Prevalence of obesity and overweightness in different societies is increasing. Role of physical activity in weight loss and also prevention from some chronic diseases has been discussed previously. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of two different aerobic exercises (intermittent and continuous exercises) while prescribed with concurrent calorie-restrict diet on the weight loss and body fat of overweight and obese females.
Fifteen individuals in intermittent group performed 40 min moderate Intensity exercise in 3 bouts per day for 5 days per week; the 15 participants of continuous group exercised a single 40 min bout per day, 5 days per week. Also, 15 participants were included in control group without exercise program. A self-monitoring calorie-restrict diet was recommended to all participants. The body fat percentage, waist circumference, and also skin fold thickness of all participants were assessed at baseline and 12th weeks.
The reduction of weight and BMI of participants in intermittent group (-3.33 ± 1.80 and -1.34 ± 0.70, respectively) was significantly more than comparable changes in continuous group (-1.23 ± 1.60 and 0.49 ± 0.65, respectively) (P = 0.048 and 0.041, respectively). After the intervention, there was no significant difference between case and controls in terms of body fat percentage, waist circumference, and sum of skin fold thickness.
It seems that moderate intensity intermittent exercise for more than 150 min/ week is more efficient than continuous exercise in weight loss of obese and overweight women.
Continuous; Exercise; Intermittent; Weight; Women
Several studies have evaluated the incidence of and risk factors for injuries among wrestlers, but there are limited data in this population. Understanding the incidence and risk factors could provide important information for educational and preventive efforts at the national and international levels.
To assess the incidence of and risk factors for fractures and dislocations among Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestlers in Iran.
Prospective cohort study.
Members of 8 randomly selected wrestling clubs in Kermanshah, Iran, were followed for 12 months. Details of their training and the occurrence of fractures and dislocations were recorded. Related data on fractures and dislocations include site of injury, previous history of injury, coach supervision, and wresting technique that led to the injury.
A total of 495 male wrestlers were included in the study. Seven fractures and 8 dislocations were reported. The incidence of fractures and dislocations was 1.1 per 10 000 athlete exposures, with a fracture rate of 0.5 and a dislocation rate of 0.6. Of the 15 fractures and dislocations, 11 occurred among freestyle wrestlers (0.8 per 10 000 athlete exposures) and 4 occurred among Greco-Roman wrestlers (0.3 per 10 000 athlete exposures). There was a positive correlation between the incidence of wrestlers’ fractures and dislocations and their age (P < 0.01), years of wrestling experience (P < 0.01), previous history of fracture or dislocation (P < 0.01), and age of starting to wrestle (P = 0.03).
The incidence of fractures and dislocations in this study was lower than that seen in previous studies. The risk of fracture and dislocation was heightened by a wrestler’s increased age and years of experience, history of previous fracture or dislocation, and younger age of starting to wrestle.
wrestling; injuries; fracture; dislocation; risk factors
This study was performed to determine the possible causes and mechanisms of fatalities among Iranian mountaineers during climbing.
By contacting several sources, deceased mountaineers were identified. Data about the causes and mechanism of death was retrospectively obtained using a standard questionnaire for each case.
A total of 29 deaths were identified from March 2006 to June 2010. Deceased subjects had a mean age of 39 years (SD: 12.8, Range: 20-67). Falling was the most common accident leading to death of outdoor enthusiasts (n = 14, 48%). Asphyxia (n = 6, 24%) was the most common cause of death among the subjects, followed by heart attack, internal bleeding, cerebral hemorrhage and hypothermia (17%, 17%, 17% and 10%, respectively).
Our findings suggest that education of medical service providers of the climbing groups on facing victims in high altitude areas, where they have limited resources, can be particularly helpful. In addition, a national program to educate mountaineers might help to reduce fatalities.
Mortality; Altitude; Mountaineering; Risk Factors
The objectives of this study were a) to develop a physical activity program for nursery schools, and b) to evaluate the effects of this program on fundamental movement skills of preschool age children in Iran.
In this quasi-experimental study 147 children from five nursery schools in five different cities in Iran were enrolled. A physical activity program was developed for nursery children. Trained nursery physical activity instructors conducted the program for 10 weeks for all subjects. The levels of gross motor development of all subjects were measured before intervention and after 10 weeks physical activity program employing the Test of Gross Motor Development-edition 2 (TGMD-2).
