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author:("surfeit, G")
1.  Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Oncology  2013;85(2):117-121.
Objective
Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.
Methods
Information on age, SLE duration, cancer date, and histology was available. We analyzed information on histological type and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses of histological types according to age, SLE duration, and calendar year.
Results
We studied 180 breast cancers in the SLE cohort. Of the 155 cases with histology information, 11 were referred to simply as ‘carcinoma not otherwise specified’. In the remaining 144 breast cancers, the most common histological type was ductal carcinoma (n = 95; 66%) followed by lobular adenocarcinoma (n = 11; 8%), 15 cancers were of mixed histology, and the remaining ones were special types. In our regression analyses, the independent risk factors for lobular versus ductal carcinoma was age [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.14] and for the ‘special’ subtypes it was age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.10) and SLE duration (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.11).
Conclusions
Generally, up to 80% of breast cancers are ductal carcinomas. Though our results are not definitive, in the breast cancers that occur in SLE, there may be a slight decrease in the ductal histological type. In our analyses, age and SLE duration were independent predictors of histological status.
doi:10.1159/000353138
PMCID: PMC3934367  PMID: 23887245
Breast cancer; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Histopathology; Epidemiology
2.  SF-36 summary and subscale scores are reliable outcomes of neuropsychiatric events in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2011;70(6):961-967.
Objective
To examine change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in association with clinical outcomes of neuropsychiatric (NP) events in SLE.
Methods
An international study evaluated newly diagnosed SLE patients for NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes. Outcome of events was determined by physician-completed 7-point scale and compared to patient-completed SF-36 questionnaires. Statistical analysis used linear mixed-effects regression models with patient specific random effects.
Results
274 patients (92% female; 68% Caucasian), from a cohort of 1400, had ≥ 1 NP event where the interval between assessments was 12.3 ± 2 months. The overall difference in change between visits in mental component summary (MCS) scores of the SF-36 was significant (p<0.0001) following adjustments for gender, ethnicity, center and previous score. A consistent improvement in NP status (N=295) was associated with an increase in the mean(SD) adjusted MCS score of 3.66(0.89) in SF-36 scores. Between paired visits where NP status consistently deteriorated (N=30), the adjusted MCS score decreased by 4.00(1.96). For the physical component summary (PCS) scores the corresponding changes were +1.73(0.71) and −0.62(1.58) (p<0.05) respectively. Changes in SF-36 subscales were in the same direction (p<0.05; with the exception of role physical). Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. Adjustment for age, education, medications, SLE disease activity, organ damage, disease duration, attribution and characteristics of NP events did not substantially alter the results.
Conclusion
Changes in SF-36 summary and subscale scores, in particular those related to mental health, are strongly associated with the clinical outcome of NP events in SLE patients.
doi:10.1136/ard.2010.138792
PMCID: PMC3795436  PMID: 21342917
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Neuropsychiatric; Inception cohort; Health related quality of life; SF-36
6.  Atherosclerotic Vascular Events in a Multinational Inception Cohort of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) 
Arthritis care & research  2010;62(6):881-887.
Objective
To describe vascular events during an 8 year follow-up in a multicentre SLE inception cohort and their attribution to atherosclerosis.
Methods
Clinical data including co-morbidities are recorded yearly. Vascular events are recorded and attributed to atherosclerosis or not. All events met standard clinical criteria. Factors associated with atherosclerotic vascular events were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-tests and χ2. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of factors with vascular events attributed to atherosclerosis.
Results
Since 2000, 1249 patients have been entered into the cohort. There have been 97 vascular events in 72 patients. These include: myocardial infarction (13), angina (15), congestive heart failure (24), peripheral vascular disease (8), transient ischemic attack (13), stroke (23), pacemaker insertion (1). Fifty of the events were attributed to active lupus, 31events in 22 patients were attributed to atherosclerosis, and 16 to other causes. Time from diagnosis to first atherosclerotic event was 2.0 ± 1.5 years. Compared to patients followed for 2 years without atherosclerosis events (615), at enrolment patients with AVE were more frequently Caucasian, male, older at diagnosis of SLE, obese, smokers, hypertensive and had a family history of coronary artery disease. On multivariate analysis only male gender and older age at diagnosis were associated factors.
