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1.  Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Oncology  2013;85(2):117-121.
Objective
Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.
Methods
Information on age, SLE duration, cancer date, and histology was available. We analyzed information on histological type and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses of histological types according to age, SLE duration, and calendar year.
Results
We studied 180 breast cancers in the SLE cohort. Of the 155 cases with histology information, 11 were referred to simply as ‘carcinoma not otherwise specified’. In the remaining 144 breast cancers, the most common histological type was ductal carcinoma (n = 95; 66%) followed by lobular adenocarcinoma (n = 11; 8%), 15 cancers were of mixed histology, and the remaining ones were special types. In our regression analyses, the independent risk factors for lobular versus ductal carcinoma was age [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.14] and for the ‘special’ subtypes it was age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.10) and SLE duration (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.11).
Conclusions
Generally, up to 80% of breast cancers are ductal carcinomas. Though our results are not definitive, in the breast cancers that occur in SLE, there may be a slight decrease in the ductal histological type. In our analyses, age and SLE duration were independent predictors of histological status.
doi:10.1159/000353138
PMCID: PMC3934367  PMID: 23887245
Breast cancer; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Histopathology; Epidemiology
2.  SF-36 summary and subscale scores are reliable outcomes of neuropsychiatric events in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2011;70(6):961-967.
Objective
To examine change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in association with clinical outcomes of neuropsychiatric (NP) events in SLE.
Methods
An international study evaluated newly diagnosed SLE patients for NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes. Outcome of events was determined by physician-completed 7-point scale and compared to patient-completed SF-36 questionnaires. Statistical analysis used linear mixed-effects regression models with patient specific random effects.
Results
274 patients (92% female; 68% Caucasian), from a cohort of 1400, had ≥ 1 NP event where the interval between assessments was 12.3 ± 2 months. The overall difference in change between visits in mental component summary (MCS) scores of the SF-36 was significant (p<0.0001) following adjustments for gender, ethnicity, center and previous score. A consistent improvement in NP status (N=295) was associated with an increase in the mean(SD) adjusted MCS score of 3.66(0.89) in SF-36 scores. Between paired visits where NP status consistently deteriorated (N=30), the adjusted MCS score decreased by 4.00(1.96). For the physical component summary (PCS) scores the corresponding changes were +1.73(0.71) and −0.62(1.58) (p<0.05) respectively. Changes in SF-36 subscales were in the same direction (p<0.05; with the exception of role physical). Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. Adjustment for age, education, medications, SLE disease activity, organ damage, disease duration, attribution and characteristics of NP events did not substantially alter the results.
Conclusion
Changes in SF-36 summary and subscale scores, in particular those related to mental health, are strongly associated with the clinical outcome of NP events in SLE patients.
doi:10.1136/ard.2010.138792
PMCID: PMC3795436  PMID: 21342917
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Neuropsychiatric; Inception cohort; Health related quality of life; SF-36
3.  Prostate cancer in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Our research objective was to estimate prostate cancer risk in systemic lupus (SLE), relative to the age-matched general population. A progressive literature review was performed to identify SLE cohort studies with cancer registry linkage for cancer ascertainment. Data were pooled from four studies of large SLE cohorts who met these criteria. The total number of prostate cancers observed was derived by pooling the incident cases across all studies. The total expected number of prostate, derived from applying appropriate general population cancer incidence data to the observed number of patient-years of follow-up for each study, was similarly determined. The parameter of interest was the standardized incidence ratio (SIR), the ratio of observed to expected malignancies.
The four studies together provided a pool of 6,068 male SLE patients observed for a total of 38,186 patient years (mean 6.3 years). Within these subjects, 80 prostate cancers observed. In each contributing study, the number of cancers expected far exceeded that observed. The pooled SIR estimate for prostate cancer risk in males with SLE, compared to the general population, was 0.72 (95% CI 0.57, 0.89).
These data suggest a decreased risk of prostate cancer in SLE; more definite conclusions require additional data. Since alterations in androgen pathways can potentially alter prostate risk, a lower risk of prostate cancer in SLE could possibly be due to low hypoadrenergic states which some believe may occur in men with SLE; underlying genetic factors could also be at play. Further study of these issues in large cohorts is needed.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25956
PMCID: PMC3203250  PMID: 21448902
Systemic lupus erythematosus; malignancy; prostate cancer
9.  Breast, ovarian, and endometrial malignancies in systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis 
British Journal of Cancer  2011;104(9):1478-1481.
Background:
An increased lymphoma risk is well documented in systemic lupus (SLE). Less attention has been focused on women's cancers, even though SLE affects mostly females. Our objective was to estimate the risk of breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers in SLE, relative to the general population.
Methods:
Data were included from five recent studies of large SLE cohorts. The number of cancers observed was determined for each cancer type. The expected number of malignancies was ascertained from general population data. The parameter of interest was the standardised incidence ratio (SIR), the ratio of observed to expected malignancies.
