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author:("Kameda, hideo")
1.  What is the future of CCR5 antagonists in rheumatoid arthritis? 
Fleishaker and colleagues reported on a double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial of a C-C chemokine-receptor type 5 (CCR5) antagonist, maraviroc, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with inadequate response to methotrexate, showing that it was ineffective. Two additional CCR5 antagonists, SCH351125 and AZD5672, also failed to demonstrate clinical efficacy. In addition, CCR5-blocking antibodies could not inhibit synovial fluid-induced monocyte chemotaxis. Thus, CCR5 appears not to be a desirable target in RA treatment. Given the multiple functions of CCR5, redundancies in the chemokine system, and patient selection in the trial, we overview the recent understanding for chemokine receptor blockade in the treatment of RA
doi:10.1186/ar3775
PMCID: PMC3446428  PMID: 22494450
2.  IgG4-Related Disease without Overexpression of IgG4: Pathogenesis Implications 
Case Reports in Rheumatology  2012;2012:754935.
IgG4-related disease is a new disease group that affects multiple organs. It is characterized by high serum IgG4 and abundant infiltration of IgG4-bearing plasma cells in the affected organ. Here, we describe an intriguing case that suggested that IgG4-related disease might present without IgG4 overexpression or infiltration, at least during a relapse. A 47-year-old man had been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus 15 years. He was admitted due to a pituitary mass, systemic lymphadenopathy, and multiple nodules in the lungs and kidneys. The serum IgG4 level was normal and histopathological examination of the pituitary mass showed abundant lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration with very few IgG4-positive cells. When we examined specimens preserved from 15 years ago, we found high serum IgG4 levels and IgG4-bearing plasma cell infiltration. This resulted in a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease, and we considered the current episode to be a relapse without IgG4 overexpression. This case indicated that, to clarify the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease, current cases should repeat specimen evaluations over the course of IgG4-related disease to define diagnostic markers.
doi:10.1155/2012/754935
PMCID: PMC3420564  PMID: 22937457
4.  Regulatory mechanisms for the production of BAFF and IL-6 are impaired in monocytes of patients of primary Sjögren's syndrome 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2011;13(5):R170.
Introduction
In this study, we investigated possible aberrations of monocytes from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). We focused on B-cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) and IL-6 because they are both produced by monocytes and are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of pSS.
Methods
Peripheral monocytes were prepared from both pSS patients and normal individuals. The cells were stimulated in vitro with IFN-γ, and the amounts of IL-6 and soluble BAFF (sBAFF) produced by the cells were quantitated. The effect of sBAFF itself on the production of IL-6 was also studied. To investigate the response of pSS monocytes to these stimuli, the expression levels of the genes encoding BAFF receptors and IL-6-regulating transcription factors were quantitated.
Results
Peripheral pSS monocytes produced significantly higher amounts of sBAFF and IL-6 than normal monocytes did, even in the absence of stimulation. The production of these cytokines was significantly increased upon stimulation with IFN-γ. The elevated production of IL-6 was significantly suppressed by an anti-BAFF antibody. In addition, stimulation of pSS monocytes with sBAFF induced a significant increase in IL-6 production. Moreover, the expression levels of a BAFF receptor and transcription factors regulating IL-6 were significantly elevated in pSS monocytes compared to normal monocytes.
Conclusions
The results of the present study suggest that the mechanisms underlying the production of sBAFF and IL-6 are impaired in pSS monocytes. Our research implies that this impairment is due to abnormally overexpressed IL-6-regulating transcription factors and a BAFF receptor. These abnormalities may cause the development of pSS.
doi:10.1186/ar3493
PMCID: PMC3308105  PMID: 22018243
5.  Effectiveness and safety of adalimumab in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: retrospective analyses of data collected during the first year of adalimumab treatment in routine clinical practice (HARMONY study) 
Modern Rheumatology  2011;22(3):327-338.
