Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are an effective and common treatment for chronic pain disorders, but long-term use is associated with risk of potentially life-threatening gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). The proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole has been found to be effective for gastroprotection in NSAID users, but few long-term studies have been conducted in Japan.
This was an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, prospective 1-year study of treatment with esomeprazole (20 mg once daily) in Japanese patients (aged ≥20 years) with endoscopic evidence of previous peptic ulcer and receiving daily oral NSAID therapy (at a stable dose) for a chronic condition. Eligibility was not dictated by type of oral NSAID. The primary objective was to determine long-term safety and tolerability of esomeprazole. Efficacy for prevention of peptic ulcers was also determined (Kaplan-Meier method). All statistical analyses were descriptive.
A total of 130 patients (73.1% women, mean age 62.1 years, 43.8% Helicobacter pylori-positive) received treatment with esomeprazole in addition to long-term NSAID therapy (most commonly for rheumatoid arthritis [n=42] and osteoarthritis [n=34]). Loxoprofen, meloxicam and diclofenac were the most commonly used NSAIDs; cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective agents were used by 16.2% of patients (n=21). Long-term compliance with esomeprazole (capsule counts) was >75% for the majority of patients. Although 16.9% of patients (n=22) experienced AEs judged to be possibly related to treatment with esomeprazole, they were mostly mild and transient. The most commonly reported possibly treatment-related AEs were abnormal hepatic function, headache, increased γ-glutamyltransferase levels and muscle spasms (2 patients each). Overall, 95.9% (95% confidence interval: 92.3, 99.4) of patients remained ulcer free at 1 year.
Long-term treatment with esomeprazole (20 mg once daily) is well tolerated and efficacious for preventing ulcer recurrence in Japanese NSAID users with a history of peptic ulcer.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00595517.
Esomeprazole; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Peptic ulcer; Safety
In Niger, insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have been distributed to the target group of households with young children and/or pregnant women at healthcare facilities in the course of antenatal/immunization clinics. With the aim of universal coverage, ITNs were additionally distributed to households through strengthened community health committees in 2009. This study assessed the impact of the community-based net distribution strategy involving community health committees in the ITN coverage in Boboye Health District, Niger. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 1,034 households drawn from the intervention area (the co-existence of the community-based system together with the facility-based system) and the control area (the facility-based system alone). In the intervention area, 55.8% of households owned ITNs delivered through the community-based system, and 29.6% of households exclusively owned ITNs obtained through the community-based system. The community-based system not only reached households within the target group (54.6% ownership) but also those without (59.1% ownership). Overall, household ITN ownership was significantly higher in the intervention area than in the control area (82.5% vs. 60.7%). In combination, the community-based system and the facility-based system achieved a high ITN coverage. The community-based system contributed to reducing leakage in the facility-based system.
insecticide-treated bed net; community-based net distribution; community participation; malaria; Niger
Recombinant nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases from N. caninum and T. gondii have been purified and crystallized for X-ray structure analysis.
The nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases that are produced by Neospora caninum (NcNTPase) and Toxoplasma gondii (TgNTPase-I) have a different physiological function from the ubiquitous ecto-ATPases. The recombinant enzymes were crystallized at 293 K using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray diffraction data sets were collected for NcNTPase (to 2.8 Å resolution) and TgNTPase-I (to 3.1 Å resolution) at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The crystals of NcNTPase and TgNTPase-I belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222 (unit-cell parameters a = 93.6, b = 140.8, c = 301.1 Å) and the monoclinic space group P21 (unit-cell parameters a = 87.1, b = 123.5, c = 120.2 Å, β = 96.6°), respectively, with two NcNTPase (V
M = 3.7 Å3 Da−1) and four TgNTPase-I (V
M = 2.7 Å3 Da−1) molecules per asymmetric unit. SAD phasing trials using a data set (λ = 0.97904 Å) collected from a crystal of selenomethionylated NcNTPase gave an initial electron-density map of sufficient quality to build a molecular model of NcNTPase.
nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases; Neospora caninum; Toxoplasma gondii
Fleishaker and colleagues reported on a double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial of a C-C chemokine-receptor type 5 (CCR5) antagonist, maraviroc, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with inadequate response to methotrexate, showing that it was ineffective. Two additional CCR5 antagonists, SCH351125 and AZD5672, also failed to demonstrate clinical efficacy. In addition, CCR5-blocking antibodies could not inhibit synovial fluid-induced monocyte chemotaxis. Thus, CCR5 appears not to be a desirable target in RA treatment. Given the multiple functions of CCR5, redundancies in the chemokine system, and patient selection in the trial, we overview the recent understanding for chemokine receptor blockade in the treatment of RA
IgG4-related disease is a new disease group that affects multiple organs. It is characterized by high serum IgG4 and abundant infiltration of IgG4-bearing plasma cells in the affected organ. Here, we describe an intriguing case that suggested that IgG4-related disease might present without IgG4 overexpression or infiltration, at least during a relapse. A 47-year-old man had been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus 15 years. He was admitted due to a pituitary mass, systemic lymphadenopathy, and multiple nodules in the lungs and kidneys. The serum IgG4 level was normal and histopathological examination of the pituitary mass showed abundant lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration with very few IgG4-positive cells. When we examined specimens preserved from 15 years ago, we found high serum IgG4 levels and IgG4-bearing plasma cell infiltration. This resulted in a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease, and we considered the current episode to be a relapse without IgG4 overexpression. This case indicated that, to clarify the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease, current cases should repeat specimen evaluations over the course of IgG4-related disease to define diagnostic markers.
To assess the efficacy and safety of golimumab + methotrexate (MTX) in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
269 Japanese patients with active RA despite treatment with MTX were randomised (1:1:1) to placebo + MTX (Group 1), golimumab 50 mg + MTX (Group 2) or golimumab 100 mg + MTX (Group 3). Subcutaneous golimumab/placebo was injected every 4 weeks; stable doses of oral MTX (6–8 mg/week) were continued. Patients were allowed to enter early escape (Group 1 added golimumab 50 mg, Group 2 increased golimumab to 100 mg, Group 3 continued golimumab 100 mg) based on swollen/tender joint counts at week 14. The primary study endpoint was achievement of at least 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR20) response criteria at week 14. To control for multiplicity of testing, treatment group comparisons were first made between combined Groups 2 and 3 versus Group 1, followed by comparisons of Group 2 and Group 3 versus Group 1.
The proportion of patients with an ACR20 response at week 14 was significantly higher in combined Groups 2 and 3 (73.4%, 127/173) and in each of Group 2 (72.1%, 62/86) and Group 3 (74.7%, 65/87) compared with Group 1 (27.3%, 24/88; p<0.0001 for all comparisons). Golimumab + MTX also elicited a significantly better response than placebo + MTX in other efficacy parameters, including disease activity score (DAS28) response/remission and radiographic assessments. During the 16-week fixed treatment regimen study period, 72.7%, 75.6% and 78.2% of patients had adverse events and 1.1%, 1.2% and 2.3% had serious adverse events in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively.
In Japanese patients with active RA despite MTX therapy, golimumab + MTX was significantly more effective than MTX monotherapy in reducing RA signs/symptoms and limiting radiographic progression with no unexpected safety concerns.
With the current use of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to monitor ongoing structural joint damage due to the dissociation of articular cartilage damage from disease activity of RA. This study longitudinally analyzed levels of serum cartilage biomarkers during 54 weeks of infliximab therapy, to evaluate the feasibility of biomarkers for monitoring structural joint damage.
Subjects comprised 33 patients with early RA and 33 patients with established RA. All patients received 3 mg/kg of infliximab and methotrexate for 54 weeks. Levels of the following serum cartilage markers were measured at baseline and at weeks 14, 22, and 54: hyaluronan (HA); cartilage oligometric matrix protein (COMP); type II collagen (CII)-related neoepitope (C2C); type II procollagen carboxy-propeptide (CPII); and keratin sulfate (KS). Time courses for each biomarker were assessed, and relationships between these biomarkers and clinical or radiographic parameters generally used for RA were investigated.
