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1.  Inverse estimation of parameters for multidomain flow models in soil columns with different macropore densities 
Water resources research  2011;47(4):2010WR009451-.
Soil and crop management practices have been found to modify soil structure and alter macropore densities. An ability to accurately determine soil hydraulic parameters and their variation with changes in macropore density is crucial for assessing potential contamination from agricultural chemicals. This study investigates the consequences of using consistent matrix and macropore parameters in simulating preferential flow and bromide transport in soil columns with different macropore densities (no macropore, single macropore, and multiple macropores). As used herein, the term“macropore density” is intended to refer to the number of macropores per unit area. A comparison between continuum-scale models including single-porosity model (SPM), mobile-immobile model (MIM), and dual-permeability model (DPM) that employed these parameters is also conducted. Domain-specific parameters are obtained from inverse modeling of homogeneous (no macropore) and central macropore columns in a deterministic framework and are validated using forward modeling of both low-density (3 macropores) and high-density (19 macropores) multiple-macropore columns. Results indicate that these inversely modeled parameters are successful in describing preferential flow but not tracer transport in both multiple-macropore columns. We believe that lateral exchange between matrix and macropore domains needs better accounting to efficiently simulate preferential transport in the case of dense, closely spaced macropores. Increasing model complexity from SPM to MIM to DPM also improved predictions of preferential flow in the multiple-macropore columns but not in the single-macropore column. This suggests that the use of a more complex model with resolved domain-specific parameters is recommended with an increase in macropore density to generate forecasts with higher accuracy.
doi:10.1029/2010WR009451
PMCID: PMC3914547  PMID: 24511165
2.  Hepatitis B core antibody testing in Indian blood donors: A double-edged sword! 
Background:
Until lately, anti-HBc antibodies were considered an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and have served their role in improving blood safety. But, with the development of advanced tests for HBV DNA detection, the role of anti-HBc in this regard stands uncertain.
Materials and Methods:
Anti-HBc and HBsAg ELISA and ID-NAT tests were run in parallel on donor blood samples between April 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. A positive ID-NAT was followed by Discriminatory NAT assay.
Results:
A total of 94 247 samples were tested with a total core positivity rate of 10.22%. We identified nearly 9.17% of donors who were reactive for anti-HBc and negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. These are the donors who are potentially non-infectious and may be returned to the donor pool.
Conclusion:
Although anti HBc testing has a definite role in improving blood safety, centers that have incorporated NAT testing may not derive any additional benefit by performing anti-HBc testing, especially in resource-limited countries like ours.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.95043
PMCID: PMC3353621  PMID: 22623835
Anti-HBc; HBsAg; ID-NAT
3.  Prevalence of HIV among blood donors in a tertiary care centre of north India 
Background & objectives:
India has the second highest HIV population in the world with about 2.5-3.0 million cases. HIV-2 cases among general and blood donor population have also been reported mostly from west and south India. This single centre study was carried out to observe the HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence among blood donors from north India.
Methods:
A total of 2,04,677 people were screened for the presence of HIV infection over the 11 year period (1999 to 2009). Till 2004, a third generation ELISA kit was used. From 2005 till January 2009 all tests were done using the fourth generation ELISA kit which detected the presence of HIV-1 P24 antigen and anti-HIV antibodies. From February 2009 onwards, the kits used were Genscreen ULTRA HIV Ag-Ab Assay.
Results:
A total of 506 (0.247%) donors were found to be repeat reactive for HIV. Of these, 486 (96%) donors tested using the Western blot were found positive for HIV-1 infection. Twenty (4%) donors showed a negative Western blot result, none of the donors were found reactive for HIV-2 infection.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The prevalence of HIV was 0.249 per cent among blood donors of north India. No HIV-2 case was found among the studied blood donor population indicating that it is not a threat currently.
doi:10.4103/0971-5916.92640
PMCID: PMC3284103  PMID: 22310827
Donor screening; HIV-1; HIV-2; north India; prevalence
4.  Florid plasmacytosis in a case of acute myeloid leukemia: A diagnostic dilemma 
The association of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with plasmacytosis is a known, although rare event. There are very few case reports documenting an increase in the number of plasma cells at the time of AML diagnosis. Here, we present the case of a 65-year-old male diagnosed as acute myelomonocytic leukemia with exuberant plasmacytosis, which posed a difficulty in diagnosis. Paracrine interleukin-6 production by leukemic blast cells is thought to contribute to this associated reactive plasma cell proliferation.
doi:10.4103/0971-5851.68853
PMCID: PMC2941603  PMID: 20931021
Acute myeloid leukemia; myeloma; plasmacytosis

Results 1-4 (4)