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1.  Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Oncology  2013;85(2):117-121.
Objective
Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.
Methods
Information on age, SLE duration, cancer date, and histology was available. We analyzed information on histological type and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses of histological types according to age, SLE duration, and calendar year.
Results
We studied 180 breast cancers in the SLE cohort. Of the 155 cases with histology information, 11 were referred to simply as ‘carcinoma not otherwise specified’. In the remaining 144 breast cancers, the most common histological type was ductal carcinoma (n = 95; 66%) followed by lobular adenocarcinoma (n = 11; 8%), 15 cancers were of mixed histology, and the remaining ones were special types. In our regression analyses, the independent risk factors for lobular versus ductal carcinoma was age [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.14] and for the ‘special’ subtypes it was age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.10) and SLE duration (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.11).
Conclusions
Generally, up to 80% of breast cancers are ductal carcinomas. Though our results are not definitive, in the breast cancers that occur in SLE, there may be a slight decrease in the ductal histological type. In our analyses, age and SLE duration were independent predictors of histological status.
doi:10.1159/000353138
PMCID: PMC3934367  PMID: 23887245
Breast cancer; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Histopathology; Epidemiology
2.  Erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a predictor of renal and overall SLE disease activity 
Lupus  2013;22(8):10.1177/0961203313492578.
Objective
To assess whether erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels correlate with the level of disease activity at each visit and whether a change in ESR could be useful in predicting changes in disease activity.
Methods
Thousands of visits in a prospective SLE cohort were analyzed to assess the association of ESR and level of disease activity. We explored whether ESR was cross-sectionally associated with disease activity, whether changes in ESR were associated with changes in disease activity, and whether changes in ESR predicted future changes in disease activity. Visits when patients had cancer, infection, pregnancy or were in renal failure were excluded.
Results
After adjusting for confounding factors, mild (25–50mm/hr), moderate (51–75mm/hr), and marked ( > 75mm/hr) elevations in ESR levels at a given visit correlated with the SELENA-SLEDAI, the physician global assessment(PGA), fatigue, renal, joint, rash, serositis, hematological visual analogue scale (VAS), hematuria and proteinuria (p<0.0001) levels at that visit. A change in ESR between two visits was highly correlated with a concurrent change in physician global assessment (PGA), renal, fatigue and joint VAS (p<0.0001). There was no statistically significant correlation between change in ESR between two visits and change in disease activity at a future visit. The subgroup analysis of patients who do not have anti-dsDNA and low complement levels as a feature of their disease showed ESR to be positively associated with SLEDAI, PGA, renal and joint visual analogue scale at that visit (p<0.0001), but there were few significant assocations between changes in ESR and changes in disease activity.
Conclusion
ESR is associated with disease activity in SLE measured by the SELENA-SLEDAI, the physician global assessment (PGA), and with organ specific activity including serositis, rash, joint, renal and hematological visual analogue scales. Grouping baseline ESR into 4 levels does associate with both global and organ specific disease activity. A change in ESR between two visits was highly correlated with a change in physician global assessment (PGA), renal, fatigue and joint visual analogue scale (VAS). In patients without anti-dsDNA and low complement levels, ESR was positively associated with SLEDAI, PGA, renal and joint visual analogue scale at the same visit. Until more specific biomarkers are validated, serial ESR does have some utility in following disease activity in SLE.
doi:10.1177/0961203313492578
PMCID: PMC3703841  PMID: 23761098
erythrocyte sedimentation rate; ESR; systemic lupus erythematosus; disease activity
3.  SF-36 summary and subscale scores are reliable outcomes of neuropsychiatric events in systemic lupus erythematosus 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2011;70(6):961-967.
Objective
To examine change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in association with clinical outcomes of neuropsychiatric (NP) events in SLE.
Methods
An international study evaluated newly diagnosed SLE patients for NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes. Outcome of events was determined by physician-completed 7-point scale and compared to patient-completed SF-36 questionnaires. Statistical analysis used linear mixed-effects regression models with patient specific random effects.