Levels of CRP, MMP-3, DAS28-CRP, and annual progression of TSS were improved to similar degrees in both groups at week 54. HA and C2C/CPII were significantly decreased compared to baseline in the early RA group (p<0.001), whereas HA and COMP, but not C2C/CPII, were decreased in the established RA group. Strikingly, serum C2C/CPII levels were universally improved in early RA, regardless of EULAR response grade. Both ΔHA and ΔC2C/CPII from baseline to week 54 correlated significantly with not only ΔCRP, but also ΔDAS28 in early RA. Interestingly, when partial correlation coefficients were calculated by standardizing CRP levels, the significant correlation of ΔHA to ΔDAS28 disappeared, whereas correlations of ΔC2C/CPII to ΔDAS28, ΔJNS, and ΔHAQ remained significant. These results suggest a role of ΔC2C/CPII as a marker of ongoing structural joint damage with the least association with CRP, and that irreversible cartilage damage in established RA limits restoration of the C2C/CPII level, even with tight control of joint inflammation.
The temporal course of C2C/CPII level during anti-TNF therapy indicates that CII turnover shifts toward CII synthesis in early RA, but not in established RA, potentially due to irreversible cartilage damage. ΔC2C/CPII appears to offer a useful marker reflecting ongoing structural joint damage, dissociated from inflammatory indices such as CRP and MMP-3.
Low-dose lansoprazole has not been intensively evaluated for its efficacy in the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in patients receiving long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy for pain relief in such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and low back pain.
This multi-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled study involving 99 sites in Japan was designed to compare the efficacy of lansoprazole (15 mg daily) with gefarnate (50 mg twice daily). Patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term NSAID therapy were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 185) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 181) and followed up for 12 months or longer prospectively.
The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcer at days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method as 3.3, 5.9, and 12.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 18.7, 28.5, and 36.9%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk for ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P < 0.0001) lower in the lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.2510 (95% CI 0.1400–0.4499). A long-term follow-up study showed an acceptable safety profile for low-dose lansoprazole therapy, with diarrhea as the most frequent adverse event.
Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term NSAID therapy.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00535-012-0541-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Rheumatoid arthritis; Osteoarthritis; Gastric or duodenal ulcers; Prevention; Lansoprazole; Active-controlled trial
In this study, we investigated possible aberrations of monocytes from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). We focused on B-cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) and IL-6 because they are both produced by monocytes and are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of pSS.
Peripheral monocytes were prepared from both pSS patients and normal individuals. The cells were stimulated in vitro with IFN-γ, and the amounts of IL-6 and soluble BAFF (sBAFF) produced by the cells were quantitated. The effect of sBAFF itself on the production of IL-6 was also studied. To investigate the response of pSS monocytes to these stimuli, the expression levels of the genes encoding BAFF receptors and IL-6-regulating transcription factors were quantitated.
Peripheral pSS monocytes produced significantly higher amounts of sBAFF and IL-6 than normal monocytes did, even in the absence of stimulation. The production of these cytokines was significantly increased upon stimulation with IFN-γ. The elevated production of IL-6 was significantly suppressed by an anti-BAFF antibody. In addition, stimulation of pSS monocytes with sBAFF induced a significant increase in IL-6 production. Moreover, the expression levels of a BAFF receptor and transcription factors regulating IL-6 were significantly elevated in pSS monocytes compared to normal monocytes.
The results of the present study suggest that the mechanisms underlying the production of sBAFF and IL-6 are impaired in pSS monocytes. Our research implies that this impairment is due to abnormally overexpressed IL-6-regulating transcription factors and a BAFF receptor. These abnormalities may cause the development of pSS.
