To identify new candidate therapeutic targets for Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we combined functional genetics and GBM network modeling to identify kinases required for the growth of patient-derived brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), but which are dispensable to proliferating human neural stem cells (NSCs). This approach yielded BUB1B/BUBR1, a critical mitotic spindle checkpoint player, as the top scoring GBM-lethal kinase. Knockdown of BUB1B inhibited expansion of BTIC isolates, both in vitro and in vivo, without affecting proliferation of NSCs or astrocytes. Mechanistic studies revealed that BUB1B’s GLEBs domain activity is required to suppress lethal kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment defects in GBM isolates and genetically transformed cells with altered sister KT dynamics, which likely favor KT-MT instability. These results indicate that GBM tumors have added requirement for BUB1B to suppress lethal consequences of altered KT function. They further suggest that sister KT measurements may predict cancer-specific sensitivity to BUB1B inhibition and perhaps other mitotic targets that affect KT-MT stability.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes cancer invasion and metastasis, but the integrative mechanisms that coordinate these processes are incompletely understood. In this study, we used a cross-species expression profiling strategy in metastatic cell lines of human and mouse origin to identify 22 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated genes that are part of an essential genetic program in metastasis. In particular, we identified a novel function in metastasis that was not previously known for the transcription factor Forkhead Box Q1 (Foxq1). Ectopic expression of Foxq1 increased cell migration and invasion in vitro, enhanced the lung metastatic capabilities of mammary epithelial cells in vivo, and triggered a marked EMT. In contrast, Foxq1 knockdown elicited converse effects on these phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. Neither ectopic expression nor knockdown of Foxq1 significantly affected cell proliferation or colony formation in vitro. Notably, Foxq1 repressed expression of the core EMT regulator E-cadherin by binding to the E-box in its promoter region. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that Foxq1 expression is regulated by TGF-β1, and that Foxq1 knockdown blocked TGF-β1-induced EMT at both morphological and molecular levels. Our findings highlight the feasibility of cross-species expression profiling as a strategy to identify metastasis-related genes, and they reveal that EMT induction is a likely mechanism underlying a novel metastasis-promoting function of Foxq1 defined here in breast cancer.
Few studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and breast cancer with consideration to estrogen/progesterone/human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor status (ER/PR/HER2) in the breast tissue among Chinese pre- and post-menopausal women.
Four thousand two hundred and eleven breast cancer patients were selected randomly from seven geographic regions of China from 1999 to 2008. Demographic data, risk factors, pathologic features, and biological receptor status of cases were collected from the medical charts. Chi-square test, fisher exact test, rank-correlation analysis, and multivariate logistic regression model were adopted to explore whether BMI differed according to biological receptor status in pre- and post-menopausal women.
Three thousand two hundred and eighty one eligible cases with BMI data were included. No statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics were found between the cases with BMI data and those without. In the rank-correlation analysis, the rates of PR+ and HER2+ were positively correlated with increasing BMI among post-menopausal women (rs BMI, PR+ = 0.867, P = 0.001; rs BMI, HER2+ = 0.636, P = 0.048), but the ER+ rates did not vary by increasing BMI. Controlling for confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression models with BMI<24 kg/m2 as the reference group were performed and found that BMI≥24 kg/m2 was only positively correlated with PR+ status among post-menopausal breast cancer cases (adjusted OR = 1.420, 95% CI: 1.116–1.808, Wald = 8.116, P = 0.004).
Post-menopausal women with high BMI (≥24 kg/m2) have a higher proportion of PR+ breast cancer. In addition to effects mediated via the estrogen metabolism pathway, high BMI might increase the risk of breast cancer by other routes, which should be examined further in future etiological mechanism studies.