Results:
The five studies included 47 325 SLE patients (42 171 females) observed for 282 553 patient years. There were 376 breast cancers, 66 endometrial cancers, and 44 ovarian cancers. The total number of cancers observed was less than that expected, with SIRs of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.85) for breast cancer, 0.71 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.91) for endometrial cancer, and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) for ovarian cancer.
Conclusions:
Data strongly support a decreased risk of breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers in SLE. This may be due to inherent differences in women in SLE (vs the general population) regarding endogenous oestrogen, other medications, and/or genetic make-up.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.115
PMCID: PMC3101932  PMID: 21487409
systemic lupus; SLE; malignancy
10.  Atherosclerotic Vascular Events in a Multinational Inception Cohort of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) 
Arthritis care & research  2010;62(6):881-887.
Objective
To describe vascular events during an 8 year follow-up in a multicentre SLE inception cohort and their attribution to atherosclerosis.
Methods
Clinical data including co-morbidities are recorded yearly. Vascular events are recorded and attributed to atherosclerosis or not. All events met standard clinical criteria. Factors associated with atherosclerotic vascular events were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-tests and χ2. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of factors with vascular events attributed to atherosclerosis.
Results
Since 2000, 1249 patients have been entered into the cohort. There have been 97 vascular events in 72 patients. These include: myocardial infarction (13), angina (15), congestive heart failure (24), peripheral vascular disease (8), transient ischemic attack (13), stroke (23), pacemaker insertion (1). Fifty of the events were attributed to active lupus, 31events in 22 patients were attributed to atherosclerosis, and 16 to other causes. Time from diagnosis to first atherosclerotic event was 2.0 ± 1.5 years. Compared to patients followed for 2 years without atherosclerosis events (615), at enrolment patients with AVE were more frequently Caucasian, male, older at diagnosis of SLE, obese, smokers, hypertensive and had a family history of coronary artery disease. On multivariate analysis only male gender and older age at diagnosis were associated factors.
Conclusion
In an inception cohort with SLE followed for up to 8 years there were 97 vascular events but only 31 were attributable to atherosclerosis. Patients with atherosclerotic events were more likely to be male and to be older at diagnosis of SLE.
doi:10.1002/acr.20122
PMCID: PMC2989413  PMID: 20535799
11.  Prospective Analysis Of Neuropsychiatric Events In An International Disease Inception Cohort of SLE Patients 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2009;69(3):529-535.
Objectives
To determine the frequency, accrual, attribution and outcome of neuropsychiatric (NP) events and impact on quality of life over 3 years in a large inception cohort of SLE patients.
Methods
The study was conducted by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics. Patients were enrolled within 15 months of SLE diagnosis. NP events were identified using the ACR case definitions and decision rules were derived to determine the proportion of NP disease attributable to SLE. The outcome of NP events was recorded and patient perceived impact determined by the SF-36.
Results
There were 1206 patients (89.6% female) with a mean (±SD) age of 34.5±13.2 years. The mean disease duration at enrollment was 5.4±4.2 months. Over a mean follow-up of 1.9±1.2 years 486/1206 (40.3%) patients had ≥1 NP events which were attributed to SLE in 13.0%–23.6% of patients using two a priori decision rules. The frequency of individual NP events varied from 47.1% (headache) to 0% (myasthenia gravis). The outcome was significantly better for those NP events attributed to SLE especially if they occurred within 1.5 years of the diagnosis of SLE. Patients with NP events, regardless of attribution, had significantly lower summary scores for both mental and physical health over the study.
Conclusions
NP events in SLE patients are variable in frequency, most commonly present early in the disease course and adversely impact patients’ quality of life over time. Events attributed to non-SLE causes are more common than those due to SLE, although the latter have a more favourable outcome.
doi:10.1136/ard.2008.106351
PMCID: PMC2929162  PMID: 19359262
Lupus; Neuropsychiatric; Prospective; Inception cohort
12.  Minor physical anomalies are not increased in the offspring of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2005;65(2):246-248.
Objective
To determine the incidence and type of minor physical anomalies (MPAs) in infants born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods
Each trimester, pregnant women with SLE were assessed for disease activity, prescribed drug use, and exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs through a self reported questionnaire. Infant examinations were performed on 30/39 (77%) live births in women with SLE and the incidence of MPAs determined.
Results
2/30 (7%) patients had three or more MPAs; 4 (13%) had two; 7 (23%) had one; and 17 (57%) had none. One in three women reported alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. Facial anomalies were the most common MPAs. The relative risk and 95% confidence interval for any MPA were 2.05 (0.99 to 4.26) for tobacco use; 1.95 (0.92 to 4.11) for alcohol use; 1.36 (0.165 to 11.23) for maternal disease flare; 0.63 (0.27 to 1.47) for prednisone use; and 0.72 (0.21 to 2.44) for aspirin use.
