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1.  Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Oncology  2013;85(2):117-121.
Objective
Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.
Methods
Information on age, SLE duration, cancer date, and histology was available. We analyzed information on histological type and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses of histological types according to age, SLE duration, and calendar year.
Results
We studied 180 breast cancers in the SLE cohort. Of the 155 cases with histology information, 11 were referred to simply as ‘carcinoma not otherwise specified’. In the remaining 144 breast cancers, the most common histological type was ductal carcinoma (n = 95; 66%) followed by lobular adenocarcinoma (n = 11; 8%), 15 cancers were of mixed histology, and the remaining ones were special types. In our regression analyses, the independent risk factors for lobular versus ductal carcinoma was age [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.14] and for the ‘special’ subtypes it was age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.10) and SLE duration (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.11).
Conclusions
Generally, up to 80% of breast cancers are ductal carcinomas. Though our results are not definitive, in the breast cancers that occur in SLE, there may be a slight decrease in the ductal histological type. In our analyses, age and SLE duration were independent predictors of histological status.
doi:10.1159/000353138
PMCID: PMC3934367  PMID: 23887245
Breast cancer; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Histopathology; Epidemiology
3.  Antimalarials may influence the risk of malignancy in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2007;66(6):815-817.
Background
Recent studies suggest that antimalarials have antineoplastic properties.
Objective
To investigate whether antimalarials decrease the risk of cancer in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods
An observational prospective cohort study was carried out. 235 patients were included in the study at the time of diagnosis (American College of Rheumatology criteria). The end point was the diagnosis of cancer. Kaplan–Meier cancer‐free survival curves for patients treated and not treated with antimalarials were compared. A Cox proportional hazards model was fitted, with cancer as the dependent variable. Age at diagnosis, gender, treatment with azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and methotrexate, smoking, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Damage Index 6 months after diagnosis, year of diagnosis and treatment with antimalarials were entered as independent variables.
Results
209 (89%) patients were women. 233 (99%) patients were white. Mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 37 (16) years. Median (range) follow‐up was 10 (1–31) years. 156 (66%) patients had ever received antimalarials. 2/156 (1.3%) ever‐treated patients compared with 11/79 (13%) never‐treated patients had cancer (p<0.001). Cumulative cancer‐free survival in treated and not treated patients was 0.98 and 0.73, respectively (p<0.001). Adjusted hazard ratio for cancer among malaria drug users compared with non‐users was 0.15 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.99).
Conclusions
This study launches the hypothesis of a protective action of antimalarials against cancer in patients with SLE. This effect should be confirmed in larger multicentre studies.
doi:10.1136/ard.2006.067777
PMCID: PMC1954667  PMID: 17204564

Results 1-3 (3)