The participants in this study had a mean (SD) age of 4.95 (0.83) years. At the end of the study, scores of subjects at all components of TGMD-2 (including locomotor, object control, sum of standard scores and gross motor quotient) were significantly improved compared to the baseline scores (P<0.001). Based on descriptive rating of the "Gross Motor Quotient" in the base line, 11.5% of subjects were superior/very superior (GMQ >120) and after 10 weeks intervention this rate was increased to 49.7% of all subjects.
It seems that the developed physical activity program conducted by trained nursery physical activity instructors could be an effective and practical way of increasing levels of fundamental movement skills of preschool children in Iran.
Fundamental movement skills; Preschool age; Physical activity; TGMD-2
Recently, the roles of transabdominal muscles particularly TrA (transverse abdominis) muscle in spinal stability leading to treatment of low back pain have been suggested. Both in clinical setting and follow up studies, abdominal muscle thickness measurements need to be repeated at a later point in time to demonstrate efficacy of a therapeutic intervention. Different issues have been suggested as source of error in the repeated measurements of abdominal muscle thickness in different days such as patient position and stability of probe location. The level of stomach fullness has not been investigated as a source of error in ultrasonic measurements of transabdominal muscles thickness. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of food consumption on thickness of lateral abdominal muscles. Lateral abdominal muscles thicknesses of 63 healthy volunteer men were measured before and after food consumption. All the measurements were performed in two transducer positions and both sides. Waist circumference and body weight of participants were also measured before and post-food consumption. The thickness measures of all three muscles layers of lateral abdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) in both sides and measured positions were significantly reduced after food consumption. We found no correlation between the increase of waist circumference and reduction of muscle layer thicknesses after food consumption. In case of comparison between the values of transabdominal muscle thicknesses over the time, the effect of food consumption on muscle thickness might be assumed as a potential source of error.
Ultrasonography; Low back pain; Abdominal muscle thickness; Spinal stability
Although bloodborne infections are among the most important global health issues, limited data are available on bloodborne infections in athletes.
To determine and compare the prevalence of markers of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses and the risk factors for these infections among wrestlers in Tehran and among a control group of athletes in the same geographic area who took part in low- to moderate-contact sports (ie, volleyball and soccer).
Patients or Other Participants:
A total of 420 male wrestlers were randomly selected from 28 wrestling clubs in Tehran using a cluster-sample–setting method. The control group (205 volleyball players from 21 clubs and 205 soccer players from 16 clubs) was selected from the same geographic area.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
The risk factors for HBV and HCV and serum levels of anti-HBcAg (antibodies to the HBV core antigen), HBsAg (HBV surface antigen), and anti-HCV (antibodies to HCV) in both groups.
The prevalence of anti-HBcAg was 13.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.2%, 16.7%) in wrestlers and 10.9% (95% CI = 7.9%, 14.0%) in the control group. The prevalence of HBsAg was 1.2% (95% CI = 0.2%, 2.2%) in wrestlers and 0.5% (95% CI = −0.2%, 1.2%) in the control group. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.5% (95% CI = −0.2%, 1.1%) in wrestlers and 0 in the control group. Some risk factors for bloodborne infections were more common in the wrestlers than in the control group.
Within the limits of our study, we found no evidence that participation in Tehranian wrestling increased HBV or HCV transmission when compared with transmission in athletes participating in low- to moderate-contact sports. Prevention of bloodborne infections in Tehranian wrestlers should be focused not only on appropriate care for bleeding injuries but also on general risk factors for these conditions.
bloodborne infections; communicable diseases; athletes
Despite the acknowledged impact of imagery on performance, ecologically sound studies investigating imagery and its effects on performance subcomponents in real games are surprisingly limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of imagery training on passing improvement in elite soccer players.
Sixty nine soccer players taking part in the national championship leagues in four age categories including U16, U19, U21 and over 21 were randomly assigned to the imagery and control groups. Interventional group participants completed an 8 week video-aided, cognitive imagery program on how to make a perfect soccer pass.
Performance analysis through close video analysis showed that successful pass rate increased significantly in the intervention group compared to control (OR = 1.19, P=0.002, 95%CI = 1.06-1.33). Further analysis revealed that the results are statistically significant in U16 and U21 but not other categories.
We concluded that successful soccer passing through real competitions as a multidimensional and critical open skill could be enhanced by an ecologically sound method of mental imagery.