Conclusion
In an inception cohort with SLE followed for up to 8 years there were 97 vascular events but only 31 were attributable to atherosclerosis. Patients with atherosclerotic events were more likely to be male and to be older at diagnosis of SLE.
doi:10.1002/acr.20122
PMCID: PMC2989413  PMID: 20535799
7.  Prospective Analysis Of Neuropsychiatric Events In An International Disease Inception Cohort of SLE Patients 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2009;69(3):529-535.
Objectives
To determine the frequency, accrual, attribution and outcome of neuropsychiatric (NP) events and impact on quality of life over 3 years in a large inception cohort of SLE patients.
Methods
The study was conducted by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics. Patients were enrolled within 15 months of SLE diagnosis. NP events were identified using the ACR case definitions and decision rules were derived to determine the proportion of NP disease attributable to SLE. The outcome of NP events was recorded and patient perceived impact determined by the SF-36.
Results
There were 1206 patients (89.6% female) with a mean (±SD) age of 34.5±13.2 years. The mean disease duration at enrollment was 5.4±4.2 months. Over a mean follow-up of 1.9±1.2 years 486/1206 (40.3%) patients had ≥1 NP events which were attributed to SLE in 13.0%–23.6% of patients using two a priori decision rules. The frequency of individual NP events varied from 47.1% (headache) to 0% (myasthenia gravis). The outcome was significantly better for those NP events attributed to SLE especially if they occurred within 1.5 years of the diagnosis of SLE. Patients with NP events, regardless of attribution, had significantly lower summary scores for both mental and physical health over the study.
Conclusions
NP events in SLE patients are variable in frequency, most commonly present early in the disease course and adversely impact patients’ quality of life over time. Events attributed to non-SLE causes are more common than those due to SLE, although the latter have a more favourable outcome.
doi:10.1136/ard.2008.106351
PMCID: PMC2929162  PMID: 19359262
Lupus; Neuropsychiatric; Prospective; Inception cohort
8.  Rheumatoid factor and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides are associated with severe extra‐articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis 
Objective
To study antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti‐CCP) and rheumatoid factor in patients with active, severe extra‐articular rheumatoid arthritis (ExRA) compared with controls without ExRA.
Methods
35 consecutive patients with severe ExRA manifestations according to predefined criteria were studied. 70 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but no ExRA manifestations, individually matched for age, sex and disease duration, served as controls. Patients were included when ExRA was diagnosed, before any new treatment was started. Anti‐CCPs were detected with ELISA, rheumatoid factor was quantified using nephelometry and anti‐nuclear antibodies (ANA) were investigated using indirect immune fluorescence.
Results
Anti‐CCPs were detected in 77% of patients with ExRA versus 56% of controls without ExRA (p = 0.03). Anti‐CCP levels also tended to be higher in patients with ExRA (p = 0.09). Rheumatoid factor was detected in 94% v 71% of patients and controls, respectively (p = 0.006), and rheumatoid factor levels were higher in patients with ExRA (median interquartile range (IQR) 245 IU/ml (94–604) v 73 IU/ml (not detected–165); p = 0.001). Levels and occurrence of ANA did not differ between patients with ExRA and controls. Patients with ExRA had higher swollen joint counts and C reactive protein levels, but no correlations were found between anti‐CCP or rheumatoid factor levels and these measures within the ExRA group.