The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite grafted for bone defect repair through a series of biological safety experiments, animal experiments, and a more than 5-year long clinical follow-up. The biological safety experiments, carried out in accordance with the Chinese Guo Biao and Tolerancing (GB/T)16886 and GB/T16175, revealed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had no cytotoxicity, no sensitization effect, no pyrogenic reaction, and that its hemolysis rate was 0.59% (less than 5%). Rabbit models of tibia defects with grafted porous n-HA/PA66 composite were established. After 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in the porous n-HA/PA66 composite; the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. After 26 weeks, the artificial bone rebuilt to lamellar bone completely. In the clinical study, a retrospective review was carried out for 21 patients who underwent serial radiographic assessment after treatment with porous n-HA/PA66 composite grafts following bone tumor resection. All wounds healed to grade A. No postoperative infections, delayed deep infection, nonspecific inflammation, rejection, or fractures were encountered. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society’s (MSTS) 93 score was 29.3 points (range: 28–30 points) and mean radiopaque density ratio was 0.77±0.10. The radiologic analysis showed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had been completely incorporated with the host bone about 1.5 years later. In conclusion, this study indicated that the porous n-HA/PA66 composite had biological safety, and good biocompatibility, osteoinduction, and osseointegration. Thus, the porous n-HA/PA66 composite is an ideal artificial bone substitute and worthy of promotion in the field.
biomaterial; artificial bone materials; porous n-HA/PA66 composite (n-HAPA66); bone defects healing; bone grafting
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase that is implicated in plethora of biological processes, including metabolism, aging, stress response, and tumorigenesis. Telomerase (TERT) is essential for telomere maintenance. Activation of TERT is considered a crucial step in tumorigenesis, and therefore it is a potential therapeutic target against cancer. We have recently found that SIRT1 expression is highly elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma, and the depletion of SIRT1 leads to substantial reduction in TERT mRNA and protein expression. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of SIRT1-dependent TERT expression remains uncharacterized. Here, we elucidated if SIRT1 regulates TERT expression via transcriptional, epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms. We report that depletion of SIRT1 does not lead to significant change in transcriptional activity and CpG methylation patterns of the TERT promoter, nor does it affect mRNA stability or 3′-UTR regulation of TERT. Intriguingly, depletion of SIRT1 is associated with substantial induction of acetylated histone H3-K9 and reduction of trimethyl H3-K9 at the TERT gene, which are known to be associated with gene activation. Our data revealed that SIRT1 regulates histone acetylation and methylation at the TERT promoter. We postulated that SIRT1 may regulate TERT expression via long-range interaction, or via yet unidentified histone modifications.
The characteristics of established risk factors for breast cancer may vary among countries. A better understanding of local characteristics of risk factors may help in devising effective prevention strategies for breast cancer.
Information on exposures to risk factors was collected from the medical charts of 4211 women with breast cancer diagnosed during 1999–2008. The distributions of these exposures among regions, and by menopausal status and birth period, were compared with the χ2 test. Crude associations between the selected factors and breast cancer were estimated using the cases in the present study and a representative control population, which was selected from qualified published studies.
As compared with cases from less developed regions, those from more developed regions were significantly more likely to be nulliparous, had fewer childbirths (P < 0.05), and were less likely to have breastfed (P = 0.08). As compared with premenopausal cases, postmenopausal cases were more likely to be overweight and to have breastfed and had more childbirths (P < 0.05). The number of live births and rate of breastfeeding decreased in relation to birth period (P for trends <0.001). Overweight, late menopause, and family history of breast cancer were significantly associated with breast cancer among Chinese women.
Breast cancer incidence was associated with nulliparity and history of breastfeeding. Population attributable risks should be assessed, especially for more developed areas and young women. The effects of body mass index, age at menopause, and family history of breast cancer should be given priority during assessment of breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
breast cancer; risk factors; nationwide; multicenter
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) was previously shown to secrete lipid vesicles that when purified by high performance liquid chromatography as a population of homogenously sized particles with a hydrodynamic radius of 55–65 nm reduce infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. As these vesicles exhibit many biophysical and biochemical properties of exosomes, they were identified as exosomes. Here we investigated if these lipid vesicles were indeed exosomes that have an endosomal biogenesis.