We retrospectively investigated the ability of adalimumab (ADA) to reduce disease activity, improve physical function, and retard the progression of structural damage in 167 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and functional outcomes were compared between patients with or without prior biologic treatment and those with or without concomitant methotrexate (MTX) treatment. At week 52, 38.3% achieved clinical remission: 42.4 and 28.6% of patients achieved remission in those without and with previous biologics, respectively, while 42.7 and 12.5% of patients achieved remission in those with and without concomitant MTX, respectively. ADA treatment significantly reduced the rate of radiographic progression from 27.1 ± 46.0 (median 13.6; 25th–75th percentiles 8.3 to 28.9) at baseline to 0.8 ± 5.0 (median 0.0; 25th–75th percentiles −0.9 to 2.0) at week 52 (P < 0.0001). Radiographic progression was absent in 59.8% of patients. Sixty adverse events (34.21/100 patient-years) were reported, 16 of which were serious (9.12/100 patient-years). ADA therapy is highly effective for reducing disease activity, improving physical function, and limiting radiographic progression. It is generally safe and well tolerated by Japanese RA patients in routine clinical practice.
Adalimumab; Japanese; Retrospective study; Radiographic outcome; Rheumatoid arthritis
Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab in RA patients in clinical practice.
Methods. We observed 232 consecutive RA patients who began tocilizumab in three rheumatology centres in Japan for 52 weeks. Clinical, radiographic and functional status and safety were evaluated.
Results. Mean age of the 232 patients was 59.1 years, mean duration of disease was 12.4 years and average DAS using the 28-joint count (DAS-28) was 5.6. Although 62.8% of the patients had been treated previously with anti-TNF biologics, clinical remission at Week 52 was achieved in 43.7%, radiographic non-progression in 62.8% and functional remission in 26.4%. Retention rate at Week 52 was 71.1%, and the same for those with or without previous anti-TNF treatment. Adverse drug reactions leading to tocilizumab discontinuation were observed in 15.5% of patients, the most frequent adverse drug reaction being pneumonia in eight cases. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, DAS-28, HAQ-disability index (HAQ-DI), concomitant MTX and concomitant glucocorticoids (GCs) were predictive variables for clinical remission at Week 52 of tocilizumab treatment. In particular, HAQ-DI was found to be a predictive variable for remission of all three types—clinical, radiographic and functional—at Week 52 of tocilizumab treatment.
Conclusions. In daily clinical practice, tocilizumab exhibited excellent effectiveness in established RA patients, some of whom had failed to respond to previous anti-TNF treatment. Although further detailed safety findings are required, this study provides valuable real-world findings on the management of RA with tocilizumab.
Rheumatoid arthritis; Tocilizumab; Remission; Joint destruction; Health assessment questionnaire
To investigate the possible role of baseline plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha levels (baseline-TNF) on the clinical response to infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Patients with RA refractory to methotrexate received 3, 6, or 10 mg/kg of infliximab every 8 weeks, in a randomised, double-blind manner: the RISING study. Clinical response (disease activity score in 28 joints based on C-reactive protein or American College of Rheumatology core set) at week 54 and serum infliximab levels were compared in three patient groups with low, intermediate, or high baseline-TNF (TNF-low, TNF-int, or TNF-high).
In TNF-low patients, the clinical response to different doses of infliximab was comparable, whereas TNF-int patients exhibited a dose-dependent trend. In contrast, TNF-high patients (approximately 13% of the total patients) had a clinical response to 10 mg/kg significantly better than the response to 3 and 6 mg/kg of infliximab. In TNF-high patients, the median trough serum levels of infliximab were below the detection limit (<0.1 μg/ml) at 3 and 6 mg/kg but were greater than 2 μg/ml at 10 mg/kg, whereas the levels were approximately 1 μg/ml for each dosage group in TNF-low patients.
In patients with RA, baseline-TNF is significantly associated with the clinical response to infliximab in patients with a high baseline-TNF. A higher dose of infliximab may be necessary in these patients, whereas lower doses of infliximab are sufficient for those with a low baseline-TNF. Baseline-TNF may be a useful measure for personalising the treatment of RA using infliximab.