Conclusion
Rheumatoid factor is strongly associated with severe ExRA manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and a similar but weaker association exists for anti‐CCPs. This suggests a role for rheumatoid factor and anti‐CCP in the pathogenesis of ExRA.
doi:10.1136/ard.2006.054445
PMCID: PMC1798395  PMID: 16901955
9.  Study of the role of functional variants of SLC22A4, RUNX1 and SUMO4 in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2005;65(6):791-795.
Background
Functional polymorphisms of the solute carrier family 22, member 4 (SLC22A4), runt related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) and small ubiquitin‐like modifier 4 (SUMO4) genes have been shown to be associated with several autoimmune diseases.
Objective
To test the possible role of these variants in susceptibility to or severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), on the basis that common genetic bases are shared by autoimmune disorders.
Methods
597 SLE patients and 987 healthy controls of white Spanish origin were studied. Two additional cohorts of 228 SLE patients from Sweden and 122 SLE patients from Colombia were included. A case–control association study was carried out with six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spanning the SLC22A4 gene, one SNP in RUNX1 gene, and one additional SNP in SUM04 gene.
Results
No significant differences were observed between SLE patients and healthy controls when comparing the distribution of the genotypes or alleles of any of the SLC22A4, RUNX1, or SUMO4 polymorphisms tested. Significant differences were found in the distribution of the SUMO4 genotypes and alleles among SLE patients with and without nephritis, but after multiple testing correction, the significance of the association was lost. The association of SUMO4 with nephritis could not be verified in two independent SLE cohorts from Sweden and Colombia.
Conclusions
These results suggest that the SLC22A4, RUNX1, and SUMO4 polymorphisms analysed do not play a role in the susceptibility to or severity of SLE.
doi:10.1136/ard.2005.044891
PMCID: PMC1798171  PMID: 16249223
systemic lupus erythematosus; nephritis;  SLC22A4 gene;  RUNX1 gene;  SUMO4 gene
10.  Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2005;64(10):1507-1509.
Objectives: To describe demographic factors, subtypes, and survival of patients with SLE who develop NHL.
Methods: A multi-site cohort of 9547 subjects with definite SLE was assembled. Subjects at each centre were linked to regional tumour registries to determine cancer cases occurring after SLE diagnosis. For the NHL cases ascertained, descriptive statistics were calculated, and NHL subtype frequency and median survival time of patients determined.
Results: 42 cases of NHL occurred in the patients with SLE during the 76 948 patient-years of observation. The median age of patients at NHL diagnosis was 57 years. Thirty six (86%) of the 42 patients developing NHL were women, reflecting the female predominance of the cohort. In the patients, aggressive histological subtypes appeared to predominate, with the most commonly identified NHL subtype being diffuse large B cell (11 out of 21 cases for which histological subtype was available). Twenty two of the patients had died a median of 1.2 years after lymphoma diagnosis.
Conclusions: These data suggest aggressive disease in patients with SLE who develop NHL. Continuing work should provide further insight into the patterns of presentation, prognosis, and aetiology of NHL in SLE.
doi:10.1136/ard.2004.034504
PMCID: PMC1755239  PMID: 16162903
11.  EULAR randomised controlled trial of pulse cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone versus continuous cyclophosphamide and prednisolone followed by azathioprine and prednisolone in lupus nephritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2004;63(5):525-529.
Objective: To compare the efficacy and side effects of intermittent pulse cyclophosphamide plus methylprednisolone with continuous oral cyclophosphamide plus prednisolone, followed by azathioprine, in patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods: A multicentre randomised controlled trial was conducted between June 1992 and May 1996 involving eight European centres. All patients satisfied the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE and had biopsy proven proliferative lupus nephritis. All received corticosteroids in addition to cytotoxic drugs, as defined in the protocol, for two years. The trial was terminated after four years as recruitment was disappointing.
