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1.  Valproate-Induced Liver Injury: Modulation by the Omega-3 Fatty Acid DHA Proposes a Novel Anticonvulsant Regimen 
Drugs in R&d  2014;14:85-94.
Background
The polyunsaturated, ω-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), claims diverse cytoprotective potentials, although via largely undefined triggers. Thus, we currently first tested the ability of DHA to ameliorate valproate (VPA)-evoked hepatotoxicity, to modulate its anticonvulsant effects, then sought the cellular and molecular basis of such actions. Lastly, we also verified whether DHA may kinetically alter plasma levels/clearance rate of VPA.
Methods and Results
VPA (500 mg/kg orally for 14 days in rats) evoked prominent hepatotoxicity that appeared as a marked rise (2- to 4-fold) in serum hepatic enzymes (γ-glutamyl transferase [γ-GT], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), increased hepatic lipid peroxide (LPO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (3- to 5-fold), lowering of serum albumin (40 %), and depletion of liver reduced-glutathione (GSH, 35 %). Likewise, histopathologic examination revealed hepatocellular degeneration, replacement by inflammatory cells, focal pericentral necrosis, and micro/macrovesicular steatosis. Concurrent treatment with DHA (250 mg/kg) markedly blunted the elevated levels of liver enzymes, lipid peroxides, TNFα, and MPO activity, while raising serum albumin and hepatic GSH levels. DHA also alleviated most of the cytologic insults linked to VPA. Besides, in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) mouse convulsion model, DHA (250 mg/kg) markedly increased the latency in convulsion evoked by VPA, beyond their individual responses. Lastly, pharmacokinetic studies revealed that joint DHA administration did not alter serum VPA concentrations.
Conclusions
DHA substantially ameliorated liver injury induced by VPA, while also markedly boosted its pharmacologic effects. DHA manipulated definite cellular machinery to curb liver oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting VPA plasma levels. Collectively, these protective and synergy profiles for DHA propose a superior VPA-drug combination regimen.
doi:10.1007/s40268-014-0042-z
PMCID: PMC4070460  PMID: 24733439
2.  Valproate-Induced Liver Injury: Modulation by the Omega-3 Fatty Acid DHA Proposes a Novel Anticonvulsant Regimen 
Drugs in R&D  2014;14(2):85-94.
Background
The polyunsaturated, ω-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), claims diverse cytoprotective potentials, although via largely undefined triggers. Thus, we currently first tested the ability of DHA to ameliorate valproate (VPA)-evoked hepatotoxicity, to modulate its anticonvulsant effects, then sought the cellular and molecular basis of such actions. Lastly, we also verified whether DHA may kinetically alter plasma levels/clearance rate of VPA.
Methods and Results
VPA (500 mg/kg orally for 14 days in rats) evoked prominent hepatotoxicity that appeared as a marked rise (2- to 4-fold) in serum hepatic enzymes (γ-glutamyl transferase [γ-GT], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), increased hepatic lipid peroxide (LPO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (3- to 5-fold), lowering of serum albumin (40 %), and depletion of liver reduced-glutathione (GSH, 35 %). Likewise, histopathologic examination revealed hepatocellular degeneration, replacement by inflammatory cells, focal pericentral necrosis, and micro/macrovesicular steatosis. Concurrent treatment with DHA (250 mg/kg) markedly blunted the elevated levels of liver enzymes, lipid peroxides, TNFα, and MPO activity, while raising serum albumin and hepatic GSH levels. DHA also alleviated most of the cytologic insults linked to VPA. Besides, in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) mouse convulsion model, DHA (250 mg/kg) markedly increased the latency in convulsion evoked by VPA, beyond their individual responses. Lastly, pharmacokinetic studies revealed that joint DHA administration did not alter serum VPA concentrations.
Conclusions
DHA substantially ameliorated liver injury induced by VPA, while also markedly boosted its pharmacologic effects. DHA manipulated definite cellular machinery to curb liver oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting VPA plasma levels. Collectively, these protective and synergy profiles for DHA propose a superior VPA-drug combination regimen.
doi:10.1007/s40268-014-0042-z
PMCID: PMC4070460  PMID: 24733439
3.  Risk Factors for Chronic Mastitis in Morocco and Egypt 
Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62–1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07–3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47–0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39–5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60–0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36–1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.
doi:10.1155/2013/184921
PMCID: PMC3847959  PMID: 24327928
4.  Impact of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection on biomolecular markers influencing the pathogenesis of bladder cancer 
Objective
The present study was designed to determine the possible impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on the expression of telomerase (TERT), retinoblastoma (RB1), E2F3, TP53, CDKN1A (p21) and fibroblast growth factor receptor- 3 (FGFR3) genes in patients with bladder cancer (BC).
Materials and methods
100 patients with bladder cancer (15 female and 85 male) were divided into 2 groups; Group I: 50 HCV negative subjects (age range 36–79), and Group II: 50 HCV positive subjects (age range 42–80). Expressions of the telomerase, retinoblastoma (Rb), E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3 genes were tested by immunohistochemistry and real time PCR in tumour tissues and healthy bladder tissues. Also, telomerase activity was assessed by telomeric repeats amplification protocol (TRAP).
Results
Bladder tumors associated with HCV infection were of high grade and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Expressions of hTERT, Rb, E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3 as well as telomerase activity were significantly higher in bladder tissues of HCV-infected patients compared with bladder tissues of non infected patients (p<0.05). On the contrary, CDKN1A (p21) expression was significantly lower in bladder tissues of HCV-infected patients compared to bladder tissues of non infected patients (p<0.05).