Finding an effective treatment strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who have not benefited from previous tumor necrosis factor–α antagonist treatment is important for minimizing RA disease activity and improving patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and effectiveness of etanercept in patients with and without infliximab (IFX) treatment experience. Patients (n = 7,099) from a large postmarketing observational study of etanercept use in Japan were divided into 2 cohorts based on previous IFX use (pre-IFX and non-IFX). Baseline characteristics were assessed in each cohort. Adverse events (AEs) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) responses were monitored every 4 weeks for 24 weeks. At baseline, pre-IFX patients were younger and had fewer comorbidities and a shorter RA duration than non-IFX patients. During the study, pre-IFX patients received concomitant methotrexate more often than non-IFX patients. The incidence of AEs and serious AEs were significantly lower in pre-IFX patients, as was the percentage of patients who discontinued treatment. Both cohorts had significant improvement (P < 0.001) in EULAR responses at the end of the treatment period. This study demonstrated that etanercept was effective and well tolerated in active RA patients with and without prior IFX treatment.
Etanercept; Infliximab; Postmarketing surveillance study; Rheumatoid arthritis; TNF-α antagonists
The aim is to investigate the relationship of duration of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with safety and effectiveness of etanercept (ETN) in Japan. Post-marketing surveillance data for 7,099 patients treated with ETN were analyzed. Baseline characteristics, treatment effectiveness, incidence of adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs (SAEs) in relation to duration of RA were studied. At baseline, patients with RA for longer duration were older, weighed less, had more comorbidities, allergies, and corticosteroid use, but smoked less and had less morning stiffness. By 2–5 years with RA, more than half of the patients had advanced to Steinbrocker radiographic stage III or IV. Methotrexate (MTX) was the most commonly used pre-treatment disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; however, concomitant MTX use and its dose were lower among patients with longer duration of RA. Remission rates (26.6%) were greatest among patients having RA for <2 years. Less AEs and SAEs were observed among patients with shorter duration of RA. These results suggest that RA treatment in Japan in the era pre-biologics may not have been adequate to control disease activity and prevent joint destruction. Patients with shorter duration of RA may have better physical status which allows the opportunity to treat more intensively putting a higher percentage of patients in remission and possibly decreasing exposure to SAEs.
Antirheumatic agents/adverse effects; Antirheumatic agents/therapeutic use; Arthritis, rheumatoid/drug therapy; Product surveillance, Postmarketing/statistics & numerical data; Receptors, tumor necrosis factor/therapeutic use; Japan
Our aim was to evaluate real-world safety and effectiveness in a 6-month postmarketing surveillance study covering all Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who received etanercept during a 2-year period. Data for 13,894 patients (1334 sites) enrolled between March 2005 and April 2007 were collected. Adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 4336 (31.2%) and 857 (6.2%) patients, respectively. The most frequent AEs were injection site reactions (n = 610, 4.4%) and rash (n = 339, 2.4%), whereas pneumonia (n = 116, 0.8%) and interstitial lung disease (n = 77, 0.6%) were the most frequent SAEs. Significant improvement in the proportion of patients with a good European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response was observed from week 4 (17.6%) to week 24 (31.6%) (p < 0.001); 84.3% of patients had good or moderate EULAR responses at week 24. The percentage of patients achieving remission increased significantly from week 4 (9.3%) to week 24 (18.9%) (p < 0.001). Patients with early moderate RA were less likely to experience SAEs and were more likely to achieve remission compared with patients with more severe disease. The safety and effectiveness of etanercept was demonstrated in Japanese patients in one of the largest observational trials conducted thus far in RA patients treated with biologics.
DAS28; Etanercept; Postmarketing surveillance study; Rheumatoid arthritis
Infusion reaction is a major adverse event in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with infliximab. The possible factors including Fcγ receptor (FcγR) polymorphism associated with the development of infusion reactions in patients with RA receiving infliximab were prospectively examined.
96 patients with RA were enrolled and scheduled to receive infliximab at a dose of 3 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6 and every 8 weeks thereafter. Genetic polymorphisms for FcγR were examined in FCGR3A 176F/V and FCGR3B NA1/2 alleles by allele-specific PCR analysis.