Results: 32 SLE patients with lupus nephritis were recruited: 16 were randomised to intermittent pulse cyclophosphamide and 16 to continuous cyclophosphamide plus azathioprine. Mean duration of follow up was 3.7 years in the continuous group (range 0 to 5.6) and 3.3 years in the pulse group (range 0.25 to 6). Three patients were excluded from the pulse therapy group as they were later found to have pure mesangial glomerulonephritis. Two patients in the continuous therapy group developed end stage renal failure requiring dialysis, but none in the intermittent pulse therapy (p = 0.488; NS). There were similar numbers of side effects and withdrawals from treatment in both groups. There were three deaths: two in the intermittent pulse therapy group and one in the continuous therapy group.
Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in efficacy and side effects between the two regimens. Infectious complications occurred commonly, so careful monitoring is required during treatment.
doi:10.1136/ard.2002.003574
PMCID: PMC1755006  PMID: 15082482
12.  No serological indications that systemic lupus erythematosus is linked with exposure to human parvovirus B19 
OBJECTIVES—Infectious agents like parvovirus have been implicated as exogenous factors that could trigger onset of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A number of case reports describing a SLE-like presentation of acute human parvovirus B19 infection have been published, but no systematic investigation of the actual seroprevalence in epidemiologically defined SLE populations has previously been reported.
METHODS—Sera from 99 SLE patients from a defined area in Southern Sweden, representing 88% of all new SLE cases 1981-1995 within the Lund-Orup Health Care district with 175 000 adult inhabitants (> 15 years of age), and sera from 99 age and sex matched healthy controls were investigated for the presence of IgG parvovirus antibodies. Two different commercially available EIA kits were used; one using E coli synthesised parvovirus VP1/VP2 antigen, and one using baculovirus derived parvovirus VP2 antigen.
RESULTS—The EIA using baculovirus derived antigen was more sensitive and surprisingly the controls were more often positive than the SLE patients were (79% versus 65%, χ2 p=0.027). No difference between the groups was seen with the EIA using E coli derived antigen (46% versus 49%). Titration experiments indicated that the discordance between the two tests was a matter of sensitivity rather than specificity.
CONCLUSION—No evidence was found of human parvovirus B19 infection being more prevalent among SLE patients. On the contrary, in one of the parvovirus EIAs the controls were more often positive than the SLE patients were.


doi:10.1136/ard.59.1.64
PMCID: PMC1752976  PMID: 10627430
13.  Transplantation with allogenic bone marrow from a donor with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): successful outcome in the recipient and induction of an SLE flare in the donor. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1996;55(9):638-641.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transfer of autoimmunity by allogenic bone marrow transplantation. METHODS: Bone marrow transplantation was performed in a 43 years old man with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in remission. The donor was his HLA identical brother who had a mild systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Autoantibodies, including antinuclear, anti-C1q, and anticardiolipin antibodies, were measured before and after transplantation. RESULTS: Transient mild graft versus host disease (GvHD) developed in the recipient in the weeks following transplantation. The donor had persistently high concentrations of anti-C1q antibodies to the collagenous region of the complement component C1q. Three months after transplantation the recipient developed antiC1q antibodies that persisted for two months. No other autoantibodies and no SLE-like manifestations appeared. Chronic GVHD started five months posttransplant and responded to intensified immunosuppressive treatment. Three years post-transplant the patient was in unmaintained remission. Within a few weeks after bone marrow donation the donor's disease was exacerbated with development of severe pulmonary alveolitis which required treatment with cyclophosphamide. CONCLUSIONS: When bone marrow transplantation was performed in a patient with AML with bone marrow from an HLA identical brother who had SLE, no evidence of transfer of disease was obtained. However, the recipient temporarily produced anti-C1q antibodies which was a characteristic feature of the donor's SLE and was probably produced by the transplant. The flare of the donor's SLE might be related to the bone marrow tap.