Conclusion
The expressions of hTERT, Rb, E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3 as well as the activity of telomerase were significantly high in malignant bladder tissues associated with HCV infection. On the other hand, CDKN1A (p21) expression was low in bladder tissues of HCV-infected subjects. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between HCV infection and expression of telomerase, E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3. There was a negative correlation between HCV infection and expression of Rb and p21.
doi:10.1186/1750-9378-8-24
PMCID: PMC3704792  PMID: 23809295
HCV; Bladder cancer; Telomerase; Retinoblastoma gene; E2F3; TP53; CDKN1A (p21); FGFR3
5.  Increased α-Fetoprotein Predicts Steatosis among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4 
Background. The prognostic importance of α-fetoprotein (AFP) level elevation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and its clinical significance in steatosis associated with HCV infection remain to be determined. The present paper assessed clinical significance of elevated AFP in patients with CHC with and without steatosis. Methods. One hundred patients with CHC were divided into 50 patients with CHC and steatosis and 50 patients with CHC and no steatosis based on liver biopsy. Results. AFP was significantly increased in CHC with steatosis than patients without steatosis (P < 0.001). Highly significant positive correlation was found between serum AFP and necroinflammation as well as the severity of fibrosis/cirrhosis and negative significant correlation with albumin level in chronic HCV with steatosis (P < 0.001) but negative nonsignificant correlation with ALT and AST level (P ≤ 0.778 and 0.398), respectively. Highly significant increase was found in chronic hepatitis patients with steatosis than CHC without steatosis regarding necroinflammation as well as the severity of fibrosis/cirrhosis and AFP (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Patients with chronic HCV and steatosis have a higher AFP levels than those without steatosis. In chronic HCV with steatosis, elevated AFP levels correlated positively with HAI and negative significant correlation with albumin level.
doi:10.1155/2012/636392
PMCID: PMC3364564  PMID: 22675639
6.  EGFR, CD10 and proliferation marker Ki67 expression in ameloblastoma: possible role in local recurrence 
Diagnostic Pathology  2012;7:14.
Background
Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic neoplasm characterized by local invasiveness and tendency towards recurrence.
Aims
Studying the role played by EGFR, CD10 and Ki67 in the recurrence of ameloblastoma.
Methods
This study was carried out on 22 retrospective cases of mandibular ameloblastoma from the period from Jan 2002 to Jan 2008 with follow up period until Jan 2011 (3 to 8 years follow up peroid). Archival materials were obtained from pathology department, Mansoura university. Paraffin sections of tumor tissue from all cases were submitted for routine H&E stains and immunohistochemistry using EGFR, CD10 and Ki67 monoclonal antibodies. Statistical analysis using of clinical data for all patients, tumor type, EGFR, CD10 and Ki67 expression in relation to recurrence were evaluated.
Results
Among the 22 cases, 10 cases were males and 12 were females with sex ratio 1:1.2. Age ranged from 34 to 59 years old with a mean age 44.18 year. Five cases showed local recurrence within studied period and proved by biopsy. No statistically significant relation was found between local recurrence and patient age, tumor size, tumor type, EGFR expression. There was a significant relation between CD10 expression as well as Ki67 labelling index and recurrence (P value = 0.003, 0.000 respectively).
Conclusion
Evaluation of CD10 and Ki67 status together with conventional histological evaluation can help in providing more information about the biologic behavior of the tumor, while EGFR could be a target of an expanding class of anticancer therapies.
Since ameloblastomas are EGFR-positive tumors, anti-EGFR agents could be considered to reduce the size of large tumors and to treat unresectable tumors that are in close proximity to vital structures.
Virtual Slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1902106905645651
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-7-14
PMCID: PMC3328247  PMID: 22300665
Ameloblastoma; EGFR; CD10; Ki67 and recurrence
7.  Distinct immunoregulatory cytokine pattern in Egyptian patients with occult Hepatitis C infection and unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases 
Background/Aim:
The immunopathogenesis of occult Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a matter of great controversy and has been suggested to involve a complex balance between cytokines with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity. This work aimed at studying the serum Th1 and Th2 cytokine production in patients with occult HCV infection.
Materials and Methods:
Serum levels of cytokines of Th1 (interleukin [IL]-2, INF-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) were measured in 27 patients with occult HCV infection and 28 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.
Results:
The levels of IL-2 and interferon-γ were highly significantly increased in patients with chronic HCV infection (P<0.001). IL-4 was highly significantly increased in occult HCV infection (P<0.001). Significant increases were noted in chronic HCV infection regarding bilirubin (P<0.001), ALT (P = 0.009), AST (P = 0.013), AFP (P<0.001), while serum albumin was significantly higher in occult HCV infection (P<0.001). Necroinflammation (P<0.001), fibrosis (P<0.001), and cirrhosis (P = 0.03) were significantly increased in chronic HCV infection.
Conclusion:
Our data revealed a high prevalence of occult HCV infection (25%) in patients with unexplained persistently abnormal liver function test results. Those patients exhibited a distinct immunoregulatory cytokine pattern, favoring viral persistence and explaining the less aggressive course of this disease entity than chronic HCV infection.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.95046
PMCID: PMC3353624  PMID: 22623838
Cytokines; Hepatitis C virus; occult

Results 1-7 (7)