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1.  Population-Based Incidence and Etiology of Community-Acquired Neonatal Bacteremia in Mirzapur, Bangladesh: An Observational Study 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2009;200(6):906-915.
Background
To devise treatment strategies for neonatal infections, the population-level incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogens must be defined.
Methods
Surveillance for suspected neonatal sepsis was conducted in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, from February 2004 through November 2006. Community health workers assessed neonates on postnatal days 0, 2, 5, and 8 and referred sick neonates to a hospital, where blood was collected for culture from neonates with suspected sepsis. We estimated the incidence and pattern of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia and determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile of pathogens.
Results
The incidence rate of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia was 3.0 per 1000 person–neonatal periods. Among the 30 pathogens identified, the most common was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 10); half of all isolates were gram positive. Nine were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin or to ceftiaxone, and 13 were resistant to cotrimoxazole.
Conclusion
S. aureus was the most common pathogen to cause community-acquired neonatal bacteremia. Nearly 40% of infections were identified on days 0–3, emphasizing the need to address maternal and environmental sources of infection. The combination of parenteral procaine benzyl penicillin and an aminoglycoside is recommended for the first-line treatment of serious community-acquired neonatal infections in rural Bangladesh, which has a moderate level of neonatal mortality. Additional population-based data are needed to further guide national and global strategies.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00198627.
doi:10.1086/605473
PMCID: PMC2841956  PMID: 19671016
2.  Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(2):e0147982.
Background
We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh.
Methods
Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals.
Results
We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147982
PMCID: PMC4739641  PMID: 26840782
3.  Prevalence and characterization of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and Gallinarum from chicken 
Veterinary World  2016;9(1):65-70.
Aim:
Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen responsible for animal and human diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and stereotyping of Salmonella isolates isolated from apparently healthy poultry. Furthermore, the clonal relatedness among the isolated Salmonella serovars was assessed.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 150 cloacal swab samples from apparently healthy chickens were collected, and were subjected for the isolation and identification of associated Salmonella organisms. The isolated colonies were identified and characterized on the basis of morphology, cultural characters, biochemical tests, slide agglutination test, polymerase chain reaction, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic sensitivity patterns were also investigated using commonly used antibiotics.
Results:
Of the 150 samples, 11 (7.33%) produced characteristics pink colony with black center on XLD agar medium, and all were culturally and biochemically confirmed to be Salmonella. All possessed serovar-specific gene SpeF and reacted uniformly with group D antisera, suggesting that all of the isolates were Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum, biovar Pullorum and/or Gallinarum. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 54.54% of the isolated Salmonella Enterica serovars were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas the 81.81% isolates were resistant to amoxycillin, doxycycline, kanamycin, gentamycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the XbaI-digested genomic DNA exhibited identical banding patterns, suggesting that the multidrug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovars occurring in commercial layers are highly clonal in Bangladesh.
Conclusion:
The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of poultry Salmonella in layer chicken and to find out the clonal relationship among them. The data in this study suggest the prevalence of Salmonella Enterica, which is multidrug resistant and highly clonal for commercial layers of Bangladesh.
doi:10.14202/vetworld.2016.65-70
PMCID: PMC4819353  PMID: 27051187
polymerase chain reaction; pulsed field gel electrophoresis; Salmonella; SpeF gene
4.  A Study on Health Seeking Behaviors of Patients of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:314543.
Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) remains a major public health threat in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Surya Kanta Kala azar Research Centre (SKKRC), Mymensingh, from January 2012 to July 2013 to evaluate the health seeking behaviour and the length of delay of PKDL management. The consecutive 200 diagnosed PKDL cases that got treatment in SKKRC hospital were subjected to evaluation. Most (98%) of the patients were not aware and had no knowledge about PKDL, though 87.5% had a history of history of Kala-azar treatment. Many patients reported first to village doctor (15.5%), the pharmacy shop (10%), or traditional health provider (7.5%) upon recognition of symptom. The time between the initial symptom recognition and first medical consultation (patient delay) ranged from 10 days to 4745 days (13 years) with a median of 373 days (mean: 696; IQR: 138 to 900 days). The time between first medical consultations to definite treatment (system delay) ranged from 0 days to 1971 days (5.4 years), with a median delay of 14 days (mean: 46.48; IQR: 7 to 44 days) that was reported in this study. Age, education, occupation, and residential status had significant association with patient delay (P < 0.05). Educational status, occupation, number of treatment providers, and first health care provider had a significant association with system delay (P < 0.05). Success in PKDL diagnosis and treatment requires specific behavior from patients and health care providers which facilitate those practices.
doi:10.1155/2015/314543
PMCID: PMC4692972  PMID: 26788500
5.  Willingness to administer mouth-to-mouth ventilation in a first response program in rural Bangladesh 
Background
Timely mouth-to-mouth ventilation is critical to resuscitate drowning victims. While drowning is frequent, there are no lay persons trained in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rural Bangladesh. As part of a feasibility study to create a first response system in a conservative Islamic village environment, a pilot was undertaken to examine willingness to provide mouth-to-mouth ventilation for drowning resuscitation.