PMCID: PMC1010261  PMID: 8882135
14.  Significance of anti-entactin antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(10):659-665.
OBJECTIVES--To further evaluate the association of anti-entactin antibodies with clinical manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and related disorders. METHODS--Sera were analysed for anti-entactin antibodies from 79 patients with SLE, 38 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 20 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and five with Behçet's syndrome. Sera from 150 healthy blood donors and 20 patients with pneumonia were analysed as controls. To study the association of anti-entactin antibodies with severity and activity in SLE, 30 patients were assigned into three groups with 10 patients in each: (1) with mild manifestations; (2) severe disease without renal involvement and (3) frank lupus nephritis. Two blood samples from each patient were analysed, one from the active and the other from the inactive phase of the disease. Additionally, serial sera from 12 patients with SLE were also analysed. RESULTS--Thirty one patients with SLE (39%) had IgG, IgM or both anti-entactin antibodies. Twenty three of these patients (29%) had biopsy verified glomerulonephritis and 12 (50%) were positive for anti-entactin antibodies. Of the remaining 56 patients without apparent renal involvement, 18 (36%) were positive for anti-entactin antibodies. (chi squared = 2.77, p > 0.05). With the exception of rheumatoid arthritis where six patients (24%) had IgM anti-entactin antibodies, the antibodies were present much less frequently in other diseases (two patients with systemic vasculitis whilst none of the patients with PSS or Behçet's syndrome). Only one patient with pneumonia and none of the 150 sera from healthy blood donors had anti-entactin antibodies. Among Group 1, three (30%) were positive for IgG or IgM anti-entactin antibodies. Six (60%) patients in group 2, and five patients (50%) in group 3 were positive for anti-entactin antibodies. However, the difference between the presence of anti-entactin antibodies between group 1 and 2 or between group 1 and 3 was not significant (p = 0.15 and 0.19 respectively). There was no significant correlation between the titres of anti-entactin antibodies and total serum concentration of IgG (r = 0.141, p > 0.10) and IgM. (r = 0.130, p > 0.10). Furthermore, no significant correlation was observed between SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores and the titres of IgG (r = 0.067, p > 0.10) or IgM (r = -0.033, p > 0.10) anti-entactin antibodies. CONCLUSION--The study demonstrates that anti-entactin antibodies are present in a significant number of patients with SLE and tend to be more common in those with severe disease, with or without nephritis, than in patients with mild disease manifestations. There is no correlation between the titre of anti-entactin antibodies and severity or activity of SLE.
PMCID: PMC1005432  PMID: 7979578
15.  Effects of coagulation temperature on measurements of complement function in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1992;51(7):892-897.
Blood samples from 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 healthy blood donors were allowed to coagulate for one hour at room temperature, followed by one hour at 4 or 37 degrees C. The complement activity of the serum samples was assessed by three different functional assays. Serum samples from patients with SLE obtained by coagulation at 37 degrees C had a lower complement activity than serum samples from blood coagulated at 4 degrees C when the capacity of the serum samples to solubilise precipitable immune complexes and to support the attachment of complement factors to solid phase immune complexes was determined. Haemolytic complement activity was not affected by the coagulation temperature. The content of C1q binding immune complexes in paired serum samples obtained after coagulation at 4 and 37 degrees C was similar and the size distribution of the immune complexes, determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography, was also similar. This study shows that the results of functional complement assays, applied to serum samples from patients with SLE cannot be compared unless the conditions for blood coagulation and serum handling are defined and are the same. The data also indicate that assays measuring complement mediated solubilisation of immune complexes and the fixation of complement factors to solid phase immune complexes are more sensitive indicators of complement activity than the haemolytic assay.
PMCID: PMC1004776  PMID: 1632665
16.  Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on natural killer cell function in systemic lupus erythematosus. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1992;51(6):726-730.
In vitro irradiation with long wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-A), in clinically relevant dosages, of a natural killer cell line containing cell preparations from 17 control subjects reduced natural killer cell cytotoxicity with the cell line K562 as target. The spontaneous function of natural killer cells from 12 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlated inversely with the one hour erythrocyte sedimentation rate, but not with glucocorticoid doses. After UV-A exposure, natural killer cells from patients with SLE exert either increased or decreased cytotoxicity, and the direction of change is inversely correlated with the spontaneous natural killer cell function.