Results
274 patients (92% female; 68% Caucasian), from a cohort of 1400, had ≥ 1 NP event where the interval between assessments was 12.3 ± 2 months. The overall difference in change between visits in mental component summary (MCS) scores of the SF-36 was significant (p<0.0001) following adjustments for gender, ethnicity, center and previous score. A consistent improvement in NP status (N=295) was associated with an increase in the mean(SD) adjusted MCS score of 3.66(0.89) in SF-36 scores. Between paired visits where NP status consistently deteriorated (N=30), the adjusted MCS score decreased by 4.00(1.96). For the physical component summary (PCS) scores the corresponding changes were +1.73(0.71) and −0.62(1.58) (p<0.05) respectively. Changes in SF-36 subscales were in the same direction (p<0.05; with the exception of role physical). Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. Adjustment for age, education, medications, SLE disease activity, organ damage, disease duration, attribution and characteristics of NP events did not substantially alter the results.
Conclusion
Changes in SF-36 summary and subscale scores, in particular those related to mental health, are strongly associated with the clinical outcome of NP events in SLE patients.
doi:10.1136/ard.2010.138792
PMCID: PMC3795436  PMID: 21342917
Systemic lupus erythematosus; Neuropsychiatric; Inception cohort; Health related quality of life; SF-36
7.  Hopkins Lupus Cohort: assessment of treatment effects 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(Suppl 3):A52.
doi:10.1186/ar3986
PMCID: PMC3467529
9.  European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for monitoring patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in clinical practice and in observational studies 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2009;69(7):1269-1274.
Objectives
To develop recommendations for monitoring patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in clinical practice and observational studies and to develop a standardised core set of variables to monitor SLE.
Methods
We followed the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) standardised procedures for guideline development. The following techniques were applied: nominal groups, Delphi surveys for prioritisation, small group discussion, systematic literature review and two Delphi rounds to obtain agreement. The panel included rheumatologists, internists, dermatologists, a nephrologist and an expert related to national research agencies. The level of evidence and grading of recommendations were determined according to the Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommendations of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine.
Results
A total of 10 recommendations have been developed, covering the following aspects: patient assessment, cardiovascular risk factors, other risk factors (osteoporosis, cancer), infection risk (screening, vaccination, monitoring), frequency of assessments, laboratory tests, mucocutaneous involvement, kidney monitoring, neuropsychological manifestations and ophthalmology assessment. A ‘core set’ of minimal variables for the assessment and monitoring of patients with SLE in clinical practice was developed that included some of the recommendations. In addition to the recommendations, indications for specific organ assessments that were viewed as part of good clinical practice were discussed and included in the flow chart.
Conclusions
A set of recommendations for monitoring patients with SLE in routine clinical practice has been developed. The use of a standardised core set to monitor patients with SLE should facilitate clinical practice, as well as the quality control of care for patients with SLE, and the collection and comparison of data in observational studies.
doi:10.1136/ard.2009.117200
PMCID: PMC2952401  PMID: 19892750
10.  Atherosclerotic Vascular Events in a Multinational Inception Cohort of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) 
Arthritis care & research  2010;62(6):881-887.
Objective
To describe vascular events during an 8 year follow-up in a multicentre SLE inception cohort and their attribution to atherosclerosis.
Methods
Clinical data including co-morbidities are recorded yearly. Vascular events are recorded and attributed to atherosclerosis or not. All events met standard clinical criteria. Factors associated with atherosclerotic vascular events were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-tests and χ2. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of factors with vascular events attributed to atherosclerosis.
Results
Since 2000, 1249 patients have been entered into the cohort. There have been 97 vascular events in 72 patients. These include: myocardial infarction (13), angina (15), congestive heart failure (24), peripheral vascular disease (8), transient ischemic attack (13), stroke (23), pacemaker insertion (1). Fifty of the events were attributed to active lupus, 31events in 22 patients were attributed to atherosclerosis, and 16 to other causes. Time from diagnosis to first atherosclerotic event was 2.0 ± 1.5 years. Compared to patients followed for 2 years without atherosclerosis events (615), at enrolment patients with AVE were more frequently Caucasian, male, older at diagnosis of SLE, obese, smokers, hypertensive and had a family history of coronary artery disease. On multivariate analysis only male gender and older age at diagnosis were associated factors.