Methods
A questionnaire was administered to 721 participants at the beginning of a village-based CPR training course. Trainees were asked regarding willingness to administer mouth-to-mouth ventilation on a variety of hypothetical victims. Responses were tabulated according to the age, sex and relationship of the trainee to the postulated victim.
Results
Willingness to deliver mouth-to-mouth ventilation was influenced by sex of a potential recipient and relationship to the trainee. Adolescent participants were significantly more willing to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation on someone of the same sex. Willingness increased for both sexes when the postulated victim was an immediate family member. Willingness was lower with extended family members and lowest with strangers. Adult trainees were more likely to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation than adolescent trainees in any scenario.
Conclusion
Adults express more willingness to resuscitate a broader range of drowning victims than adolescents. However in rural Bangladesh, adolescents are more likely to be in close proximity to a drowning in progress. Further efforts are needed to increase willingness of adolescents to provide resuscitation to drowning victims. However, despite potential cultural limitations, trained responders appear to be willing to give mouth-to-mouth ventilation to various recipients. Final determination will require evidence on response outcomes which is being collected.
doi:10.1186/s12914-015-0057-8
PMCID: PMC4522103  PMID: 26231444
6.  Immune Responses to O-Specific Polysaccharide and Lipopolysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Adult Bangladeshi Recipients of an Oral Killed Cholera Vaccine and Comparison to Responses in Patients with Cholera 
Protective immunity to cholera is serogroup specific, and serogrouping is defined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We characterized OSP-specific immune responses in adult recipients of an oral killed cholera vaccine (OCV WC-rBS) and compared these with responses in patients with cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Although vaccinees developed plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA antibody and antibody secreting cell (ASC, marker of mucosal response) to Ogawa OSP and LPS 7 days after vaccination, responses were significantly lower than that which occurred after cholera. Similarly, patients recovering from cholera had detectable IgA, IgM, and IgG memory B cell (MBC) responses against OSP and LPS on Day 30 and Day 90, whereas vaccinees only developed IgG responses to OSP 30 days after the second immunization. The markedly lower ASC and MBC responses to OSP and LPS observed among vaccinees might explain, in part, the lower protection of an OCV compared with natural infection.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0498
PMCID: PMC4015581  PMID: 24686738
7.  Effect of Active Case Finding on Prevalence and Transmission of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Dhaka Central Jail, Bangladesh 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0124976.
Background
Understanding tuberculosis (TB) transmission dynamics is essential for establishing effective TB control strategies in settings where the burden and risk of transmission are high. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of active screening on controlling TB transmission and also to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains for investigating transmission dynamics in a correctional setting.
Methods
The study was carried out in Dhaka Central Jail (DCJ), from October 2005 to February 2010. An active case finding strategy for pulmonary TB was established both at the entry point to the prison and inside the prison. Three sputum specimens were collected from all pulmonary TB suspects and subjected to smear microscopy, culture, and drug susceptibility testing as well as genotyping which included deletion analysis, spoligotyping and analysis of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU).
Results
A total of 60,585 inmates were screened during the study period. We found 466 inmates with pulmonary TB of whom 357 (77%) had positive smear microscopy results and 109 (23%) had negative smear microscopy results but had positive results on culture. The number of pulmonary TB cases declined significantly, from 49 cases during the first quarter to 8 cases in the final quarter of the study period (p=0.001). Deletion analysis identified all isolates as M. tuberculosis and further identified 229 (70%) strains as ‘modern’ and 100 (30%) strains as ‘ancestral’. Analysis of MIRU showed that 347 strains (85%) exhibited unique patterns, whereas 61 strains (15%) clustered into 22 groups. The largest cluster comprised eight strains of the Beijing M. tuberculosis type. The rate of recent transmission was estimated to be 9.6%.
Conclusions
Implementation of active screening for TB was associated with a decline in TB cases in DCJ. Implementation of active screening in prison settings might substantially reduce the national burden of TB in Bangladesh.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124976
PMCID: PMC4416744  PMID: 25933377
8.  Children reporting rescuing other children drowning in rural Bangladesh: a descriptive study 
Injury Prevention  2014;21(e1):e51-e55.
Background
SwimSafe, a basic swimming and safer rescue curriculum, has been taught to large numbers of Bangladeshi children since 2006. This study examines the frequency and characteristics of rescues reported by children who graduated from SwimSafe and compares them with age-matched and sex-matched children who did not participate in SwimSafe.
Methods
Interviews were conducted during the swimming season in Raiganj, Bangladesh. Data were collected from 3890 SwimSafe graduates aged 6–14. Two age-matched and sex-matched controls were selected; one who had learned to swim naturally, the other who had not learned to swim.
