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2.  Ebf1 or Pax5 haploinsufficiency synergizes with STAT5 activation to initiate acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2011;208(6):1135-1149.
STAT5 is abnormally activated in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and increased STAT5 activation synergizes with PAX5 and EBF1 to induce disease.
As STAT5 is critical for the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of progenitor B cells, this transcription factor may play a role in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Here, we show increased expression of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), which is correlated with poor prognosis, in ALL patient cells. Mutations in EBF1 and PAX5, genes critical for B cell development have also been identified in human ALL. To determine whether mutations in Ebf1 or Pax5 synergize with STAT5 activation to induce ALL, we crossed mice expressing a constitutively active form of STAT5 (Stat5b-CA) with mice heterozygous for Ebf1 or Pax5. Haploinsufficiency of either Pax5 or Ebf1 synergized with Stat5b-CA to rapidly induce ALL in 100% of the mice. The leukemic cells displayed reduced expression of both Pax5 and Ebf1, but this had little effect on most EBF1 or PAX5 target genes. Only a subset of target genes was deregulated; this subset included a large percentage of potential tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Further, most of these genes appear to be jointly regulated by both EBF1 and PAX5. Our findings suggest a model whereby small perturbations in a self-reinforcing network of transcription factors critical for B cell development, specifically PAX5 and EBF1, cooperate with STAT5 activation to initiate ALL.
doi:10.1084/jem.20101947
PMCID: PMC3173246  PMID: 21606506
3.  Interferon-Regulated Chemokines as Biomarkers of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity: A Validation Study 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2009;60(10):3098-3107.
Objective
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by unpredictable flares of disease activity and irreversible damage to multiple organ systems. An earlier study showed that SLE patients carrying an interferon gene expression signature in blood have elevated serum levels of interferon (IFN)-regulated chemokines. These chemokines were associated with more severe and active disease and showed promise as SLE disease activity biomarkers. This study was designed to validate IFN regulated chemokines as biomarkers of SLE disease activity in 267 longitudinally-followed SLE patients.
Methods
To validate the potential utility of serum chemokine levels as biomarkers for disease activity, we measured serum chemokine levels – CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL2 (MCP-1), and CCL19 (MIP-3B) – in an independent cohort of 267 SLE patients followed longitudinally over one year (1166 total visits).
Results
Serum chemokine levels correlated with current visit lupus activity (p=2×10−10), rising at flare (p=1×10−3) and decreasing as disease remitted (p=1×10−3), and performed better than currently available laboratory tests. Chemokine levels measured at a single baseline visit in patients with SLEDAI ≤4 were predictive of lupus flare over the ensuing year (p=6×10−4).
Conclusion
Monitoring serum chemokine levels in SLE may improve assessment of current disease activity, the prediction of future flare, and overall clinical decision-making.
doi:10.1002/art.24803
PMCID: PMC2842939  PMID: 19790071
4.  Detection of the CMT1A/HNPP recombination hotspot in unrelated patients of European descent. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1997;34(1):43-49.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease (CMT1) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are common inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The majority of CMT1 patients have a 1.5Mb tandem duplication (CMT1A) in chromosome 17p11.2 while most HNPP patients have a deletion of the same 1.5 Mb region. The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion are the reciprocal products of an unequal crossing over event between misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP elements. We analysed 162 unrelated CMT1A duplication patients and HNPP deletion patients from 11 different countries for the presence of a recombination hotspot in the CMT1A-REP sequences. A hotspot for unequal crossing over between the misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP elements was observed through the detection of novel junction fragments in 76.9% of 130 unrelated CMT1A patients and in 71.9% of 32 unrelated HNPP patients. This recombination hotspot was also detected in eight out of 10 de novo CMT1A duplication and in two de novo HNPP deletion patients. These data indicate that the hotspot of unequal crossing over occurs in several populations independently of ethnic background and is directly involved in the pathogenesis of CMT1A and HNPP. We conclude that the detection of junction fragments from the CMT1A-REP element on Southern blot analysis is a simple and reliable DNA diagnostic tool for the identification of the CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion in most patients.
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PMCID: PMC1050846  PMID: 9032649
5.  Whole-cell repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction allows rapid assessment of clonal relationships of bacterial isolates. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1993;31(7):1927-1931.
Repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) enables the generation of DNA fingerprints which discriminate bacterial species and strains. We describe the application of whole-cell methods which allow specimens from broth cultures or colonies from agar plates to be utilized directly in the PCR mixture. The rep-PCR-generated DNA fingerprints obtained with whole-cell samples match results obtained with genomic DNA templates. Examples with different gram-negative bacteria (e.g., Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) are demonstrated. Rapid specimen preparation methods enable rep-PCR-based fingerprinting to be completed in several hours and, therefore, allows the timely analysis of epidemiological relationships.
