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1.  The Effect of a 12-Week Moderate Intensity Interval Training Program on the Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile in Men Smoking Cigarettes or Hookah: A Cohort Study 
The Scientific World Journal  2015;2015:639369.
Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio) 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR) are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress.
doi:10.1155/2015/639369
PMCID: PMC4310461  PMID: 25664340
2.  Effects of Morning Caffeine’ Ingestion on Mood States, Simple Reaction Time, and Short-Term Maximal Performance on Elite Judoists 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(3):161-168.
Purpose
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ergogenic effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test recorded in the morning on elite Judoists.
Methods
Twelve elite judoists (age: 21.08 ± 1.16 years, body mass: 83.75 ± 20.2 kg, height: 1.76 ±6.57 m) participated in this study. Mood states, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test were measured during two test sessions at 07:00 h and after placebo or caffeine ingestion (i.e. 5 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of caffeine were measured before (T0) and 1-h after caffeine’ ingestion (T1) and after the Wingate test (T3).
Results
Our results revealed an increase of the anxiety and the vigor (P<0.01), a reduction of the simple reaction time (P<0.001) and an improvement of the peak and mean powers during the Wingate test. However, the fatigue index during this test was unaffected by the caffeine ingestion. In addition, plasma concentration of caffeine was significantly higher at T1 in comparison with T0.
Conclusions
In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that morning caffeine ingestion has ergogenic properties with the potential to benefit performance, increase anxiety and vigor, and decrease the simple reaction time.
PMCID: PMC3445643  PMID: 23012635
Caffeine; Anaerobic Performance; Simple Reaction Time; Mood States

Results 1-2 (2)