Results
188 rescues were reported by the three groups. The 12–14-year age groups reported the highest monthly rate of rescues (SwimSafe 10.5/100 000 (95% CI 3.4 to 24.5), natural swimmers 8.5/100 000 (95% CI 2.2 to 21.2)) and annual rate of rescue reported (SwimSafe 25.4/100 000 (95% CI 13.2 to 43.9), natural swimmers 35.4/100 000 (20.8 to 56.2)). Reported rescue numbers among both swimming groups was similar. Mean victim age was 4.1 years and 92.5% were under 7 years. All victims were younger than their rescuer (mean 5.9 years less). Most rescues (73.7%) took place in ponds or ditches with most (86.6%) within 10 m of the bank. Most victims had entered the water to bathe (53.8%). A large majority of reported rescues (90.9%) were conducted with the rescuer in the water, half requiring the rescuer to swim.
Conclusions
Children report frequent drowning rescues of younger children in rural Bangladesh. Most reported are contact rescues with the rescuer in the water. Formal training for in-water rescue techniques may be needed to reduce the risk to the child rescuer.
doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2013-041015
PMCID: PMC4392303  PMID: 24686262
9.  Quantitative Drug-Susceptibility in Patients Treated for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Bangladesh: Implications for Regimen Choice 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0116795.
Background
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment in Bangladesh is empiric or based on qualitative drug-susceptibility testing (DST) by comparative growth in culture media with and without a single drug concentration.
Methods
Adult patients were enrolled throughout Bangladesh during the period of 2011–2013 at MDR-TB treatment initiation. Quantitative DST by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing for 12 first and second-line anti-TB drugs was compared to pretreatment clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. MIC values at or one dilution lower than the resistance breakpoint used for qualitative DST were categorized as borderline susceptible, and MIC values one or two dilutions greater as borderline resistant.
Results
Seventy-four patients were enrolled with a mean age of 35 ±15 years, and 51 (69%) were men. Of the rifampin isolates with MIC >1.0 μg/ml, 12 (19%) were fully susceptible or borderline susceptible to rifabutin (MIC ≤0.5 μg/ml). Amikacin was fully susceptible in 73 isolates (99%), but kanamycin in only 54 (75%) (p<0.001). Ofloxacin was borderline susceptible in 64%, and fully susceptible in only 14 (19%) compared to 60 (81%) of isolates fully susceptible for moxifloxacin (p<0.001). Kanamycin non-susceptibility and receipt of the WHO Category IV regimen trended with interim treatment failure: adjusted odd ratios respectively of 5.4 [95% CI 0.82–36.2] (p = 0.08) and 7.2 [0.64–80.7] (p = 0.11).
Conclusions
Quantitative MIC testing could impact MDR-TB regimen choice in Bangladesh. Comparative trials of higher dose or later generation fluoroquinolone, within class change from kanamycin to amikacin, and inclusion of rifabutin appear warranted.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116795
PMCID: PMC4339842  PMID: 25710516
10.  Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Diabetes in Bangladesh: A Nationwide Population-Based Study 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0118365.
Objectives
To examine awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus among the adult population in Bangladesh.
Methods
The study used data from the 2011 nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). The BDHS sample is comprised of 7,786 adults aged 35 years or older. The primary outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diabetes. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors for diabetes awareness.
Results
Overall, age-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 9.2%. Among subjects with diabetes, 41.2% were aware of their condition, 36.9% were treated, and 14.2% controlled their condition. A significant inequality in diabetes management was found from poor to wealthy households: 18.2% to 63.2% (awareness), 15.8% to 56.6% (treatment), and 8.2% to 18.4% (control). Multilevel models suggested that participants who had a lower education and lower economic condition were less likely to be aware of their diabetes. Poor management was observed among non-educated, low-income groups, and those who lived in the northwestern region.
Conclusions
Diabetes has become a national health concern in Bangladesh; however, treatment and control are quite low. Improving detection, awareness, and treatment strategies is urgently needed to prevent the growing burden associated with diabetes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118365
PMCID: PMC4334658  PMID: 25692767
11.  Antihyperglycaemic and Antinociceptive Activity Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Whole Plant of Amaranthus Tricolour L. (Amaranthaceae) 
Amaranthus tricolor whole plants are used by folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh for treatment of pain, anaemia, dysentery, skin diseases, diabetes, and as a blood purifier. Thus far, no scientific studies have evaluated the antihyperglycaemic and antinociceptive effects of the plant. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible glucose tolerance efficacy of methanolic extracts of A. tricolour whole plants using glucose-induced hyperglycaemic mice, and antinociceptive effects with acetic acid-induced gastric pain models in mice. In antihyperglycaemic activity tests, the extract at different doses was administered one hour prior to glucose administration and blood glucose level was measured after two hours of glucose administration (p.o.) using glucose oxidase method. The statistical data indicated the significant oral hypoglycaemic activity on glucose-loaded mice at all doses of the extracts tested. Maximum antihyperglycaemic activity was shown at 400 mg extract per kg body weight, which was comparable to that of a standard drug, glibenclamide (10 mg/kg body weight). In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract also demonstrated a dose-dependent significant reduction in the number of writhings induced in mice through intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid. Maximum antinociceptive activity was observed at a dose of 400 mg extract per kg body weight, which compared favourably with that of a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight. The results validate the folk medicinal use of the plant for reduction of blood sugar in diabetic patients as well as the folk medicinal use for alleviation of pain. The results suggest that this plant may possess further potential for scientific studies leading to possible discovery of efficacious antihyperglycaemic and antinociceptive components.