We retrospectively investigated the ability of adalimumab (ADA) to reduce disease activity, improve physical function, and retard the progression of structural damage in 167 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and functional outcomes were compared between patients with or without prior biologic treatment and those with or without concomitant methotrexate (MTX) treatment. At week 52, 38.3% achieved clinical remission: 42.4 and 28.6% of patients achieved remission in those without and with previous biologics, respectively, while 42.7 and 12.5% of patients achieved remission in those with and without concomitant MTX, respectively. ADA treatment significantly reduced the rate of radiographic progression from 27.1 ± 46.0 (median 13.6; 25th–75th percentiles 8.3 to 28.9) at baseline to 0.8 ± 5.0 (median 0.0; 25th–75th percentiles −0.9 to 2.0) at week 52 (P < 0.0001). Radiographic progression was absent in 59.8% of patients. Sixty adverse events (34.21/100 patient-years) were reported, 16 of which were serious (9.12/100 patient-years). ADA therapy is highly effective for reducing disease activity, improving physical function, and limiting radiographic progression. It is generally safe and well tolerated by Japanese RA patients in routine clinical practice.
doi:10.1007/s10165-011-0516-6
PMCID: PMC3375429  PMID: 21898074
Adalimumab; Japanese; Retrospective study; Radiographic outcome; Rheumatoid arthritis
6.  Clinical, radiographic and functional effectiveness of tocilizumab for rheumatoid arthritis patients—REACTION 52-week study 
Rheumatology (Oxford, England)  2011;50(10):1908-1915.
Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab in RA patients in clinical practice.
Methods. We observed 232 consecutive RA patients who began tocilizumab in three rheumatology centres in Japan for 52 weeks. Clinical, radiographic and functional status and safety were evaluated.
Results. Mean age of the 232 patients was 59.1 years, mean duration of disease was 12.4 years and average DAS using the 28-joint count (DAS-28) was 5.6. Although 62.8% of the patients had been treated previously with anti-TNF biologics, clinical remission at Week 52 was achieved in 43.7%, radiographic non-progression in 62.8% and functional remission in 26.4%. Retention rate at Week 52 was 71.1%, and the same for those with or without previous anti-TNF treatment. Adverse drug reactions leading to tocilizumab discontinuation were observed in 15.5% of patients, the most frequent adverse drug reaction being pneumonia in eight cases. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, DAS-28, HAQ-disability index (HAQ-DI), concomitant MTX and concomitant glucocorticoids (GCs) were predictive variables for clinical remission at Week 52 of tocilizumab treatment. In particular, HAQ-DI was found to be a predictive variable for remission of all three types—clinical, radiographic and functional—at Week 52 of tocilizumab treatment.
Conclusions. In daily clinical practice, tocilizumab exhibited excellent effectiveness in established RA patients, some of whom had failed to respond to previous anti-TNF treatment. Although further detailed safety findings are required, this study provides valuable real-world findings on the management of RA with tocilizumab.
doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ker221
PMCID: PMC3176715  PMID: 21752873
Rheumatoid arthritis; Tocilizumab; Remission; Joint destruction; Health assessment questionnaire
7.  Fcγ receptor IIIb polymorphism and use of glucocorticoids at baseline are associated with infusion reactions to infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2010;70(2):299-304.
Objective
Infusion reaction is a major adverse event in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with infliximab. The possible factors including Fcγ receptor (FcγR) polymorphism associated with the development of infusion reactions in patients with RA receiving infliximab were prospectively examined.
Methods
96 patients with RA were enrolled and scheduled to receive infliximab at a dose of 3 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6 and every 8 weeks thereafter. Genetic polymorphisms for FcγR were examined in FCGR3A 176F/V and FCGR3B NA1/2 alleles by allele-specific PCR analysis.
Results
An infusion reaction was observed in 17 patients (18%) during 52 weeks of treatment with infliximab. The FCGR3B NA1/NA1 genotype was found in 75% of the patients with infusion reactions and in only 37% of those without (p=0.01), whereas the FCGR3A 176F/V genotype was equally distributed in the patients with or without infusion reactions. Glucocorticoids were used in 53% of the patients who developed an infusion reaction and in 80% of those without an infusion reaction (p=0.02). A multivariable logistic regression model showed that the FCGR3B NA1/NA1 genotype and use of glucocorticoids at baseline could be used as independent predictive factors for infusion reactions (OR 6.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 24.3) and OR 0.26 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.84), respectively). The presence of anti-infliximab antibody during infliximab treatment was also associated with infusion reactions.
