varies in different communities and ethnic groups.
Aims:
This work was set to determine the prevalence of red cell phenotypes in donors from the major ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely, Malays, Chinese, and Indians.
Materials and Methods:
The work utilized the dextran acrylamide gel technique in which four types of gel cards were used to identify the blood groups of 594 subjects collected at the National Blood Transfusion Centre, Malaysia.
Results:
Blood group O and CDe/CDe (R1R1) were the most common in all ethnic groups. The cde/cde (rr) was more prevalent amongst Indians. The rare phenotypes found were cDE/cDE(R2R2) and cDE/CDE(R2Rz). With the Lewis system, the distribution of Le(a-b+) was similar among the ethnic groups. The rarest phenotype Fy(a-b-) was discovered in two donors. Jk(a-b-) was found in seven Malays and in two Indians. In the MNSs system, MN was common in Malays and Chinese, while the MM was more common among Indians. The rare SS was found in 19 donors. Malay and Chinese subjects had high P1 Negative blood but Indians showed high P1 positive blood. Within the Kell System, the very rare KK type was found in six subjects.
Conclusions:
The results obtained serve as an established database for the distribution of red cell phenotypes based on the blood group systems of donors from the major ethnic groups in Malaysia.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.95042
PMCID: PMC3353626  PMID: 22623834
Blood donors; distribution; ethnic groups; red cell phenotypes
3.  Heterosubtypic anti-avian H5N1 influenza antibodies in intravenous immunoglobulins from globally separate populations protect against H5N1 infection in cell culture 
With antigenically novel epidemic and pandemic influenza strains persistently on the horizon it is of fundamental importance that we understand whether heterosubtypic antibodies gained from exposures to circulating human influenzas exist and can protect against emerging novel strains. Our studies of IVIG obtained from an infection-naive population (Australian) enabled us to reveal heterosubtypic influenza antibodies that cross react with H5N1. We now expand those findings for an Australian donor population to include IVIG formulations from a variety of northern hemisphere populations. Examination of IVIGs from European and South East-Asian (Malaysian) blood donor populations further reveal heterosubtypic antibodies to H5N1 in humans from different global regions. Importantly these protect against highly pathogenic avian H5N1 infection in vitro, albeit at low titres of inhibition. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in binding and protection between globally different formulations, the heterosubtypic antibody activities for the respective IVIGs were in general quite similar. Of particular note because of the relative geographic proximity to the epicentre of H5N1 and the majority of human infections, was the similarity in the antibody binding responses between IVIGs from the Malayan peninsula, Europe and Australia. These findings highlight the value of employing IVIGs for the study of herd immunity, and particularly heterosubtypic antibody responses to viral antigens such as those conserved between circulating human influenzas and emerging influenza strains such as H5N1. They also open a window into a somewhat ill defined arena of antibody immunity, namely heterosubtypic immunity.
PMCID: PMC2805843  PMID: 20076794
Heterosubtypic; antibody; IVIG; influenza; H5N1; H1N1; H3N2

Results 1-3 (3)