PMCID: PMC3847438  PMID: 24311858
Amaranthus tricolour; antihyperglycaemic; antinociceptive; Amaranthaceae
12.  Diagnosed hematological malignancies in Bangladesh - a retrospective analysis of over 5000 cases from 10 specialized hospitals 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:438.
Background
The global burden from cancer is rising, especially as low-income countries like Bangladesh observe rapid aging. So far, there are no comprehensive descriptions reporting diagnosed cancer group that include hematological malignancies in Bangladesh.
Methods
This was a multi-center hospital-based retrospective descriptive study of over 5000 confirmed hematological cancer cases in between January 2008 to December 2012. Morphological typing was carried out using the “French American British” classification system.
Results
A total of 5013 patients aged between 2 to 90 years had been diagnosed with malignant hematological disorders. A 69.2% were males (n = 3468) and 30.8% females (n = 1545), with a male to female ratio of 2.2:1. The overall median age at diagnosis was 42 years. Acute myeloid leukemia was most frequent (28.3%) with a median age of 35 years, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia with 18.2% (median age 40 years), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (16.9%; median age 48 years), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (14.1%; median age 27 years), multiple myeloma (10.5%; median age 55 years), myelodysplastic syndromes (4.5%; median age 57 years) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (3.9%; median age 36 years). The least common was chronic lymphocytic leukemia (3.7%; median age 60 years). Below the age of 20 years, acute lymphoblastic leukemia was predominant (37.3%), followed by acute myeloid leukemia (34%). Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma had mostly occurred among older patients, aged 50-over.
Conclusions
For the first time, our study presents the pattern and distribution of diagnosed hematological cancers in Bangladesh. It shows differences in population distributions as compared to other settings with possibly a lower presence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There might be under-reporting of affected women. Further studies are necessary on the epidemiology, genetics and potential environmental risk factors within this rapidly aging country.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-438
PMCID: PMC4063230  PMID: 24929433
AML; CML; ALL; MDS; NHL; HL; MM; Hematological malignancy; Bangladesh
13.  The prevalence of naturally acquired swimming ability among children in Bangladesh: a cross sectional survey 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:404.
Background
Most rural homes in Bangladesh have ponds nearby to serve as household water sources. As a result children of all ages are exposed to water bodies on a daily basis. Children learn to swim early in childhood from peers and relatives in a natural process that involves play and structured learning. In a large, national injury survey in Bangladesh, the ability to swim was associated with reduced risk of drowning. This study determines the prevalence of swimming ability in children in Bangladesh as a step in assessing whether this is a potential component of a national drowning prevention program.
Methods
A descriptive study design using a subset of a national sample survey determined the prevalence of naturally acquired swimming ability (NASA) reported by children of rural and urban communities in Bangladesh. A total of 2,598 households (1,999 rural and 599 urban) housing 4,336 children (2,263 male and 2,073 female) aged 5-17 years were chosen from 4 randomly selected districts using multistage random sampling. NASA was defined as the ability to cross 25 meters of water deeper than the child’s height using any body movement for self-propulsion.
Results
Reported NASA was greater in males (55.6%) than females (47.9%) and among rural children (57.8%) than urban children (25.5%) for children 5-17 years. The proportion reporting NASA increased with increasing age. At age 5, 5.8% of males and 6.3% of females reported NASA, rising to 84.3% of males and 70.7% of females by age 17. By age 17, 83.1% of rural children and 57.5% of urban children reported NASA.
Conclusion
Most children in Bangladesh report being able to swim 25 meters and learning it by middle childhood. Reported NASA is higher for males than females and for rural children than urban children. High rates of swimming appear to be achievable in the absence of pools and a swim-teaching industry. This may facilitate development of a low cost, national drowning prevention program with swimming an integral part.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-404
PMCID: PMC4014625  PMID: 24767407
Swimming ability; Naturally acquired swimming ability; NASA; Child drowning; Drowning prevention; Bangladesh
14.  Antigen-Specific Memory B-cell Responses to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infection in Bangladeshi Adults 
Background
Multiple infections with diverse enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains lead to broad spectrum protection against ETEC diarrhea. However, the precise mechanism of protection against ETEC infection is still unknown. Therefore, memory B cell responses and affinity maturation of antibodies to the specific ETEC antigens might be important to understand the mechanism of protection.