An infusion reaction was observed in 17 patients (18%) during 52 weeks of treatment with infliximab. The FCGR3B NA1/NA1 genotype was found in 75% of the patients with infusion reactions and in only 37% of those without (p=0.01), whereas the FCGR3A 176F/V genotype was equally distributed in the patients with or without infusion reactions. Glucocorticoids were used in 53% of the patients who developed an infusion reaction and in 80% of those without an infusion reaction (p=0.02). A multivariable logistic regression model showed that the FCGR3B NA1/NA1 genotype and use of glucocorticoids at baseline could be used as independent predictive factors for infusion reactions (OR 6.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 24.3) and OR 0.26 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.84), respectively). The presence of anti-infliximab antibody during infliximab treatment was also associated with infusion reactions.
FCGR3B NA1/NA1 genotype, use of glucocorticoids and the presence of anti-infliximab antibody accounted for nearly all patients with RA who developed infusion reactions.
Tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to the interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor, was approved for use as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy in Japan in 2008, but its efficacy and tolerability in daily practice has not yet been reported. We report the results of a multicenter retrospective study on the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab involving all patients (n = 229) who were started on tocilizumab therapy at three rheumatology institutes in Japan from April 2008 through to March 2009. Tocilizumab was infused every 4 weeks at a dose of 8 mg/kg according to the drug labeling. Among the 229 patients, 55% concomitantly received methotrexate (MTX) and 63% had previously received anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Average disease activity score (DAS) 28 of all 229 patients significantly decreased from 5.70 to 3.25 after 24 weeks of therapy. A European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) good response and DAS28 remission was achieved in 57.4 and 40.7% of the patients, respectively, at 24 weeks. White blood cell counts significantly decreased and liver enzymes and total cholesterol slightly but significantly increased; however, liver enzyme levels did not increase in patients without MTX. Tocilizumab was discontinued in 47 cases (20.5%) due to lack of efficacy (5.2%), adverse events (11.4%), and other reasons (3.9%). The overall retention rate at 24 weeks was 79.5%. Based on these results, we conclude that tocilizumab therapy in daily rheumatology practice appears to be highly efficacious and well tolerated among active RA patients, including the anti-TNF therapy-refractory population. Tocilizumab infusion is therefore applicable not only as an alternative approach for anti-TNF therapy-resistant patients, but also as primary biologic therapy for active RA patients.
Rheumatoid arthritis; Tocilizumab; IL-6; Remission; Retrospective study
Accumulating evidence suggests that dysfunction of T cells underlies the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We revealed that SLE T cells produced an abnormally excessive amount of IFN-γin vitro upon stimulation through TCR, and the expression level of TCR zeta was significantly reduced. The production of IFN-γ by SLE T cells was negatively correlated with the expression level of TCR zeta. This correlation was abolished when the cells were stimulated with TPA and ionomycin, which bypass TCR and introduce signals directly into the cells, but the production of IFN-γ by SLE T cells remained abnormally elevated. Taken together, these data suggest that regulatory mechanisms not only for the expression of TCR zeta but also for the production of IFN-γ were impaired in SLE T cells. These impairments may be responsible for the aberrant responses of SLE T cells and partly involved in the development of SLE.
To evaluate the ability of tocilizumab (a humanised anti‐IL‐6 receptor antibody) monotherapy to inhibit progression of structural joint damage in patients with RA.
In a multi‐centre, x ray reader‐blinded, randomised, controlled trial, 306 patients with active RA of <5 years' duration were allocated to receive either tocilizumab monotherapy at 8 mg/kg intravenously every 4 weeks or conventional disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for 52 weeks. Radiographs of hands and forefeet were scored by the van der Heijde modified Sharp method.
Patients had a mean disease duration of 2.3 years and a disease activity score in 28 joints of 6.5 at baseline. Mean total modified Sharp score (TSS) was 29.4, which was very high despite the relatively short disease duration. At week 52, the tocilizumab group showed statistically significantly less radiographic change in TSS (mean 2.3; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2) than the DMARD group (mean 6.1; 95% CI 4.2 to 8.0; p<0.01). Tocilizumab monotherapy also improved signs and symptoms. The overall incidences of AEs were 89% and 82% (serious AEs: 18% and 13%; serious infections: 7.6% and 4.1%) in the tocilizumab and DMARD groups, respectively.
Tocilizumab monotherapy was generally well tolerated and provided radiographic benefit in patients with RA.
