Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9, whereas caspase-8 was also activated late during neem-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cancer cells with pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD inhibited activities of both initiator caspases (e.g., caspase-8 and -9) and executioner caspase-3. Neem induced the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of both caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis. p21 deficiency caused an increase in caspase activities at lower doses of neem, whereas p53 deficiency did not modulate neem-induced caspase activation. Additionally, neem treatment resulted in the accumulation of LC3-II in cancer cells, suggesting the involvement of autophagy in neem-induced cancer cell death. Low doses of autophagy inhibitors (i.e., 3-methyladenine and LY294002) did not prevent accumulation of neem-induced LC3-II in cancer cells. Silencing of ATG5 or Beclin-1 further enhanced neem-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or autophagy inhibitors increased neem-induced caspase-3 activation and inhibition of caspases enhanced neem-induced autophagy. Together, for the first time, we demonstrate that neem induces caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis, and autophagy in cancer cells.
The lack of clear understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic pain could explain why we currently have only a few effective treatments. Understanding how pain relief is realised during placebo analgesia could help develop improved treatments for chronic pain. Here, we tested whether experimental placebo analgesia was associated with altered resting-state cortical activity in the alpha frequency band of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Alpha oscillations have been shown to be influenced by top-down processes, which are thought to underpin the placebo response.
Seventy-three healthy volunteers, split into placebo or control groups, took part in a well-established experimental placebo procedure involving treatment with a sham analgesic cream. We recorded ongoing (resting) EEG activity before, during, and after the sham treatment.
We show that resting alpha activity is modified by placebo analgesia. Post-treatment, alpha activity increased significantly in the placebo group only (p < 0.001). Source analysis suggested that this alpha activity might have been generated in medial components of the pain network, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and left insula.
These changes are consistent with a cognitive state of pain expectancy, a key driver of the placebo analgesic response. The manipulation of alpha activity may therefore present an exciting avenue for the development of treatments that directly alter endogenous processes to better control pain.
Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-induced cell death remains limited. In this study, we demonstrate that curcumin treatment of cancer cells caused dose- and time-dependent caspase 3 activation, which is required for apoptosis as confirmed using the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD. Knockdown experiments and knockout cells excluded a role for caspase 8 in curcumin-induced caspase 3 activation. In contrast, Apaf-1 deficiency or silencing inhibited the activity of caspase 3, pointing to a requisite role of Apaf-1 in curcumin-induced apoptotic cell death. Curcumin treatment led to Apaf-1 upregulation, both at the protein and mRNA levels. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol in curcumin-treated cells was associated with upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bax, Bak, Bid and Bim. Cross-linking experiments demonstrated Bax oligomerization during curcumin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that induced expression of Bax, Bid and Bim causes Bax channel formation on the mitochondrial membrane. The release of cytochrome c was unaltered in p53-deficient cells, whereas absence of p21 blocked cytochrome c release, caspase activation and apoptosis. Importantly, p21 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of Apaf-1 during curcumin treatment, indicating a requirement for p21 in Apaf-1-dependent caspase activation and apoptosis. Together, our findings identify Apaf-1, Bax and p21 as novel potential targets for curcumin or curcumin-based anticancer agents.
curcumin; mitochondria; cytochrome c; Apaf-1; caspase; p21
The therapeutic response to a drug treatment is a mixture of direct pharmacological action and placebo effect. Therefore, harnessing the positive aspects of the placebo effect and reducing the negative ones could potentially benefit the patient. This article is aimed at providing an overview for clinicians of the importance of contextual psychosocial variables in determining treatment response, and the specific focus is on determinants of the placebo response. A better understanding of the physiological, psychological, and social mechanisms of placebo may aid in predicting which contexts have the greatest potential for inducing positive treatment responses. We examine the evidence for the role of psychological traits, including optimism, pessimism, and the effect of patient expectations on therapeutic outcome. We discuss the importance of the patient-practitioner relationship and how this can be used to enhance the placebo effect, and we consider the ethical challenges of using placebos in clinical practice.