Methodology
In this study, we investigated the heat labile toxin B subunit (LTB) and colonization factor antigens (CFA/I and CS6) specific IgA and IgG memory B cell responses in Bangladeshi adults (n = 52) who were infected with ETEC. We also investigated the avidity of IgA and IgG antibodies that developed after infection to these antigens.
Principal Findings
Patients infected with ETEC expressing LT or LT+heat stable toxin (ST) and CFA/I group or CS6 colonization factors developed LTB, CFA/I or CS6 specific memory B cell responses at day 30 after infection. Similarly, these patients developed high avidity IgA and IgG antibodies to LTB, CFA/I or CS6 at day 7 that remained significantly elevated at day 30 when compared to the avidity of these specific antibodies at the acute stage of infection (day 2). The memory B cell responses, antibody avidity and other immune responses to CFA/I not only developed in patients infected with ETEC expressing CFA/I but also in those infected with ETEC expressing CFA/I cross-reacting epitopes. We also detected a significant positive correlation of LTB, CFA/I and CS6 specific memory B cell responses with the corresponding increase in antibody avidity.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates that natural infection with ETEC induces memory B cells and high avidity antibodies to LTB and colonization factor CFA/I and CS6 antigens that could mediate anamnestic responses on re-exposure to ETEC and may help in understanding the requirements to design an effective vaccination strategies.
Author Summary
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a non-invasive pathogen causing diarrhea in children as well as in adults and travelers in developing countries. After colonizing the intestine using colonization factors, the organisms secrete heat-stable (ST) and/or heat-labile (LT) enterotoxin to cause watery diarrhea. Natural infection with ETEC provides protection against subsequent infection; however, the precise mechanism is unknown. In this study, we have shown that adult patients with diarrhea infected with ETEC develop toxin (LTB) and colonization factor (CFA/I and CS6) specific memory B cell responses as well as highly avid antigen-specific antibodies. The antibody avidity indices were shown to be positively associated with memory B cell responses, suggesting that these processes may occur in concert. This study encourages further evaluation of such responses in children as well as in vaccinees.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002822
PMCID: PMC3998937  PMID: 24762744
15.  Population-Based Incidence of Severe Acute Respiratory Virus Infections among Children Aged <5 Years in Rural Bangladesh, June–October 2010 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89978.
Background
Better understanding the etiology-specific incidence of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in resource-poor, rural settings will help further develop and prioritize prevention strategies. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of SARIs among children in rural Bangladesh.
Methods
During June through October 2010, we followed children aged <5 years in 67 villages to identify those with cough, difficulty breathing, age-specific tachypnea and/or danger signs in the community or admitted to the local hospital. A study physician collected clinical information and obtained nasopharyngeal swabs from all SARI cases and blood for bacterial culture from those hospitalized. We tested swabs for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses, human metapneumoviruses, adenoviruses and human parainfluenza viruses 1–3 (HPIV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We calculated virus-specific SARI incidence by dividing the number of new illnesses by the person-time each child contributed to the study.
Results
We followed 12,850 children for 279,029 person-weeks (pw) and identified 141 SARI cases; 76 (54%) at their homes and 65 (46%) at the hospital. RSV was associated with 7.9 SARI hospitalizations per 100,000 pw, HPIV3 2.2 hospitalizations/100,000 pw, and influenza 1.1 hospitalizations/100,000 pw. Among non-hospitalized SARI cases, RSV was associated with 10.8 illnesses/100,000 pw, HPIV3 1.8/100,000 pw, influenza 1.4/100,000 pw, and adenoviruses 0.4/100,000 pw.
Conclusion
Respiratory viruses, particularly RSV, were commonly associated with SARI among children. It may be useful to explore the value of investing in prevention strategies, such as handwashing and respiratory hygiene, to reduce respiratory infections among young children in such settings.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089978
PMCID: PMC3934972  PMID: 24587163
16.  Phase IV Trial of Miltefosine in Adults and Children for Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar) in Bangladesh 
Miltefosine (target dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day for 28 days) is the recommended treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Bangladesh on the basis of data from India. We evaluated miltefosine in a phase IV trial of 977 patients in Bangladesh. At the six-month final follow up, 701 were cured. 24 showed initial treatment failure, and 95 showed treatment failure at 6 months, although 73 of the 95 showed treatment failure solely by the criterion of low hemoglobin values. One hundred twenty-one patients were not assessable. With the conservative assumption that all low hemoglobin values represented treatment failure, the final per protocol cure rate was 85%. Of 13 severe adverse events, 6 led to treatment discontinuation and 7 resulted in deaths, but only 1 death (associated with diarrhea) could be attributed to drug. Nearly all non-serious adverse events were gastrointestinal: vomiting in 25% of patients and diarrhea in 8% of patients. Oral miltefosine is an attractive alternative to intramuscular antimony and intravenous amphotericin B for treatment of kala-azar in Bangladesh.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0661
PMCID: PMC3122346  PMID: 21734127
17.  Effectiveness of an integrated approach to reduce perinatal mortality: recent experiences from Matlab, Bangladesh 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:914.