Our aim was to assess the ability of tocilizumab monotherapy to reduce progressive structural joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis patients at high risk of progression. This study was a subanalysis from a prospective 1-year, multicenter, X-ray-reader-blinded, randomized controlled trial of tocilizumab [Study of Active Controlled Monotherapy Used for Rheumatoid Arthritis, an IL-6 Inhibitor (SAMURAI) trial]. All patients were categorized into two or three groups according to four independent predictive markers for progressive joint damage [urinary C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (uCTX-II), urinary pyridinoline/deoxypyridinoline (uPYD/DPD) ratio, body mass index (BMI), and joint-space narrowing (JSN) score at baseline]. One-year progression of joint destruction was assessed in high-risk versus low-risk groups receiving tocilizumab monotherapy and compared with patients receiving conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (n = 157 and 145, respectively). In patients at high risk of progression of erosion as estimated by high uCTX-II, uPYD/DPD, or low BMI, and at high risk of progression of JSN as estimated by low BMI or high JSN score, the 52-week changes in radiological erosion and JSN, respectively, were significantly less in patients treated with tocilizumab monotherapy compared with those receiving DMARDs for each type of risk factor. In patients at low risk, those receiving tocilizumab also progressed less than those on DMARDs, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. Tocilizumab monotherapy is more effective in reducing radiological progression in patients presenting with risk factors for rapid progression than in low-risk patients. Patients at high risk for progression may benefit more from tocilizumab treatment.
CTX-II; PYD/DPD; Rheumatoid arthritis; Interleukin-6; Tocilizumab; Joint destruction
School children have been increasingly recognized as health messengers for malaria control. However, little evidence is available. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school-based malaria education intervention on school children and community adults.
This study was conducted in the Dangme-East district of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, between 2007 and 2008. Trained schoolteachers designed participatory health education activities and led school children to disseminate messages related to malaria control to their communities. Three schools and their respective communities were chosen for the study and assigned to an intervention group (one school) and a control group (two schools). Questionnaire-based interviews and parasitological surveys were conducted before and after the intervention, with the intervention group (105 children, 250 community adults) and the control group (81 children, 133 community adults). Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were used to analyse differences in knowledge, practices, and parasite prevalence between pre- and post-intervention.
After the intervention, the misperception that malaria has multiple causes was significantly improved, both among children and community adults. Moreover, the community adults who treated a bed net with insecticide in the past six months, increased from 21.5% to 50.0% (p < 0.001). Parasite prevalence in school children decreased from 30.9% to 10.3% (p = 0.003). These positive changes were observed only in the intervention group.
This study suggests that the participatory health education intervention contributed to the decreased malaria prevalence among children. It had a positive impact not only on school children, but also on community adults, through the improvement of knowledge and practices. This strategy can be applied as a complementary approach to existing malaria control strategies in West African countries where school health management systems have been strengthened.
Application of biological agents targeting inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) dramatically caused a paradigm shift in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Infliximab, a chimeric anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody, has initially been introduced to Japan in 2003 and shown to be dramatically effective in alleviating arthritis refractory to conventional treatment. However, serious adverse events such as bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia were reported to be in relatively high incidence; i.e., 2%, 0.3%, and 0.4%, respectively, in a strict postmarketing surveillance of an initial 4000 cases in Japan. Etancercept, a recombinant chimeric protein consisting of p75 TNF-α receptor and human IgG, was subsequently introduced to Japan in March of 2005. We therefore drew up treatment guidelines for the use of etanercept to avoid potential serous adverse events, since only approximately 150 cases have been included in the clinical study of etanercept in Japan. The guidelines were initially designed by the principal investigators (N.M, T.T., K.E.) of rheumatoid arthritis study groups of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), Japan, and finally approved by the board of directors of the Japan College of Rheumatology. The MHLW assigned a duty to the pharmaceutical companies to perform a complete postmarketing surveillance of an initial 3000 cases to explore any adverse events, and this was performed according to the treatment guidelines shown in this article.
Etanercept; Japan College of Rheumatology (JCR); Rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); Treatment guidelines