PMCID: PMC1004734  PMID: 1616354
17.  Recurrent cerebral infarction and the antiphospholipid syndrome: effect of intravenous gammaglobulin in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1990;49(11):939-941.
A 23 year old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome developed severe thrombocytopenia (5-10 X 10(9)/l) and cerebral infarction. Treatment with high doses of corticosteroids and cytostatic drugs was not effective. The condition was successfully treated only when three courses of intravenous gammaglobulin at 400 mg/kg daily was added. A clear relation was found between the immunoglobulin infusions and rising platelet counts, whereas an effect on the levels of anticardiolipin antibodies could not be recorded. The findings suggested that the mechanisms responsible may be modification and solubilisation of immune complexes or interference with anticardiolipin binding to platelet membranes, or both.
PMCID: PMC1004269  PMID: 2256744
18.  A novel assay for neutrophil clustering activity of human sera: relation to disease activity and neutropenia in systemic lupus erythematosus. 
A simple and reproducible method for the measurement of serum neutrophil clustering activity was developed. High clustering activity was found in 19/30 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 14/20 of those with severe disease flares. In contrast, 0/10 patients with quiescent SLE and 2/20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis had high neutrophil clustering activity. Particularly high clustering activity was found in patients with SLE with lupus glomerulonephritis and in certain patients with central nervous system disease. An inverse correlation was found between neutrophil clustering activity and peripheral blood neutrophil count in patients with SLE not treated with glucocorticoids, and clustering activity was high in all patients with low neutrophil counts in this group. A moderate correlation was found between neutrophil clustering activity and C1q binding circulating immune complexes. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids had little direct effect on neutrophil clustering activity.
Images
PMCID: PMC1003963  PMID: 2310227
19.  Palmoplantar pustulosis and sternocostoclavicular arthro-osteitis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1988;47(10):809-815.
Seventeen patients with shoulder pain and radiographic involvement of the sternoclavicular or sternocostal joints, or both, are described. Eleven of these patients also had palmoplantar pustulosis. Histological examination of the joints showed chronic and subacute inflammation, increased osteoblastic activity, and cartilage degeneration. Propionibacterium acnes was cultured in tissue samples from seven of the 15 biopsied patients, a finding at variance with those of previous reports. The possibility that sternoclavicular arthro-osteitis is of infectious origin should be the subject of further investigation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may provide pain relief, possibly owing to their inhibitory action on osteoblasts. In cases of severely restricted movement or severe pain resection of the medial clavicle may be considered.
Images
PMCID: PMC1003608  PMID: 3058054
20.  Clinical and serological features of severe vasculitis in rheumatoid arthritis: prognostic implications. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1987;46(10):727-733.
Sixteen patients with classic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) complicated by severe vasculitis were studied and compared with a matched control group of 16 RA patients without vasculitis. Seven of the patients with vasculitis died within 4 to 120 months (median 32 months) after developing vasculitic symptoms. Gangrene of digits and extremities, bowel ulcers or bowel perforation, or both, and cardiac involvement were more common among the patients who died than among those with a more favourable course. The present data suggest that large vessel vasculitis in RA is associated with high frequency of arteriosclerotic vascular disease. The serum concentrations of complement components C3 and C4 were lower, and concentrations of IgM rheumatoid factor, complement activating rheumatoid factor, and C1q binding immune complexes (C1q solid and C1q fluid phase assay) were significantly higher among vasculitic patients than in the control group. Laboratory data provided little prognostic information with regard to rheumatoid vasculitis, with the exception that IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors were significantly higher among patients with fatal course of disease than in those who achieved remission.
PMCID: PMC1003378  PMID: 3689000

Results 1-22 (22)