Imagery Training; Ecological Approach; Soccer Performance
Weight loss in wrestling has been found to be an interesting issue for researchers. In this regard, complications of weight loss in wrestlers before the competitions and their weight gain in course of competitions have been debated in previous studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of weight gain and to estimate the percentage of body fat in participants in the Tehran high school male wrestling championship.
This study was a cross sectional survey. Subjects were participants of the Tehran high school male wrestling championship (n = 365). Weight gain in course of competitions and body fat levels (based on skin fold measurements) of subjects were measured.
Between the first weigh-in of the wrestlers which was done one day before the competitions and the second weigh-in which was conducted immediately before the first round of their first competition (20 hours), 69% of subjects gained on average 1.3±0.9 kg (range: 0.1 to 6.10 kg) or 2.2±1.7% of the wrestler’s weight (range: 0.1 to 9.3). Among the subjects, the mean of fat body percentage was found to be 15.2%.
Rapid weight loss for matches was prevalent among subjects. It was also found that Iranian wrestlers have a relatively higher body fat percentage in comparison to American wrestlers. Therefore, it can be concluded that weight loss behavior of these wrestlers should be changed from using dehydration methods to using gradual methods of weight loss such as fat reduction methods.
Wrestling; Body Fat; Weight Loss; Weight Gain
As the field of off-road cycling is usually remote areas with limited access to medical care, off-road cyclists are at higher risk of animal attacks and related injuries.
We report two cases of dog attacks in off-road cycling and discuss the basic principles in prevention and management of such incidents. The cyclists received all 5-dose regimen of the rabies vaccine and returned to sport after 6 weeks. During 6-month follow-up period, no complications were observed.
To reduce the probability of dog attacks and its complications, the off-road cyclists should be familiar with some basic principles. They should also be educated about initial on-site management of the related injuries, which may have a great impact on decreasing further complications.
Dog; Bites; Management; Off-Road Cycling; Recommendation
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, calorie intake and physical performance in young female athletes undertaking training sessions during Ramadan.
Twelve voluntary female athletes (15-27 years old) were assigned to the research. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the athletes on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (T1), the second (T2) and fourth (T3) weeks of Ramadan, and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (T4). Food intake, body composition and physical performance (agility, balance and explosive leg power) were investigated on each occasion. Further, Physical performance was assessed by agility, vertical jump and balance tests.
There was a significant main effect for time for body composition indices. A significant decrease was observed in weight (P=0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) in T2 compared with T1, further decrease in weight (P<0.001) and BMI (P<0.001) was observed in T3 compared to T1. Calorie intake decreased significantly in T3 compared with T1 (P=0.008), and increased significantly in T4 compared with T3 (P=0.04). There was a significant main effect for time for agility performance (P=0.03), but no significant main effect for time was observed for vertical jumping (P=0.1) and balance performance (P=0.3).
This study has found that Ramadan fasting could affect the body composition, but not physical performance in female athletes during Ramadan.
Body Composition; Female Athletes; Performance; Ramadan Fasting
Muslim athletes may continue training and competing while they are fasting. There is a concern about negative effects of fasting on sports performance. This study aimed to investigate the influence of two training time frames on athletes’ body composition and performance during Ramadan fasting.
An observational study was conducted and thirty four male volunteer athletes from different sports including volleyball, karate, taekwondo and football were assigned in two groups. The first group included 14 elite athletes who during Ramadan voluntarily participated in training sessions at 1 hour before Iftar (BI) and the second group of 20 elite athletes who during Ramadan participated in training sessions at 3 hours after Iftar (AI). Testing was performed one week before; in the first and fourth weeks of Ramadan and one week after Ramadan. Weights, heights and skinfold thickness were assessed at each time point and body mass index was calculated. Each player was assessed for agility and explosive strength as well.
The mean weight and body mass index of both groups decreased significantly during Ramadan (P<0.001). Performance variables were not negatively affected by fasting in BI or AI group athletes.
Weight reduction might come with either BI or AI training schedules in Ramadan. Daytime or evening training did not inversely affect the agility and power performances in a group of elite athletes during Ramadan fasting.
Ramadan Fasting; Athletes; Training time frame; Athletic Performance; Sports
Low back pain (LBP) is common among children and adolescents. In younger children particularly those under 3, LBP should be considered as an alarming sign for more serious underlying pathologies. However, similar to adults, non specific low back pain is the most common type of LBP among children and adolescents. In this article, a clinical algorithmic approach to LBP in children and adolescents is presented.