Conclusion
FCGR3B NA1/NA1 genotype, use of glucocorticoids and the presence of anti-infliximab antibody accounted for nearly all patients with RA who developed infusion reactions.
doi:10.1136/ard.2010.136283
PMCID: PMC3015102  PMID: 20980704
8.  Efficacy and tolerability of tocilizumab in rheumatoid arthritis patients seen in daily clinical practice in Japan: results from a retrospective study (REACTION study) 
Modern Rheumatology  2010;21(2):122-133.
Tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to the interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor, was approved for use as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy in Japan in 2008, but its efficacy and tolerability in daily practice has not yet been reported. We report the results of a multicenter retrospective study on the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab involving all patients (n = 229) who were started on tocilizumab therapy at three rheumatology institutes in Japan from April 2008 through to March 2009. Tocilizumab was infused every 4 weeks at a dose of 8 mg/kg according to the drug labeling. Among the 229 patients, 55% concomitantly received methotrexate (MTX) and 63% had previously received anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Average disease activity score (DAS) 28 of all 229 patients significantly decreased from 5.70 to 3.25 after 24 weeks of therapy. A European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) good response and DAS28 remission was achieved in 57.4 and 40.7% of the patients, respectively, at 24 weeks. White blood cell counts significantly decreased and liver enzymes and total cholesterol slightly but significantly increased; however, liver enzyme levels did not increase in patients without MTX. Tocilizumab was discontinued in 47 cases (20.5%) due to lack of efficacy (5.2%), adverse events (11.4%), and other reasons (3.9%). The overall retention rate at 24 weeks was 79.5%. Based on these results, we conclude that tocilizumab therapy in daily rheumatology practice appears to be highly efficacious and well tolerated among active RA patients, including the anti-TNF therapy-refractory population. Tocilizumab infusion is therefore applicable not only as an alternative approach for anti-TNF therapy-resistant patients, but also as primary biologic therapy for active RA patients.
doi:10.1007/s10165-010-0366-7
PMCID: PMC3071926  PMID: 20953815
Rheumatoid arthritis; Tocilizumab; IL-6; Remission; Retrospective study
9.  Co-existence of acute myeloid leukemia with multilineage dysplasia and Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report 
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease mediated by inflammatory processes mainly at the joints. Recently, awareness of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) has been heightened for its association with methotraxate usage in RA patients. In the contrary, acute myeloid leukemia with multilineage dysplasia (AML-MLD) has never been documented to be present concomitantly with the above two conditions. In this report we present a case of an autopsy-proven co-existence of AML-MLD and EBV-associated T-LPD in a patient with RA.
doi:10.1186/1756-8722-2-27
PMCID: PMC2709901  PMID: 19566938
10.  Retrospective clinical study on the notable efficacy and related factors of infliximab therapy in a rheumatoid arthritis management group in Japan: one-year clinical outcomes (RECONFIRM-2) 
Modern Rheumatology  2008;18(2):146-152.
Biologics targeting TNF have brought about a paradigm shift in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and infliximab, anti-TNF-α chimeric monoclonal antibody, was marketed in 2003 in Japan. We previously reported on the RECONFIRM study, a retrospective clinical study on the efficacy of infliximab therapy in a RA management group in Japan, where we evaluated the clinical response after 22 weeks of the therapy in 258 patients. The study reported here was aimed at reconfirming the clinical efficacy of the infliximab therapy and demographic factors related to the efficacy over a 54-week study period in 410 RA patients in the same study group. Infliximab was infused according to the domestically approved method, and the clinical response was evaluated following 54 weeks of infliximab therapy using the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria. Disease activity was assessed by DAS28-CRP (Disease Activity Score including a 28-joint count/C-reactive protein). Infliximab was discontinued in 24.4% of the 410 patients at 54 weeks and 9.3% and 8.1% discontinued the therapy due to adverse events and inefficiency, respectively. Average DAS28-CRP decreased from 5.5 at week 0 to 3.1 at week 54 after the therapy. Patients in remission and those showing low-, moderate-, and high-disease activity changed from 0.0, 1.0, 9.0 and 90.0%, respectively, at the start of the study to 27.6, 11.7, 34.4 and 26.3%, respectively, at week 54. Younger age, RF-negativity and low scores of DAS28-CRP showed significant correlations with remission at week 54. EULAR response criteria—good, moderate, and no response to infliximab—were 37.0, 41.7 and 21.2%, respectively. In conclusion, we reconfirmed the clinical efficacy of infliximab and demographic factors related to the efficacy over a 54-week study period in 410 Japanese patients with RA using DAS28-CRP and EULAR response criteria.
