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1.  Cardiac Parasympathetic Reactivation in Elite Soccer Players During Different Types of Traditional High-Intensity Training Exercise Modes and Specific Tests: Interests and Limits 
Background:
The cardiac parasympathetic reactivation is currently used in soccer with a daily or weekly monitoring. However, previous studies have not investigated how this cardiac parasympathetic reactivation is in elite soccer players along different types of traditional high-intensity training exercise and specific tests. In this context, the present study aim to analyse it and to determine the interests and limits of this type of physiological information.
Objectives:
The present study aims to examine how different traditional training exercise modes affect the cardiac parasympathetic reactivation function in elite soccer players.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty-two international soccer players participating in UEFA Champion’s League took part in this study (age: 24.3 ± 4.2 years; height: 178.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 80.3 ± 5.7 kg). Players performed different training methods including: short-duration intermittent exercises (INT) in-line and with changes of direction (COD) (10 - 10 seconds, 15 - 15 seconds, 30 - 30 seconds, e.g. an alternance of 10 - 10 seconds is 10 seconds of running according to the maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and 10-sec of recovery), INT including agility and technical skills (8 - 24-seconds), small-sided-games (SSGs) with and without goalkeepers (2 vs. 2, 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4), and repeated sprint ability (RSA) efforts (10 × 20 m, 10 × 30 m, 15 × 20 m). Heart rate (HR) decline was recorded 3 minutes after each exercise.
Results:
HR declines were greater after the RSA compared to SSGs (P < 0.001) and INT (P < 0.01), especially at 1 min post-exercise. In addition, when the analysis focused on each type of exercise, greater HR declines were observed in on-field players at 1 minute when there was: inclusion of goalkeepers in SSGs (for 2 vs. 2 and 3 vs. 3, P < 0.01); increase of sprint distances or number of sprint repetitions in RSA (P < 0.01); increase of intensity (% of maximal aerobic speed), and the use of COD or inclusion of technical skills during INT, especially for the 30 - 30-seconds.
Conclusions:
This study revealed that cardiac parasympathetic reactivation function varied after INT, RSA and SSG, but also according to the rules manipulation. Therefore, this study provides interesting information for the training monitoring and players’ recovery profile, with the aim of facilitating a more efficient planning and manipulation of training recovery strategies according to their fitness markers.
doi:10.5812/asjsm.25723
PMCID: PMC4691310  PMID: 26715972
Parasympathetic; Workload; Heart Rate Recovery; Football; Intermittent Exercise; Repeated Sprint Ability
2.  Relationship Between Repeated Sprint Performance and both Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness 
Journal of Human Kinetics  2014;40:139-148.
The aims of this study were firstly, to examine the relationship between repeated sprint performance indices and anaerobic speed reserve (AnSR), aerobic fitness and anaerobic power and secondly, to identify the best predictors of sprinting ability among these parameters. Twenty nine subjects (age: 22.5 ± 1.6 years, body height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 68.8 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI): 22.2 ± 2.1 kg•m-2, fat mass: 11.3 ± 2.9 %) participated in this study. All participants performed a 30 m sprint test (T30) from which we calculated the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS), vertical and horizontal jumps, 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT) and repeated sprint test (10 × 15 m shuttle run). AnSR was calculated as the difference between MAnS and the maximal speed reached in the MSRT. Blood lactate sampling was performed 3 min after the RSA protocol. There was no significant correlation between repeated sprint indices (total time (TT); peak time (PT), fatigue index (FI)) and both estimated VO2max and vertical jump performance). TT and PT were significantly correlated with T30 (r=0.63, p=0.001 and r=0.62, p=0.001; respectively), horizontal jump performance (r = −0.47, p = 0.001 and r = −0.49, p = 0.006; respectively) and AnSR (r=−0.68, p= 0.001 and r=−0.70, p=0.001, respectively). Significant correlations were found between blood lactate concentration and TT, PT, and AnSR (r=−0.44, p=0.017; r=−0.43, p=0.018 and r=0.44, p=0.016; respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that AnSR was the only significant predictor of the TT and PT, explaining 47% and 50% of the shared variance, respectively. Our findings are of particular interest for coaches and fitness trainers in order to predict repeated sprint performance by using AnSR that can easily identify the respective upper performance limits supported by aerobic and anaerobic power of a player involved in multi-sprint team sports.
doi:10.2478/hukin-2014-0016
PMCID: PMC4096094  PMID: 25031682
aerobic fitness; anaerobic power; vertical jump; horizontal jump; repeated sprint ability
3.  Monitoring Training Load and Fatigue in Rugby Sevens Players 
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine  2012;3(3):175-184.
Purpose
Trainers and physical fitness coaches’ need a useful tool to assess training loads to avoid overtraining. However, perceived scales or questionnaires were required. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether a short 8-item questionnaire of fatigue could be a useful tool for monitoring changes in perceived training load and strain among elite rugby Sevens (7s) players during preparation for a major competition.
Methods
Sixteen elite rugby 7s players completed an 8-week training program composed of 6-week intense training (IT) and 2-week reduced training (RT). They were tested before (T0), after the IT (T1) and after the RT (T2). The quantification of the perceived training load and strain were performed by the session-RPE (rating of perceived exertion) method and concomitantly the 8-item questionnaire of fatigue was administered.
Results
Training load (TL) and strain (TS) and total score of fatigue (TSF from the 8-item questionnaire) increased during IT and decreased during RT. Simultaneously, physical performances decreased during IT and were improved after LT. The changes in TL, TS and TSF correlated significantly over the training period (r=0.63-0.83).
Conclusions
These findings suggest that the short questionnaire of fatigue could be a practical and a sensitive tool for monitoring changes in training load and strain in team-sport athletes. Accordingly, the simultaneous use of the short questionnaire of fatigue along with the session-RPE method for perceived changes in training load and strain during training could provide additional information on the athletes’ status, allowing coaches to prevent eventual states of overreaching or overtraining.
PMCID: PMC3445645  PMID: 23012637
Training Load; Performance; Score of Fatigue; Rugby Sevens

Results 1-3 (3)