Conclusion
In an inception cohort with SLE followed for up to 8 years there were 97 vascular events but only 31 were attributable to atherosclerosis. Patients with atherosclerotic events were more likely to be male and to be older at diagnosis of SLE.
doi:10.1002/acr.20122
PMCID: PMC2989413  PMID: 20535799
11.  Prospective Analysis Of Neuropsychiatric Events In An International Disease Inception Cohort of SLE Patients 
Annals of the rheumatic diseases  2009;69(3):529-535.
Objectives
To determine the frequency, accrual, attribution and outcome of neuropsychiatric (NP) events and impact on quality of life over 3 years in a large inception cohort of SLE patients.
Methods
The study was conducted by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics. Patients were enrolled within 15 months of SLE diagnosis. NP events were identified using the ACR case definitions and decision rules were derived to determine the proportion of NP disease attributable to SLE. The outcome of NP events was recorded and patient perceived impact determined by the SF-36.
Results
There were 1206 patients (89.6% female) with a mean (±SD) age of 34.5±13.2 years. The mean disease duration at enrollment was 5.4±4.2 months. Over a mean follow-up of 1.9±1.2 years 486/1206 (40.3%) patients had ≥1 NP events which were attributed to SLE in 13.0%–23.6% of patients using two a priori decision rules. The frequency of individual NP events varied from 47.1% (headache) to 0% (myasthenia gravis). The outcome was significantly better for those NP events attributed to SLE especially if they occurred within 1.5 years of the diagnosis of SLE. Patients with NP events, regardless of attribution, had significantly lower summary scores for both mental and physical health over the study.
Conclusions
NP events in SLE patients are variable in frequency, most commonly present early in the disease course and adversely impact patients’ quality of life over time. Events attributed to non-SLE causes are more common than those due to SLE, although the latter have a more favourable outcome.
doi:10.1136/ard.2008.106351
PMCID: PMC2929162  PMID: 19359262
Lupus; Neuropsychiatric; Prospective; Inception cohort
12.  Wegener's granulomatosis: isolated involvement of the trachea and larynx. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1987;46(8):628-631.
A 26 year old man with subacute hoarseness and stridor was shown to have Wegener's granulomatosis isolated to the trachea and larynx. Although isolated laryngeal Wegener's is unusual, a review of the literature suggests that early treatment with cyclophosphamide is warranted.
Images
PMCID: PMC1002213  PMID: 3310928
13.  Myocardial infarct size and mortality in diabetic patients. 
British Heart Journal  1985;54(5):466-472.
The mortality rate from myocardial infarction is disproportionately high in diabetic patients. One explanation for this may be that diabetic patients incur more extensive myocardial necrosis. This possibility was examined in a three part study. Firstly, peak serum aspartate aminotransferase concentrations of all diabetic and non-diabetic patients admitted with myocardial infarction over a 16 year period were compared retrospectively. Secondly, peak aspartate aminotransferase concentrations in a series of diabetic patients and controls matched by age and sex were examined retrospectively. Thirdly, creatine kinase MB release and electrocardiographic measures of infarct size were investigated prospectively in a case/control study. Although cardiac failure and death were more common in the diabetic groups, there were no significant differences in estimates of infarct size between diabetic and non-diabetic patients in any of the studies. Therefore, the high case fatality rate amongst diabetic patients is not caused by increased myocardial damage. Presumably survival is prejudiced by factors operating before the infarction.
PMCID: PMC481931  PMID: 4052287
14.  Effect of intravenous insulin infusion on mortality among diabetic patients after myocardial infarction. 
British Heart Journal  1984;51(6):626-630.
A review of the records of 353 diabetic patients after a myocardial infarction confirmed the high mortality associated with the condition. The influence of improved diabetic control achieved by intravenous insulin was assessed in 64 patients and compared with earlier experience in a diabetic control group. The frequency of the major complications of myocardial infarction was unchanged and the death rate in both groups was identical (33%); even the patients with blood glucose concentrations greater than 20 mmol/l on admission failed to benefit. Thus careful control of blood glucose concentrations after myocardial infarction in diabetic patients fails to improve the outcome of this high risk group.
PMCID: PMC481563  PMID: 6375702
15.  New drugs: antiarrhythmic drugs. 
PMCID: PMC1548031  PMID: 6407589

Results 1-15 (15)