Studies of EMG power spectra have established associations between low-back pain (LBP) and median frequency (MF). This 2-year prospective study investigates the association of LBP with EMG variables over time. 120 health care workers underwent paraspinal EMG measurements and assessment of back pain disability. The EMG recordings were performed under isometric trunk extension at 2/3 maximum voluntary contraction and acquired from erector spinae muscles at the level of L4/L5. 108 (90%) subjects were reviewed at a minimum 2-year follow up. 16 out of 93 subjects with no history of chronic low-back pain became worse as measured by time off work, disability, reported pain and self-assessment rating. The value of the EMG variable half-width at inception demonstrated significant association with changes in subject’s outcome measure and their own assessment of their LBP at follow up (p < 0.05). Based on self-assessment data, subjects with no history of chronic LBP with half-width of greater than 56 Hz were at threefold greater risk of developing back pain compared with the remainder of the population (p = 0.045). The value of the initial median frequency (IMF) and MF slope at inception were also associated with the subjects’ own assessment of LBP at follow up. Subjects with an IMF greater than 49 Hz were at 5.8-fold greater risk of developing back pain compared with the remainder of the population (p = 0.014). EMG variables recorded from lumbar paraspinal muscles can identify a sub group of subjects at increased risk of developing low-back pain in the future.
EMG; Low back pain; Paraspinal muscles; Prediction; Cohort study
Metastasis to the breast is rare. Its management differs from that of primary breast cancer, as illustrated by this case of a colonic metastasis to the breast.
A 78-year-old woman presented with a breast lump 16 months after a palliative colonic resection for an obstructing colon cancer (T4 N0 M1). Core biopsy of the breast lump revealed morphological features identical to the original bowel cancer. In view of her progressive metastatic disease, the breast lump was simply observed. She passed away 4 months later from advanced intra-abdominal carcinomatosis.
There are 19 cases of colonic metastasis to the breast in the literature. In the literature, colonic metastases to the breast are usually excised.
Excision of a colonic metastasis to the breast can be avoided if the patient's life expectancy is short.
Colon cancer; Metastasis; Breast neoplasm
Retained surgical swab or sponge following surgery is an uncommon finding seen most commonly following abdominal and pelvic procedures. Reports of such lesions in the breast are particularly rare with only two previously published cases. We report here the first case of a retained swab following breast augmentation where unique diagnostic problems are encountered because of the presence of implants. This case shows that a retained swab should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any postoperative breast mass and highlights that ignoring the fundamental principles of any surgical procedure can cause serious complications.
Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (MDA-7), also known as interleukin (IL)-24, is a tumour suppressor gene associated with differentiation, growth and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying its anti-neoplastic activity, tumour-specificity and efficacy across a spectrum of human cancers have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, the biological impact of MDA-7 on the behavior of breast cancer (BC) cells is evaluated. Furthermore, mRNA expression of MDA-7 is assessed in a cohort of women with BC and correlated with established pathological parameters and clinical outcome.
The human BC cell line MDA MB-231 was used to evaluate the in-vitro impact of recombinant human (rh)-MDA-7 on cell growth and motility, using a growth assay, wounding assay and electric cell impedance sensing (ECIS). Localisation of MDA-7 in mammary tissues was assessed with standard immuno-histochemical methodology. BC tissues (n = 127) and normal tissues (n = 33) underwent RNA extraction and reverse transcription, MDA-7 transcript levels were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. Transcript levels were analyzed against tumour size, grade, oestrogen receptor (ER) status, nodal involvement, TNM stage, Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) and clinical outcome over a 10 year follow-up period.