Background
Improving perinatal health is the key to achieving the Millennium Development Goal for child survival. Recently, several reviews suggest that scaling up available effective perinatal interventions in an integrated approach can substantially reduce the stillbirth and neonatal death rates worldwide. We evaluated the effect of packaged interventions given in pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods through integration of community- and facility-based services on perinatal mortality.
Methods
This study took advantage of an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) and a new Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) Project initiated in 2007 in Matlab, Bangladesh in half (intervention area) of the HDSS area. In the other half, women received usual care through the government health system (comparison area). The MNCH Project strengthened ongoing maternal and child health services as well as added new services. The intervention followed a continuum of care model for pregnancy, intrapartum, and post-natal periods by improving established links between community- and facility-based services. With a separate pre-post samples design, we compared the perinatal mortality rates between two periods--before (2005-2006) and after (2008-2009) implementation of MNCH interventions. We also evaluated the difference-of-differences in perinatal mortality between intervention and comparison areas.
Results
Antenatal coverage, facility delivery and cesarean section rates were significantly higher in the post- intervention period in comparison with the period before intervention. In the intervention area, the odds of perinatal mortality decreased by 36% between the pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence intervals: 0.52-0.78). The reduction in the intervention area was also significant relative to the reduction in the comparison area (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.95; P = 0.018).
Conclusion
The continuum of care approach provided through the integration of service delivery modes decreased the perinatal mortality rate within a short period of time. Further testing of this model is warranted within the government health system in Bangladesh and other low-income countries.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-914
PMCID: PMC3257323  PMID: 22151276
18.  Burn injury in Bangladesh: electrical injury a major contributor 
Electrical injury is a major cause of burn injury and significant cause of mortality, morbidity and disability. To explore the proportional incidence of thermal and electrical burn injuries in Bangladesh, a population-based cross sectional survey was conducted between January and December 2003. Nationally representative data was collected from 171,366 rural and urban households, comprising of a total population of 819,429.The study was designed to describe the proportional incidence of thermal, electrical and chemical cause of burn in Bangladesh. Electrical injury constituted about one third of the total burn injuries. Among the total 1,999 injuries about 31% were due to electrical injuries, about 26% were due to flame, about 25% were due to hot liquid, over 16% by hot object, about 2% by chemical and less than 1% were due to explosives. The incidence of death rate was 3.97 per 100,000 populations per year. Thermal burn was found as the major cause of death due to burn injures and constituted 58% of the total deaths due to burn. Electrical injuries caused 42% of the deaths. It was estimated that more than 5,600 people die due to burn and electrical injuries every year in Bangladesh considering the incidence rate of 3.97 per 100,000 populations per year in the 150 million population. Electrical injury including lightning constitute about one third of the burn related mortality, morbidity and disabilities. Rural people and children are the more vulnerable group. Electrical injury needs to be included as a special component in a burn prevention strategy, particularly in rural Bangladesh.
PMCID: PMC3415945  PMID: 22928160
Burn; electrical Injury; Bangladesh
19.  Dopamine-β-Hydroxylase (DBH), Its Cofactors and Other Biochemical Parameters in the Serum of Neurological Patients in Bangladesh 
Dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) is a neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme which catalyzes the formation of norepinephrine from dopamine. In this study, we measured the level of DBH activity in the serum of patients of three different age groups (8–14 yrs, 20–40 yrs and 45–60 yrs) suffering from neurological diseases. Serum DBH activity was measured in 38 neurological patients and 38 normal individuals in order to determine significant variables for its potential use to diagnose the neurological patients. It was found that the DBH activity decreased in the patients of all age groups. A considerable decrease in activity was observed in the patients of 8–14 yrs age group (14.2 nmoles/min/ml in patients compared to the normal value of 22.6). A significant decrease in activity was found in the 20–40 yrs age group (23.4 nmoles/min/ml in patients compared to the normal value of 33.0). The decrease in DBH activity was also found in the patients of 45–60 yrs age group but to a lesser extent (26.4 nmoles/min/ml in the patients compared to the normal value of 30.2). The kinetic studies of DBH exhibited an increase of Km value and a decrease in Vmax in the neurological patients. Serum copper and ascorbic acid levels (cofactors of DBH) were found to be decreased in neurological patients and hence are in agreement with the decrease in DBH activity in these patients. Other parameters such as glucose and cholesterol levels increased, protein and zinc levels decreased and ALT, AST, creatinine and urea content remained nearly unchanged in the patients’ serum.