In most cells, endocytosis is thought to occur at specialized microdomains known as lipid rafts. To demonstrate an endosomal origin for MSC exosomes, MSCs were pulsed with ligands e.g. transferrin (Tfs) and Cholera Toxin B (CTB) that bind receptors in lipid rafts. The endocytosed ligands were then chased to determine if they were incorporated into the exosomes.
A fraction of exogenous Tfs was found to recycle into MSC exosomes. When MSCs were pulsed with labelled Tfs in the presence of chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, Tf incorporation in CD81-immunoprecipitate was reduced during the chase. CTB which binds GM1 gangliosides that are enriched in lipid rafts extracted exosome-associated proteins, CD81, CD9, Alix and Tsg101 from MSC-conditioned medium. Exogenous CTBs were pulse-chased into secreted vesicles. Extraction of Tf- or CTB-binding vesicles in an exosome preparation mutually depleted each other. Inhibition of sphingomyelinases reduced CTB-binding vesicles.
Together, our data demonstrated that MSC exosomes are derived from endocytosed lipid rafts and that their protein cargo includes exosome-associated proteins CD81, CD9, Alix and Tsg101.
exosomes; transferrin; cholera toxin B; lipid rafts; clathrin mediated endocytosis; mesenchymal stem cells
Dual-modality imaging combines the complementary advantages of different modalities, and offers the prospect of improved preclinical research. The combination of fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides cross-validated information and direct comparison between these modalities. Here, we report on the application of a novel tumor-targeted, dual-labeled nanoparticle (NP), utilizing iron oxide as the MRI contrast agent and near infrared (NIR) dye Cy5.5 as the fluorescent agent. Results of in vitro experiments verified the specificity of the NP to tumor cells. In vivo tumor targeting and uptake of the NPs in a mouse model were visualized by fluorescence and MR imaging collected at different time points. Quantitative analysis was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of MRI contrast enhancement. Furthermore, tomographic images were also acquired using both imaging modalities and cross-validated information of tumor location and size between these two modalities was revealed. The results demonstrate that the use of dual-labeled NPs can facilitate the dual-modal detection of tumors, information cross-validation, and direct comparison by combing fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and MRI.
dual-modality; fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); nanoparticle
The aphid genus Nigritergaphis
gen. n. is described, and N. crassisetosa
sp. n. on Isodon eriocalyx (Dunn) Kudô (Lamiaceae) from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated. The new species curls and distorts the leaves of this important traditional Chinese medicinal plant, and is evidently specific to this host. Holotype and paratypes are deposited in the National Zoological Museum of China, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Nigritergaphis; Aphididae; new genus; new species; China; taxonomy
Nuclear receptors (NRs) play crucial roles in regulation of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, metabolism and conversion to bile acids, but their actions in cholangiocytes have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the roles of NRs in cholangiocyte physiology and cholesterol metabolism and flux. We examined the expression of NRs and other genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in freshly isolated and cultured rodent cholangiocytes and found that these cells express a specific subset of NRs which includes Liver X Receptor β (LXRβ) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ). Activation of LXRβ and/or PPARδ in cholangiocytes induces ATP-binding cassette cholesterol transporter A1 (ABCA1) and increases cholesterol export at the basolateral compartment in polarized cultured cholangiocytes. In addition, PPARδ induces Niemann Pick C1 Like L1 (NPC1L1), which imports cholesterol into cholangiocytes and is expressed on the apical cholangiocyte membrane, via specific interaction with a PPRE within the NPC1L1 promoter. Based on these studies, we propose that (i) LXRβ and PPARδ coordinate NPC1L1/ABCA1 dependent vectorial cholesterol flux from bile through cholangiocytes and (ii) manipulation of these processes may influence bile composition with important applications in cholestatic liver disease and gallstone disease, serious health concerns for humans.
