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1.  Semiautomatic Segmentation of Ventilated Airspaces in Healthy and Asthmatic Subjects Using Hyperpolarized 3He MRI 
A segmentation algorithm to isolate areas of ventilation from hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging (HP 3He MRI) is described. The algorithm was tested with HP 3He MRI data from four healthy and six asthmatic subjects. Ventilated lung volume (VLV) measured using our semiautomated technique was compared to that obtained from manual outlining of ventilated lung regions and to standard spirometric measurements. VLVs from both approaches were highly correlated (R = 0.99; P < 0.0001) with a mean difference of 3.8 mL and 95% agreement indices of −30.8 mL and 38.4 mL. There was no significant difference between the VLVs obtained through the semiautomatic approach and the manual approach. A Dice coefficient which quantified the intersection of the two datasets was calculated and ranged from 0.95 to 0.97 with a mean of 0.96 ± 0.01 (mean ± SD). VLVs obtained through the semiautomatic algorithm were also highly correlated with measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (R = 0.82; P = 0.0035) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (R = 0.95; P < 0.0001). The technique may open new pathways toward advancing more quantitative characterization of ventilation for routine clinical assessment for asthma severity as well as a number of other respiratory diseases.
PMCID: PMC3626384  PMID: 23606904
3.  Rosai‐Dorfman disease of the testis: an unusual entity that mimics testicular malignancy 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2006;59(3):325-327.
A 47 year old Chinese man with diabetes mellitus and previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis presented with painless right testicular enlargement of 1 month's duration. He underwent an orchidectomy for presumed testicular neoplasm corroborated clinicoradiologically. Histological examination of the testicular mass revealed an inflammatory lesion comprising lymphocytes, plasma cells and sheets of pale staining histiocytes, some containing lymphocytes within their ample cytoplasm, suggestive of emperipolesis. S100 immunohistochemistry stained the histiocytes, while ultrastructural examination confirmed emperipolesis. A diagnosis of Rosai‐Dorfman disease was made, an exceedingly rare testicular lesion. Clinicoradiological findings mimicked a neoplasm, while the inflammatory histological appearances with occasionally discerned multinucleated cells raised the possibility of xanthogranulomatous orchitis. Tuberculous orchitis was excluded through negative Ziehl‐Neelsen stains and PCR for mycobacterium, while seminoma, which sometimes features a predominant inflammatory component obscuring neoplastic cells, was excluded by absent immunostaining for placental alkaline phosphatase and CD117.
PMCID: PMC1860335  PMID: 16505287
Rosai‐Dorfman disease; testicular neoplasm; xanthogranulomatous orchitis
4.  The Caulobacter crescentus flaFG region regulates synthesis and assembly of flagellin proteins encoded by two genetically unlinked gene clusters. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1992;174(19):6046-6053.
At a specific time in the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle, a single flagellar filament and multiple receptor sites for the swarmer-specific phage phi Cbk are assembled at one pole of the predivisional cell. One cluster of genes required for this morphogenesis, the flaYG region, includes the flgJKL genes, which encode structural proteins of the flagellar filament. These flagellin genes are flanked by genes required for filament assembly, the flaYE genes at one end and the flaF-flbT-flbA-flaG genes at the other. In this study, we characterized mutants carrying large chromosomal deletions within this region. Several of these strains are phi CbK resistant and produce a novel 22-kDa flagellin that is not assembled into flagella. Merodiploid strains containing either the entire flaFG region or individual fla transcription units from this region were constructed. These strains were used to correlate the presence or absence of specific gene products to changes in flagellin synthesis, filament assembly, or phage sensitivity. As a result of these studies, we were able to conclude that (i) the production of the 22-kDa flagellin results from the absence of the flbA and flaG gene products, which appear to be components of a flagellin-processing pathway common to the 25-, 27-, and 29-kDa flagellins; (ii) flbT negatively modulates the synthesis of the 27- and 25-kDa flagellins from two genetically unlinked gene clusters; (iii) flgL is the only flagellin gene able to encode the 27-kDa flagellin, and this flagellin appears to be required for the efficient assembly of the 25-kDa flagellins; (iv) flaF is required for filament assembly; and (v) phi CbK resistance results from the deletion of at least two genes in the flaFG region.
PMCID: PMC207669  PMID: 1400155
5.  Selective beta-adrenoceptor partial agonist effects of pindolol and xamoterol on skeletal muscle assessed by plasma creatine kinase changes in healthy subjects. 
1. The effects of selective beta-adrenoceptor partial agonist activity on plasma creatine kinase (CK) and skeletal muscle symptoms were studied in normal volunteers. 2. A drug with beta 1-selective partial agonist activity (xamoterol) and one with partial agonist activity acting mainly through beta 2-adrenoceptors (pindolol) were each given for 3 weeks in a randomised double-blind crossover study in 10 subjects. Five additional subjects received only one drug. Plasma CK levels were monitored during a baseline placebo run-in phase, the active treatment period and a placebo washout phase which continued until CK levels returned to baseline. 3. The degree of beta-adrenoceptor antagonism was determined by the inhibition of exercise-induced tachycardia and was similar for the two drug doses used. 4. During pindolol administration plasma CK levels rose compared with pretreatment baseline levels and with levels during xamoterol administration which did not rise. After pindolol was withdrawn CK levels reached higher peaks in some subjects after 1-5 days. 5. Muscle cramps were reported by five subjects during pindolol administration and by one of these subjects but to a lesser extent during xamoterol administration. 6. Pindolol may produce this effect, which was not seen with xamoterol, because of its specific beta 2-adrenoceptor partial agonist activity. Elevations in plasma CK produced by this type of drug or its withdrawal may cause confusion in the diagnosis of muscle disease or myocardial infarction unless the myocardial isoenzyme is measured.
PMCID: PMC1368165  PMID: 1980200

Results 1-5 (5)