Conclusion
13/30 (43%) infants had minor anomalies—a similar incidence to that of the general population. Counselling for preventable self reported exposure is advisable in addition to counselling specifically for lupus management during pregnancy.
doi:10.1136/ard.2005.038844
PMCID: PMC1798037  PMID: 15994279
systemic lupus erythematosus; pregnancy; minor physical anomalies
13.  Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2005;64(10):1507-1509.
Objectives: To describe demographic factors, subtypes, and survival of patients with SLE who develop NHL.
Methods: A multi-site cohort of 9547 subjects with definite SLE was assembled. Subjects at each centre were linked to regional tumour registries to determine cancer cases occurring after SLE diagnosis. For the NHL cases ascertained, descriptive statistics were calculated, and NHL subtype frequency and median survival time of patients determined.
Results: 42 cases of NHL occurred in the patients with SLE during the 76 948 patient-years of observation. The median age of patients at NHL diagnosis was 57 years. Thirty six (86%) of the 42 patients developing NHL were women, reflecting the female predominance of the cohort. In the patients, aggressive histological subtypes appeared to predominate, with the most commonly identified NHL subtype being diffuse large B cell (11 out of 21 cases for which histological subtype was available). Twenty two of the patients had died a median of 1.2 years after lymphoma diagnosis.
Conclusions: These data suggest aggressive disease in patients with SLE who develop NHL. Continuing work should provide further insight into the patterns of presentation, prognosis, and aetiology of NHL in SLE.
doi:10.1136/ard.2004.034504
PMCID: PMC1755239  PMID: 16162903
14.  Hyperexpression of CD40 ligand by B and T cells in human lupus and its role in pathogenic autoantibody production. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;97(9):2063-2073.
We investigated the role of the costimulatory molecules, CD40 and its ligand CD40L, in the pathogenesis of human SLE. In comparison to normal subjects or patients in remission, PBMC from active lupus patients had a 21-fold increase in the frequency of CD40L-expressing, CD4+T cells. However, the expression of CD40L induced in either lupus or normal T cells by mitogenic stimulation could be down-regulated equally well by CD40 molecules on autologous B cells. Active lupus patients also had a 22-fold increase in percentage of CD8+ T cells expressing CD40L, consistent with their unusual helper activity in SLE. Surprisingly, patients with active lupus had a 20.5-fold increase in B cells that spontaneously expressed high levels of CD40L, as strongly as their T cells. Although lupus patients in remission had low levels of CD40L+ cells in the range of normal subjects, mitogen-induced upregulation of CD40L expression in the T and B cells was markedly greater than normal, suggesting an intrinsic defect. A mAb to CD40L blocked significantly the ability of lymphocytes from lupus patients with active and established disease to produce the pathogenic variety of antinuclear autoantibodies in vitro, bolstering the possibility of anti-CD40L immunotherapy for lupus. Future studies on the hyperexpression of CD40L could elucidate a regulatory defect in the pathogenic T and B cells of lupus.
PMCID: PMC507281  PMID: 8621796
15.  Fc gamma RIIA alleles are heritable risk factors for lupus nephritis in African Americans. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;97(5):1348-1354.
Allelic variants of Fc gamma R confer distinct phagocytic capacities providing a mechanism for heritable susceptibility to immune complex disease. Human Fc gamma RIIa has two codominantly expressed alleles, R131 and H131, which differ substantially in their ability to ligate human IgG2. The Fc gamma RIIa-H131 is the only human Fc gamma R which recognizes IgG2 efficiently and optimal IgG2 handling occurs only in the homozygous state. Therefore, since immune complex clearance is essential in SLE, we hypothesized that Fc gamma RIIA genes are important disease susceptibility factors for SLE, particularly lupus nephritis. In a two-stage cross-sectional study, we compared the distribution of Fc gamma RIIA alleles in African Americans with SLE to that in African American non-SLE controls. A pilot study of 43 SLE patients and 39 controls demonstrated a skewed distribution of Fc gamma RIIA alleles, with only 9% of SLE patients homozygous for Fc gamma RIIa-H131 compared with 36% of controls (odds ratio, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.05-0.69, P = 0.009). This was confirmed with a multicenter study of 214 SLE patients and 100 non-SLE controls. The altered distribution of Fc gamma RIIA alleles was most striking in lupus nephritis. Trend analysis of the genotype distribution showed a highly significant decrease in Fc gamma RIIA-H131 as the likelihood for lupus nephritis increased (P = 0.0004) consistent with a protective effect of the Fc gamma RIIA-H131 gene. The skewing in the distribution of Fc gamma RIIA alleles identifies this gene as a risk factor with pathophysiologic importance for the SLE diathesis in African Americans.
PMCID: PMC507190  PMID: 8636449

Results 1-15 (15)