Cholangiocyte; LXRβ; PPARδ; ABCA1; NPC1L1
This study evaluates the mechanism by which bispecific and trispecific killer cell engagers (BiKEs and TriKEs) act to trigger human NK cell effector function and investigates their ability to induce NK cell cytokine and chemokine production against human B-cell leukemia. We examined the ability of BiKEs and TriKEs to trigger NK cell activation through direct CD16 signaling, measuring intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, secretion of lytic granules, induction of target cell apoptosis and production of cytokine and chemokines in response to the Raji cell line and primary leukemia targets. Resting NK cells triggered by the recombinant reagents led to intracellular Ca2+ mobilization through direct CD16 signaling. Co-culture of reagent-treated resting NK cells with Raji targets resulted in significant increases in NK cell degranulation and target cell death. BiKEs and TriKEs effectively mediated NK cytotoxicity of Raji targets at high and low effector-to-target (E:T) ratios and maintained functional stability after 24 and 48 hours of culture in human serum. NK cell production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-8, MIP-1α and RANTES was differentially induced in the presence of recombinant reagents and Raji targets. Moreover, significant increases in NK cell degranulation and enhancement of IFN-γ production against primary ALL and CLL targets were induced with reagent treatment of resting NK cells. In conclusion, BiKEs and TriKEs directly trigger NK cell activation through CD16, significantly increasing NK cell cytolytic activity and cytokine production against tumor targets, demonstrating their therapeutic potential for enhancing NK cell immunotherapies for leukemias and lymphomas.
NK cells; immunotherapy; CD16 signaling; B-cell leukemia; B-cell lymphoma
Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools.
This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices.
This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school.
527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (p<0.001).
While the intervention was not found to be effective, the results were confounded by the H1N1 influenza pandemic that resulted in substantially increased hand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously.
asthma; schools; children; hand hygiene; hand sanitizer
Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) inhibits necroptosis and is usually regarded as having no effect on other cell deaths. Here, this study explored whether the addition of Nec-1 has an effect on cell death induced by simulated ischemia injury in rat tubular cell line NRK-52E. In addition, we also investigated the mechanism of Nec-1 attenuates cell death in this renal ischemia model. The NRK-52E cells were incubated with TNF-α + antimycinA (TA) for 24 h with or without Nec-1. Cell death was observed under fluorescent microscope and quantified by flow cytometry. Cell viabilities were detected by MTT assay. The protein expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. Increased cell death in simulated ischemia injury of NRK-52E cells were markedly attenuated in the Nec-1 pretreated ischemia injury group. Meanwhile, cell viability was significantly improved after using Nec-1. In addition, we also observed that the protein expression of Drp1, a mediator of mitochondrial fission, was significantly increased in simulated ischemia injury group. Increased Drp1 expression in the ischemia injury group can be abolished by Nec-1 or Drp1-knock down, accompanied with decreased cell death and improved cell viabilities. These results suggest that Nec-1 may inhibit cell death induced by simulated ischemia injury in the rat tubular cell line NRK-52E through decreased Drp1 expression.
Necrostatin-1; cell death; renal ischemia injury; dynamin-related protein 1
The mechanisms responsible for cervical cancer radioresistance are still largely unexplored. The present study aimed to identify miRNAs associated with radioresistance of cervical cancer cells.
The radioresistant cervical cancer cell variants were established by repeated selection with irradiation. The miRNA profiles of radioresistant cells and their corresponding controls were analyzed and compared using microarray. Differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Cervical cancer cells were transfected with miRNA-specific mimics or inhibitors. Radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells were determined using colony-forming assay.
Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, 20 miRNAs showed the similar pattern of alteration (14 miRNAs were overexpressed whilst 6 were suppressed) in all three radioresistant cervical cancer cell variants compared to their controls. A miRNA signature consisting of 4 miRNAs (miR-630, miR-1246, miR-1290 and miR-3138) exhibited more than 5 folds of increase in radioresistant cells. Subsequent analysis revealed that these four miRNAs could be up-regulated in cervical cancer cells by radiation treatment in both time-dependent and dose-dependent manners. Ectopic expression of each of these 4 miRNAs can dramatically increase the survival fraction of irradiated cervical cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of miR-630, one miRNA of the specific signature, could reverse radioresistance of cervical cancer cells.