Exposure to rh-MDA-7 significantly reduced wound closure rates for human BC cells in-vitro. The ECIS model demonstrated a significantly reduced motility and migration following rh-MDA-7 treatment (p = 0.024). Exposure to rh-MDA-7 was only found to exert a marginal effect on growth. Immuno-histochemical staining of human breast tissues revealed substantially greater MDA-7 positivity in normal compared to cancer cells. Significantly lower MDA-7 transcript levels were identified in those predicted to have a poorer prognosis by the NPI (p = 0.049) and those with node positive tumours. Significantly lower expression was also noted in tumours from patients who died of BC compared to those who remained disease free (p = 0.035). Low levels of MDA-7 were significantly correlated with a shorter disease free survival (mean = 121.7 vs. 140.4 months, p = 0.0287) on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
MDA-7 significantly inhibits the motility and migration of human BC cells in-vitro. MDA-7 expression is substantially reduced in malignant breast tissue and low transcript levels are significantly associated with unfavourable pathological parameters, including nodal positivity; and adverse clinical outcomes including poor prognosis and shorter disease free survival. MDA-7 offers utility as a prognostic marker and potential for future therapeutic strategies.
To identify and review cases of false negative needle core biopsy (NCB) in the preoperative investigation of radial scar/complex sclerosing lesion (RS/CSL) lesions—that is, benign NCB from RS/CSL which contained malignancy on excision.
Methods and results
A total of 11 false negative NCB in RS/CSL lesions from 281 (3.9%) were identified (6 cases: B1, 2 cases: B2 and 3 cases: B3). In 6 of 11 cases a radial scar or stromal sclerosis was seen in NCB. Localisation biopsy showed duct carcinoma in situ in six cases, duct carcinoma in situ with invasive carcinoma in three and invasive carcinoma in two. In all 11 cases, needle tracks were identified as missing the malignant epithelium by a mean of 5 mm (median:4 mm; range:1–20 mm). In 9 of 11 cases, the malignancy was missed by <6 mm.
Despite evidence of accurate targeting of lesions, the use of NCB instead of fine needle aspiration cytology has not eliminated the problem of false negative biopsy in RS/CSL, and excision is recommended.
The ERM family is composed of the proteins ezrin, moesin and radixin, which are cell structure-related proteins. Despite the detection of viable roles of ERM family proteins, the impact of these molecules in cancer pathogenesis has yet to be investigated. Evidence emerging from clinical and translational studies showed that the ERM family is linked to disease progression in clinical cancers. We aimed to establish the pattern of expression of the ERM proteins and deduce a possible relationship between these molecules and clinical outcome in a cohort of human breast cancers. The expression of the three ERM molecules at the mRNA and protein levels in a cohort of 122 human breast cancers and 32 normal breast tissues were analysed and correlated with pathological and clinical information as well as patient outcome. The three molecules were positively stained in mammary tissues while the staining pattern was lost in the malignant cells. Low levels of moesin and radixin transcripts were seen in tumours from patients with metastasis, local recurrence and in patients who succumbed to the disease (moesin: p=0.039, p=0.037 and p=0.066, respectively, and radixin: p=0.039, p=0.039 and p=0.04, respectively). Ezrin levels were significantly lower in tumour recurrence and in patients who succumbed to the disease (p=0.0001 and p=0.59, respectively). Using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, a general trend of higher levels of ERM was observed, with marginal long overall and disease-free survival. In conclusion, an inverse relationship between ERM expression and tumour behaviour of breast cancer patients was noted. However, further work needs to be conducted in other types of cancer in clinical situations to obtain consistent results.
ERM family; ezrin; moesin; radixin; cell adhesion; cytoskeletal proteins; breast cancer; metastasis; survival
The neural mechanisms whereby placebo conditioning leads to placebo analgesia remain unclear. In this study we aimed to identify the brain structures activated during placebo conditioning and subsequent placebo analgesia. We induced placebo analgesia by associating a sham treatment with pain reduction and used fMRI to measure brain activity associated with three stages of the placebo response: before, during and after the sham treatment, while participants anticipated and experienced brief laser pain. In the control session participants were explicitly told that the treatment was inactive. The sham treatment group reported a significant reduction in pain rating (p = 0.012). Anticipatory brain activity was modulated during placebo conditioning in a fronto-cingulate network involving the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial frontal cortex and the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC). Identical areas were modulated during anticipation in the placebo analgesia phase with the addition of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, during altered pain experience only aMCC, post-central gyrus and posterior cingulate demonstrated altered activity. The common frontal cortical areas modulated during anticipation in both the placebo conditioning and placebo analgesia phases have previously been implicated in placebo analgesia. Our results suggest that the main effect of placebo arises from the reduction of anticipation of pain during placebo conditioning that is subsequently maintained during placebo analgesia.