doi:10.1007/s10165-008-0026-3
PMCID: PMC2279153  PMID: 18283523
Rheumatoid arthritis; Infliximab; EULAR response; Retrospective study
11.  Platelet-Derived Growth Factor as a Therapeutic Target for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases 
Drug Target Insights  2007;2:239-247.
Some systemic rheumatic diseases and disorders, especially fibrotic and vascular disorders, are often refractory to corticosteroid therapy. Recently, ever accumulating evidence suggests that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is involved in those refractory diseases. Imatinib mesylate inhibits the activation of PDGF receptor as well as c-Abl, Bcr-Abl and c-Kit tyrosine kinases. It has therefore been widely used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Imatinib effectively suppresses the activation and proliferation of fibroblasts, mesangial cells and smooth muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, it has recently been reported that some patients with rheumatoid arthritis or idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension demonstrated a good clinical response to imatinib therapy. Imatinib may therefore overcome the limitations of current therapeutic strategy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents for refractory diseases, such as systemic sclerosis and interstitial lung diseases, without clinical intolerability.
PMCID: PMC3155225  PMID: 21901078
imatinib mesylate; rheumatoid arthritis; fibroblast; rheumatic diseases; interstitial lung disease
12.  Expression of Gab1 Lacking the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Is Associated with Neoplastic Progression 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2001;21(20):6895-6905.
An in vitro transformation system of carcinogen-treated Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell cultures represents multistep genetic and nongenetic changes that develop during the neoplastic progression of normal cells to tumor cells in vivo. During this neoplastic progression, SHE cells demonstrate an altered response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). In the present report, we examined the role of the adapter protein Gab1 (Grb2-associated binder-1) in the neoplastic progression of SHE cells. We used two asbestos-transformed SHE cell clones in different neoplastic stages: a 10W+8 clone, which is immortal and retains the ability to suppress the tumorigenicity of tumor cells in cell-cell hybrid experiments, and a 10W−1 clone, which has lost this tumor suppressor ability. 10W+8 cells expressed full-length 100-kDa Gab1 and associated 5.2-kb mRNA. Upon repeated cell passaging, 10W−1 cells showed increasing expression of a novel 87-kDa form of Gab1 as well as 4.6-kb mRNA with diminishing expression of the original 100-kDa Gab1. cDNA encoding the 87-kDa Gab1 predicts a form of Gab1 lacking the amino-terminal 103 amino acids (Gab1Δ1-103), which corresponds to loss of most of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Gab1Δ1-103 retains the ability to be phosphorylated in an EGF-dependent manner and to associate with the EGF receptor and SHP-2 upon EGF stimulation. The endogenous expression of Gab1Δ1-103 in 10W−1 cells appeared closely related to EGF-dependent colony formation in soft agar. Moreover, transfection and expression of Gab1Δ1-103, but not Gab1, in 10W+8 cells enhanced their EGF-dependent colony formation in soft agar. These results demonstrate that Gab1 is a target of carcinogen-induced transformation of SHE cells and that the expression of a Gab1 variant lacking most of the PH domain plays a specific role in the neoplastic progression of SHE cells.
doi:10.1128/MCB.21.20.6895-6905.2001
PMCID: PMC99866  PMID: 11564873

Results 1-12 (12)