The present study indicated that miRNA is involved in radioresistance of human cervical cancer cells and that a specific miRNA signature consisting of miR-630, miR-1246, miR-1290 and miR-3138 could promote radioresistance of cervical cancer cells.
Cervical cancer; Radioresistance; miR-630; miR-1246; miR-1290; miR-3138
Compared with invasive breast cancer, breast cancer in situ (BCIS) is seldom life threatening. However, an increasing incidence has been observed in recent years over the world. The purpose of our study is to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and pathological profiles of BCIS in Chinese women from 1999-2008.
Four thousand and two hundred-eleven female breast cancer (BC) patients were enrolled in this hospital-based nation-wide and multi-center retrospective study. Patients were randomly selected from seven hospitals in seven representative geographical regions of China between 1999 and 2008. The epidemiological, clinical and pathological data were collected based on the designed case report form (CRF).
There were one hundred and forty-three BCIS cases in four thousand and two hundred-eleven BC patients (3.4%). The mean age at diagnosis was 48.3 years and BCIS peaked in age group 40-49 yrs (39.9%). The most common subtype was ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (88.0%). 53.8% were positive for estrogen receptor (ER). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive status was observed in 23.8% of patients. All patients underwent surgeries and 14.7% of them had breast conservation therapies (BCT) (21/143), but 41.9% accepted chemotherapy (64/143). Much less patients underwent radiotherapy (16.0%, 23/143) and among patients who had BCT, 67% accepted radiotherapy (14/21). Endocrine therapy was taken in 44.1% patients (63/143).
The younger age of BCIS among Chinese women than Western countries and increasing number of cases pose a great challenge. BCT and endocrine therapy are under great needs.
The aim of the present study was to design a novel topical skin-target drug-delivery system, the paeonol microsponge, and to investigate its drug-release patterns in dosage form, both in vitro and in vivo. Paeonol microsponges were prepared using the quasi-emulsion solvent-diffusion method. In vitro release studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells, while in vivo studies were investigated by microdialysis after the paeonol microsponges were incorporated into a cream base. In vitro release studies showed that the drug delivered via microsponges increased the paeonol permeation rate. Ex vivo drug-deposition studies showed that the microsponge formulation improved drug residence in skin. In addition, in vivo microdialysis showed that the values for the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) for the paeonol microsponge cream was much higher than that of paeonol cream without microsponges. Maximum time (Tmax) was 220 min for paeonol microsponge cream and 480 min for paeonol cream, while the half-life (t1/2) of paeonol microsponge cream (935.1 min) was almost twice that of paeonol cream (548.6 min) in the skin (n = 3). Meanwhile, in the plasma, the AUC value for paeonol microsponge cream was half that of the paeonol cream. Based on these results, paeonol-loaded microsponge formulations could be a better alternative for treating skin disease, as the formulation increases drug bioavailability by lengthening the time of drug residence in the skin and should reduce side-effects because of the lower levels of paeonol moving into the circulation.