PMCID: PMC3614808  PMID: 23675164
dopamine-β-hydroxylase; copper; ascorbic acid; zinc; neurological patients
20.  Socioeconomic inequality in child injury in Bangladesh – implication for developing countries 
Background
Child injury is an emerging public health issue in both developed and developing countries. It is the main cause of deaths and disabilities of children after infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic inequality in injury related morbidity and mortality among 1–4 years children.
Materials and methods
Data used for this study derived from Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey. A multistage cluster sampling technique was conducted for this survey. In this study quintiles of socioeconomic status were calculated on the basis of assets and wealth score by using principle component analysis. The numerical measures of inequality in mortality and morbidity were assessed by the concentration index.
Results
The poorest-richest quintile ratio of mortality due to injury was 6.0 whereas this ratio was 5.6 and 5.5 for the infectious diseases and non-communicable diseases. The values of mortality concentration indices for child mortality due to infection, non-communicable diseases and injury causes were -0.40, -0.32 and -0.26 respectively. Among the morbidity concentration indices, injury showed significantly greater inequality. All the concentration indices revealed that there were significant inequalities among the groups. The logistic regression analysis indicated that poor children were 2.8 times more likelihood to suffer from injury mortality than rich children, taking into account all the other factors.
Conclusion
Despite concentration indices used in this study, the analysis reflected the family's socioeconomic position in a Bangladesh context, showing a very strong statistical association with child mortality. Due to the existing socioeconomic situation in Bangladesh, the poor children were more vulnerable to injury occurrence.
doi:10.1186/1475-9276-8-7
PMCID: PMC2676296  PMID: 19309516
21.  Non-invasive diagnosis of H pylori infection: Evaluation of serological tests with and without current infection marker CIM 
AIM: To evaluate the performance of commercially available immunochromatographic (ICT) and immunoblot tests covering the current infection marker CIM and conventional ELISA for the diagnosis of H pylori infection in adult dyspeptic patients.
METHODS: Consecutive non-treated dyspeptic patients undergoing diagnostic endoscopy were tested for H pylori infection by culture, rapid urease test, and histology of gastric biopsy specimens. Serum from 61 H pylori infected and 21 non-infected patients were tested for anti-H pylori IgG antibodies by commercial ELISA (AccuBindTM ELISA, Monobind, USA), ICT (Assure® H pylori Rapid Test, Genelabs Diagnostics, Singapore), and immunoblot (Helico Blot 2.1, Genelabs Diagnostics, Singapore) assays. ICT and immunoblot kits cover CIM among other parameters and their performance with and without CIM was evaluated separately.
RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of ELISA were 96.7%, 42.8%, 83.1%, 81.8%, and 82.9%, of ICT were 90.1%, 80.9%, 93.2%, 73.9%, and 87.8%, of ICT with CIM were 88.5%, 90.4%, 96.4%, 73.0%, and 89.0%, of immunoblot were 98.3%, 80.9%, 93.7%, 94.4%, and 93.9%, and of immunoblot with CIM were 98.3%, 90.4%, 96.7%, 95.0%, and 96.3%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Immunoblot with CIM had the best performance. ICT with CIM was found to be more specific and accurate than the conventional ELISA and may be useful for non-invasive diagnosis of H pylori infection.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.1231
PMCID: PMC2690671  PMID: 18300349
H pylori; ELISA; Immunochromatographic test; Immunoblot; Current infection marker
22.  HPLC profiling, antioxidant and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of Syzygium jambos available in Bangladesh 
BMC Research Notes  2016;9:191.
Background
Syzygium jambos has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases in Bangladesh. The study investigates the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiling of phenolic compounds, and evaluates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of S. jambos available in Bangladesh.
Methods
The extract was subjected to HPLC for the identification and quantification of the major bioactive polyphenols present in S. jambos. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2′-azino bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract in rats for two different test models: carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema was inspected.
Results
High levels of catechin hydrate and rutin hydrate (99.00 and 79.20 mg/100 g extract, respectively) and moderate amounts of ellagic acid and quercetin (59.40 and 69.30 mg/100 g extract, respectively) were quantified in HPLC. Catechin hydrate from this plant extract was determined for the first time through HPLC. For ABTS scavenging assay, the median inhibition concentration (IC50) value of S. jambos was 57.80 µg/ml, which was significant to that of ascorbic acid (12.01 µg/ml). The maximum absorbance for reducing power assay was found to be 0.4934. The total antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid contents were calculated to be 628.50 mg/g of ascorbic acid, 230.82 mg/g of gallic acid and 11.84 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, a significant acute anti-inflammatory activity (P < 0.01) was observed in rats for both the test models with a reduction in the paw volume of 58.04 and 53.95 %, in comparison to those of indomethacin (62.94 and 65.79 %), respectively.
Conclusions
The results suggest that the phenolic and flavonoid compounds are responsible for acute anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of S. jambos.
doi:10.1186/s13104-016-2000-z
PMCID: PMC4810503  PMID: 27021114
Syzygium jambos; HPLC; Catechin hydrate; ABTS; Reducing power; Carrageenan
23.  Absent words and the (dis)similarity analysis of DNA sequences: an experimental study 
BMC Research Notes  2016;9:186.
