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1.  Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays 
Artificial DNA, PNA & XNA  2012;3(2):63-72.
PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes.
PMCID: PMC3429532  PMID: 22772038
PNA; olive oil; hazelnut oil; SNP; cultivar identification; DNA fingerprinting
2.  Vaccination of Lactating Dairy Cows for the Prevention of Aflatoxin B1 Carry Over in Milk 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26777.
The potential of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a vaccine (AnAFB1-KLH) in controlling the carry over of the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in cow milk is reported. AFB1 is the most carcinogenic compound in food and foodstuffs amongst aflatoxins (AFs). AnAFB1 is AFB1 chemically modified as AFB1-1(O-carboxymethyl) oxime. In comparison to AFB1, AnAFB1 has proven to be non-toxic in vitro to human hepatocarcinoma cells and non mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains. AnAFB1-KLH was used for immunization of cows proving to induce a long lasting titer of anti-AFB1 IgG antibodies (Abs) which were cross reactive with AFB1, AFG1, and AFG2. The elicited anti-AFB1 Abs were able to hinder the secretion of AFM1 into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. Vaccination of lactating animals with conjugated AnAFB1 may represent a solution to the public hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with AFs.
PMCID: PMC3203903  PMID: 22053212

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