Triptolide, an active compound extracted from Chinese herb Leigongteng (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.), shows a broad-spectrum of anticancer activity through its cytotoxicity. However, the efficacy of triptolide on laryngocarcinoma rarely been evaluated, and the mechanism by which triptolide-induced cellular apoptosis is still not well understood. In this study, we found that triptolide significantly inhibited the laryngocarcinoma HEp-2 cells proliferation, migration and survivability. Triptolide induces HEp-2 cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways since both caspase-8 and -9 are activated. Moreover, triptolide enhances p53 expression by increasing its stability via down-regulation of E6 and E6AP. Increased p53 transactivates down-stream target genes to initiate apoptosis. In addition, we found that short time treatment with triptolide induced DNA damage, which was consistent with the increase in p53. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of triptolide is decreased by p53 knockdown or use of caspases inhibitor. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that triptolide inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in laryngocarcinoma cells by enhancing p53 expression and activating p53 functions through induction of DNA damage and suppression of E6 mediated p53 degradation. These studies indicate that triptolide is a potential anti-laryngocarcinoma drug.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). MG is frequently caused by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and a kinase critical for NMJ formation, MuSK; however, a proportion of MG patients are double-negative for anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies. Recent studies in these subjects have identified autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 4 (LRP4), an agrin receptor also critical for NMJ formation. LRP4 autoantibodies have not previously been implicated in MG pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that mice immunized with the extracellular domain of LRP4 generated anti-LRP4 antibodies and exhibited MG-associated symptoms, including muscle weakness, reduced compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), and compromised neuromuscular transmission. Additionally, fragmented and distorted NMJs were evident at both the light microscopic and electron microscopic levels. We found that anti-LRP4 sera decreased cell surface LRP4 levels, inhibited agrin-induced MuSK activation and AChR clustering, and activated complements, revealing potential pathophysiological mechanisms. To further confirm the pathogenicity of LRP4 antibodies, we transferred IgGs purified from LRP4-immunized rabbits into naive mice and found that they exhibited MG-like symptoms, including reduced CMAP and impaired neuromuscular transmission. Together, these data demonstrate that LRP4 autoantibodies induce MG and that LRP4 contributes to NMJ maintenance in adulthood.
Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates, including neurofibrillary tangles comprised of tau in Alzheimer’s disease and Lewy bodies composed of α-synuclein in Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, different pathological proteins frequently codeposit in disease brains. To test whether aggregated α-synuclein can directly cross-seed tau fibrillization, we administered preformed α-synuclein fibrils assembled from recombinant protein to primary neurons and transgenic mice. Remarkably, we discovered two distinct strains of synthetic α-synuclein fibrils that demonstrated striking differences in the efficiency of cross-seeding tau aggregation, both in neuron cultures and in vivo. Proteinase K digestion revealed conformational differences between the two synthetic α-synuclein strains and also between sarkosyl-insoluble α-synuclein extracted from two subgroups of Parkinson’s disease brains. We speculate that distinct strains of pathological α-synuclein likely exist in neurodegenerative disease brains and may underlie the tremendous heterogeneity of synucleinopathies.
A protective reagent for ARI should have the ability to repair injured tissue caused by radiation and prevent continuous damage from secondary risk factors. Trx-1 was explored as a candidate therapy for ARI, as it scavenges reactive oxygen species, regulates cell growth and differentiation, participates in immune reactions, and inhibits apoptosis by acting inside and/or outside cells. Trx-1 can also decrease excessive inflammation in ARI by regulating the creation of inflamed media, by inhibiting the activation of complement, and by reducing the chemotaxis, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells. As effectively and stably expressing exogenous genes in the long term and regulating immune inflammation and tissue repair, MSC are a good choice for Trx-1 gene therapy. In this study, Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC-Trx-1 were obtained by adenoviral vector-mediated infection. We first measured the redox capacity of hucMSC-Trx-1 with an antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) assay, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content determination assay in vivo, a H2O2-induced oxidation hemolysis assay, and a lipid peroxidation assay in vitro. Then, we measured survival time, the protection of the hematopoietic system, and the regulation of inflammation in important organs in three treatment groups of NOD/SCID mice (treated with hucMSC-Trx-1, with hucMSC, and with saline) that were exposed to 4.5 Gy 60Co-γ-ray radiation. The hucMSC-Trx-1 group achieved superior antioxidation results, protecting bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (Lin−CD117+: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01), promoting the formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0.05), reducing inflammation and damage in important organs (Bone marrow and lung: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05. Liver and intestine: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05), and prolonging survival (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0.01). Therefore, hucMSC-Trx-1 combines the merits of gene and cell therapy as a multifunctional radioprotector for ARI.
AIM: To evaluate the effects of estrogen (E2) on systemic and splanchnic hyperdynamic circulation in portal hypertensive rats.