Low Back Pain; Bone Malalignment; Spondylolysis; Algorithms; Children
To translate long form, interview-administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) from English to Persian and evaluate its validity, reliability and reproducibility.
A forward-backward translation procedure was followed to develop the Persian version of the IPAQ. A total of 218 respondents (53.7% women, aged 22–76 yr) completed the Persian version in Tehran, Iran. To examine the test–retest reliability, 48 healthy volunteers completed the IPAQ twice during a 7-day period.. The PA indicators derived from the IPAQ were assessed for reliability and were compared with aerobic fitness and body mass index (BMI) for construct validity.
In general, the questionnaire was received well and all domains met the minimum reliability standards (intra-class correlation [ICC]>0.7), except for Leisure-time physical activity (PA). Aerobic fitness showed a weak positive correlation with all of the PA results derived from the IPAQ. A significant correlation was observed between the IPAQ data for total PA and both aerobic fitness (r=0.33, P<0.001) and BMI (r=0.26, P<0.001). Performing a known group comparison analysis, the results indicated that the questionnaire was discriminated well between the subgroups of the study samples expected to be different in their physical activity.
The Persian version of the long form, interview-administered IPAQ had an acceptable reliability and validity for assessing total PA in our Iranian sample of individuals. It may be a useful instrument for generating internationally comparable data on PA.
Metabolic equivalent; Physical Activity; Questionnaire; Reliability and Validity; IPAQ
Medical Students; Research; Sports Medicine
To evaluate the weight loss behavior of male wrestlers in Tehran
This study was a population-based cross sectional survey. Subjects were 436 wrestlers randomly selected from the wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. Subjects were interviewed based on a designed questionnaire. Body fat levels were measured based on skin fold measurements.
Weight loss methods practiced by 62% of all subjects during the previous year employing rapid (≤7 days before the matches) and gradual (>7 days before the matches) weight reduction methods (73% and 34% of wrestlers who reduced their weight respectively). In addition, opinions on weight reduction, the methods of weight loss used, and the side effects of the weight loss practices as well as consumption of supplements among the subjects were reported in this study. The mean percentage of body fat of subjects was 15.9%.
Rapid weight loss for matches and the use of unsafe methods of weight reduction such as fasting, and fluid reduction methods as well as acute side effects of weight loss were prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran. Some preventive measures including education and new rules such as scheduling weigh-ins immediately prior to the competitions and mat-side weigh-in are needed to prevent these unhealthy practices. The weight loss behaviors of these wrestlers should be changed from using dehydration methods to using gradual methods of weight loss.
Data on the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match football injuries sustained on dirt field are scarce. The objectives of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf field by amateur male football players.
A prospective two-cohort design was employed. Participants were 252 male football players (mean age 27 years, range 18-43) in 14 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a dirt field and 216 male football players (mean age 28 years, range 17-40) in 12 teams who participated in a local championship carried on a artificial turf field in the same zone of the city. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies of injuries in football.
The overall incidence of match injuries for men was 36.9 injuries/1000 player hours on dirt field and 19.5 on artificial turf (incidence rate ratio 1.88; 95% CI 1.19-3.05).
Most common injured part on dirt field was ankle (26.7%) and on artificial turf was knee (24.3%). The most common injury type in the dirt field was skin injuries (abrasion and laceration) and in the artificial turf was sprain and ligament injury followed by haematoma/contusion/bruise.
Most injuries were acute (artificial turf 89%, dirt field 91%) and resulted from player-to-player contact (artificial turf 59.2%, dirt field 51.4%).
Most injuries were slight and minimal in dirt field cohort but in artificial turf cohort the most injuries were mild.
There were differences in the incidence and type of football match injuries sustained on dirt field and artificial turf.
Data on indirect catastrophic injuries in wrestling are scarce.
To develop a profile of indirect catastrophic injuries in international styles of wrestling and to describe possible risk factors.
Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 3.
Indirect catastrophic injuries that occurred in wrestling clubs in Iran from July 1998 to June 2005 were identified by contacting several sources. The cases were retrospectively reviewed.
The injuries included 9 indirect catastrophic injuries. The injury rate was 0.62 injuries per 100 000 wrestlers per year. The majority of indirect injuries were cardiovascular events in veteran groups of wrestlers.
Indirect catastrophic wrestling injuries are rare and present most commonly in older athletes. Coronary artery disease was the main cause.
catastrophic injuries; wrestling; death; veteran athletes