Background
An absent word with respect to a sequence is a word that does not occur in the sequence as a factor; an absent word is minimal if all its factors on the other hand occur in that sequence. In this paper we explore the idea of using minimal absent words (MAW) to compute the distance between two biological sequences. The motivation and rationale of our work comes from the potential advantage of being able to extract as little information as possible from large genomic sequences to reach the goal of comparing sequences in an alignment-free manner.
Findings
We report an experimental study on the use of absent words as a distance measure among biological sequences. We provide recommendations to use the best index based on our analysis. In particular, our analysis reveals that the best performers are: the length weighted index of relative absent word sets, the length weighted index of the symmetric difference of the MAW sets, and the Jaccard distance between the MAW sets. We also found that during the computation of the absent words, the reverse complements of the sequences should also be considered.
Conclusion
The use of MAW to compute the distance between two biological sequences has potential advantage over alignment based methods. It is expected that this potential advantage would encourage researchers and practitioners to use this as a (dis)similarity measure in the context of sequence comparison and phylogeny reconstruction. Therefore, we present here a comparison among different possible models and indexes and pave the path for the biologists and researchers to choose an appropriate model for such comparisons.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13104-016-1972-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13104-016-1972-z
PMCID: PMC4804535  PMID: 27004958
Absent words; Minimal absent words; Alignment free comparison; Distance matrix; Phylogenetics
24.  Point of care HIV testing with oral fluid among returnee migrants in a rural area of Bangladesh 
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS  2016;11(Suppl 1):S52-S58.
Objectives
To determine HIV prevalence and assess the acceptability of HIV testing using oral fluid as a point of care (PoC) test method among returnee migrants in a rural area of Bangladesh.
Design
A cross-sectional study.
Methods
Matlab is a rural area southeast of Dhaka where icddr,b hosts a health and demographic surveillance system covering 225 826 people of whom 934 are returnee migrants. The sample size of 304 was proportionately distributed among randomly selected households. HIV antibodies in oral fluid were tested using OraQuick Rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test. To understand reasons of acceptability a short questionnaire was applied and 32 in-depth interviews were conducted.
Results
Of 304 returnee migrants approached, 97.4% accepted the test. The prevalence of HIV was 0.3% without a confirmatory blood test. Reasons for acceptance included easy accessibility of the test at the door-step which saved resources (i.e., time and money), comfortable test-procedure without any pain and fear, and receiving quick results with confidentiality. Some described knowing HIV status as a way to ‘get certified’ (of sexual fidelity) and to confront a prevailing silent stigma against migrants. Acceptability was moreover found to be grounded in icddr,b's institutional reputation and its close relationship with the local community.
Conclusions
The PoC oral fluid test for HIV has shown for the first time that assessment of HIV prevalence in rural-based returnee migrants is possible. Findings also suggest that PoC oral fluid test has the potential of increasing accessibility to HIV testing as it was found to be highly acceptable.
doi:10.1097/COH.0000000000000267
PMCID: PMC4787103  PMID: 26945144
acceptability; Bangladesh; HIV; oral fluid testing; point of care; returnee migrants
25.  Determinants of overweight or obesity among ever-married adult women in Bangladesh 
BMC obesity  2016;3:13.
Background
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in Bangladesh. It is higher among Bangladeshi women than among men. This study was conducted to assess a host of demographic and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, separately for the urban and rural women of Bangladesh.
Methods
We used data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. The BDHS provides cross-sectional data on a wide range of indicators relating to population, health, and nutrition. We analyzed nutrition-related data to identify the factors associated with being overweight or obese among ever-married women aged 18–49 years.
Results
Of 16,493 women, about 18 % (95 % CI 17 · 80–18 · 99) were overweight or obese. Unemployed urban women were at 1 · 44 (95 % CI 1 · 18–1 · 76, p < 0 · 001) times higher risk of being overweight or obese than those women who were involved in manual-labored work. Watching television at least once a week was another significant predictor among urban women (OR 1 · 49; 95 % CI 1 · 24–1 · 80; p < 0 · 001) and rural women (OR 1 · 31; 95 % CI 1 · 14–1 · 51; p < 0 · 001). Household wealth index and food security were also strongly associated with overweight or obesity of both rural and urban women.
Conclusions
The findings of the study indicate that a large number of women in Bangladesh are suffering from being overweight or obese, and multiple factors are responsible for this including, older age, being from wealthy households, higher education, being from food-secured households, watching TV at least once a week, and being an unemployed urban woman. Given the anticipated long-term effects, the factors that are associated with being overweight or obese should be considered while formulating an effective intervention for the women of Bangladesh.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40608-016-0093-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s40608-016-0093-5
PMCID: PMC4774107  PMID: 26962459
Overweight; Obesity; Nutritional Status; Women; Bangladesh

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