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PMCID: PMC265663  PMID: 8349778
6.  Analysis of relationships among isolates of Citrobacter diversus by using DNA fingerprints generated by repetitive sequence-based primers in the polymerase chain reaction. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1992;30(11):2921-2929.
Oligonucleotide probes which match consensus sequences of the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) element hybridize to genomic DNA of diverse bacterial species. Primers based on the REP sequence generate complex band patterns with genomic DNA in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technique named REP-PCR. We used REP-PCR with genomic DNA to fingerprint 47 isolates of Citrobacter diversus. Previously, 37 were assigned electrophoretic types (ETs) by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and 35 were evaluated by using outer membrane protein profiles. Fingerprints were compared by visual inspection and by similarity coefficients (SimCs) based on the number of common bands versus total bands between two given isolates. DNA fingerprints were highly similar visually for patient pairs and outbreak-related sets. SimCs for these were > or = 0.952. Fingerprints of isolates with different ETs generally were distinctive. Among 21 unrelated isolates representing 15 ETs, only 6 of 210 comparisons had SimCs of > or = 0.952. REP-PCR rapidly generated DNA fingerprints which were highly similar for epidemiologically linked isolates of C. diversus and distinct for previously characterized strains within this species. The ability of this method to discriminate between C. diversus isolates with the same biotype was similar to that of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and outer membrane protein profiles. REP-PCR may be useful in evaluation of apparent outbreaks of this or other bacterial species which possess these extragenic, repetitive elements.
Images
PMCID: PMC270553  PMID: 1452663
8.  Mutations in the Escherichia coli dnaG gene suggest coupling between DNA replication and chromosome partitioning. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1991;173(3):1268-1278.
Eleven conditional lethal dnaG(Ts) mutations were located by chemical cleavage of heteroduplexes formed between polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNAs from wild-type and mutant dnaG genes. This entailed end labeling one DNA strand of the heteroduplex, chemically modifying the strands with hydroxylamine or osmium tetroxide (OsO4) at the site of mismatch, and cleaving them with piperidine. The cleavage products were electrophoresed, and the size corresponded to the position of the mutation with respect to the labeled primer. Exact base pair changes were then determined by DNA sequence analysis. The dnaG3, dnaG308, and dnaG399 mutations map within 135 nucleotides of one another near the middle of dnaG. The "parB" allele of dnaG is 36 bp from the 3' end of dnaG and 9 bp downstream of dnaG2903; both appear to result in abnormal chromosome partitioning and diffuse nucleoid staining. A suppressor of the dnaG2903 allele (sdgA5) maps within the terminator T1 just 5' to the dnaG gene. Isogenic strains that carried dnaG2903 and did or did not carry the sdgA5 suppressor were analyzed by a combination of phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to stain DNA and visualize the partitioning chromosome. Overexpression of the mutant dnaG allele corrected the abnormal diffuse-nucleoid-staining phenotype associated with normally expressed dnaG2903. The mutations within the dnaG gene appear to cluster into two regions which may represent distinct functional domains within the primase protein.
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PMCID: PMC207251  PMID: 1991720
9.  Mutational analysis of the Escherichia coli glpFK region with Tn5 mutagenesis and the polymerase chain reaction. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1990;172(10):6129-6134.
Transposon Tn5 mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli chromosome was used to isolate 21 independent insertion mutations conferring an altered colony color phenotype on MacConkey-glycerol plates. The polymerase chain reaction was used to map 16 of these Tn5 insertions within the glpFK region at 88 min. The most polar Tn5 insertion was shown by nucleotide sequencing to be in the proposed glpF open reading frame. The data suggest that the glpF and glpK genes are in an operon with a bent DNA segment (BENT-6) involved in transcriptional regulation of this operon.
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PMCID: PMC526940  PMID: 2170343
10.  Distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in eubacteria and application to fingerprinting of bacterial genomes. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1991;19(24):6823-6831.
Dispersed repetitive DNA sequences have been described recently in eubacteria. To assess the distribution and evolutionary conservation of two distinct prokaryotic repetitive elements, consensus oligonucleotides were used in polymerase chain reaction [PCR] amplification and slot blot hybridization experiments with genomic DNA from diverse eubacterial species. Oligonucleotides matching Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic [REP] elements and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus [ERIC] sequences were synthesized and tested as opposing PCR primers in the amplification of eubacterial genomic DNA. REP and ERIC consensus oligonucleotides produced clearly resolvable bands by agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification. These band patterns provided unambiguous DNA fingerprints of different eubacterial species and strains. Both REP and ERIC probes hybridized preferentially to genomic DNA from Gram-negative enteric bacteria and related species. Widespread distribution of these repetitive DNA elements in the genomes of various microorganisms should enable rapid identification of bacterial species and strains, and be useful for the analysis of prokaryotic genomes.
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PMCID: PMC329316  PMID: 1762913

Results 1-10 (10)