METHODS: Fifty castrated female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: sham operation (SO), partial portal vein ligation (PPVL) + placebo (PLAC), PPVL + E2, PPVL + ICI and PPVL + E2 + ICI. Hemodynamic measurements were performed using ultrasonography. Mesenteric arteriole contractility in response to norepinephrine was determined using a vessel perfusion system. Oxidative stress in the mesenteric artery was investigated by in situ detection of the superoxide anion (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations.
RESULTS: Treatment with E2 resulted in a significant decrease of portal pressure (P < 0.01) and portal venous inflow (P < 0.05), and higher systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.05) and splanchnic arteriolar resistance (P < 0.01) in PPVL + E2 rats compared to PPVL + PLAC rats. In the mesenteric arterioles of PPVL + E2 rats, the dose-response curve was shifted left, and the EC50 was decreased (P < 0.01). E2 reduced O2•− production and H2O2 concentration in the mesenteric artery. However, ICI182, 780 reversed the beneficial effects of E2, therefore, the systemic and splanchnic hyperdynamic circulation were more deteriorated in ICI182, 780-treated rats.
CONCLUSION: Treatment with estrogen improved the systemic and splanchnic hyperdynamic circulation in PPVL rats, in part due to the alleviation of oxidative stress.
Estrogen; Hyperdynamic circulation; Partial portal vein ligation; Oxidative stress
Presacral schwannomas are a rare disease. The current case report presents a case of giant schwannoma with severe abdominal pain, constipation and dysuresia. The patient was initially diagnosed with an ovarian teratoma, which is an extremely common disease. The pain pattern and accompanying symptoms were the major factors indicating a teratoma. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans were the main tools of differential diagnosis, but the unsharpness of CT often disturbs diagnosis. Diagnosis of the tumor was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, revealing a benign presacral schwannoma. The patient underwent complete resection and recovered well, albeit with a large amount of blood loss. The tumor was 25×15×10 cm3 in size and in contact with the sacrum. The aim of the present study was to review the diagnostic techniques of careful radiological examination. A follow-up was performed 2 years following the surgery and the patient remained alive and a CT scan demonstrated no evidence of recurrence. However, the long term efficacy of this process requires continuous observations of the patient.
misdiagnosis; ovarian teratoma; pelvic cavity; schwannoma
AIM: To assess midterm results of stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) for obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) and predictive factors for outcome.
METHODS: From May 2007 to May 2009, 75 female patients underwent STARR and were included in the present study. Preoperative and postoperative workup consisted of standardized interview and physical examination including proctoscopy, colonoscopy, anorectal manometry, and defecography. Clinical and functional results were assessed by standardized questionnaires for the assessment of constipation constipation scoring system (CSS), Longo’s ODS score, and symptom severity score (SSS), incontinence Wexner incontinence score (WS), quality of life Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAC-QOL), and patient satisfaction visual analog scale (VAS). Data were collected prospectively at baseline, 12 and 30 mo.
RESULTS: The median follow-up was 30 mo (range, 30-46 mo). Late postoperative complications occurred in 11 (14.7%) patients. Three of these patients required procedure-related reintervention (one diverticulectomy and two excision of staple granuloma). Although the recurrence rate was 10.7%, constipation scores (CSS, ODS score and SSS) significantly improved after STARR (P < 0.0001). Significant reduction in ODS symptoms was matched by an improvement in the PAC-QOL and VAS (P < 0.0001), and the satisfaction index was excellent in 25 (33.3%) patients, good in 23 (30.7%), fairly good in 14 (18.7%), and poor in 13 (17.3%). Nevertheless, the WS increased after STARR (P = 0.0169). Incontinence was present or deteriorated in 8 (10.7%) patients; 6 (8%) of whom were new onsets. Univariate analysis revealed that the occurrence of fecal incontinence (preoperative, postoperative or new-onset incontinence; P = 0.028, 0.000, and 0.007, respectively) was associated with the success of the operation.
CONCLUSION: STARR is an acceptable procedure for the surgical correction of ODS. However, its impact on symptomatic recurrence and postoperative incontinence may be problematic.
Colorectal surgery; Constipation; Stapled transanal rectal resection