Placebo analgesia; Placebo; fMRI; Laser; Conditioning
To investigate the expression of EPLIN-α, epithelial protein lost in neoplasm, in human breast cancer tissues/cells and investigate the cellular impact of EPLIN-α on breast cancer cells.
EPLIN-α was determined in tumour (n = 120) and normal mammary tissues (n = 32), and cancer cell lines (n = 16). Cell invasion, in vitro and in vivo growth of cells transfected with EPLIN-α were evaluated using in vitro invasion assay, in vitro and in vivo tumour model. Cellular migration was analysed using Electric Cell Impedance Sensing assays.
Low level of EPLIN-α was seen in tumour tissues. Grade-2/3 tumours had significantly lower levels of EPLIN-α compared with grade-1 (p = 0.047 and p = 0.046 vs grade-1, respectively). Patients with poor prognosis had a significantly lower levels of EPLIN-α compared with those with good prognosis (p = 0.0081). Patients who developed recurrence and died of breast cancer had significantly lower levels of EPLIN-α compared with those who remained disease free (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0008, respectively) (median follow-up 10 years). Patients with high levels of EPLIN-α transcript had a longer survival than those with low levels. Over-expression of EPLIN-α in breast cancer cells by way of transfection rendered cells less invasive, less motile and growing at a slower pace in vitro and in vivo. An ERK inhibitor was shown to be able to abolish the effect of EPLIN expression.
It is concluded that expression of EPLIN-α in breast cancer is down-regulated in breast cancer cells and tissues, a change linked to the prognosis. EPLIN-α acts as a potential tumour suppressor by inhibition of growth and migration of cancer cells.
Fluid inclusions and geological relationships indicate that rodingite formation in the Asbestos ophiolite, Québec, occurred in two, or possibly three, separate episodes during thrusting of the ophiolite onto the Laurentian margin, and that it involved three fluids. The first episode of rodingitization, which affected diorite, occurred at temperatures of between 290 and 360°C and pressures of 2.5 to 4.5 kbar, and the second episode, which affected granite and slate, occurred at temperatures of between 325 and 400°C and pressures less than 3 kbar. The fluids responsible for these episodes of alteration were moderately to strongly saline (~1.5 to 6.3 m eq. NaCl), rich in divalent cations and contained appreciable methane. A possible third episode of alteration is suggested by primary fluid inclusions in vesuvianite-rich bodies and secondary inclusions in other types of rodingite, with significantly lower trapping temperatures, salinity and methane content. The association of the aqueous fluids with hydrocarbon-rich fluids containing CH4 and higher order alkanes, but no CO2, suggests strongly that the former originated from the serpentinites. The similarities in the composition of the fluids in all rock types indicate that the ophiolite had already been thrust onto the slates when rodingitization occurred.
The authors studied the surface electromyographic (EMG) spectrum of the paraspinal muscles of 350 subjects. They were classified by their history as normal (n=175), chronic low back pain (n=145), or past history (n=30). They pulled upwards on a floor-mounted load cell at two-thirds of their maximum voluntary contraction for 30 s, while the EMG was measured from the paraspinal muscles at the L4/L5 level. From the EMG signal the root-mean-square (RMS) was calculated. Power spectrum analysis allowed calculation of the median frequency slope, the initial median frequency (IMF), modal frequency, peak amplitude and spectral width at half peak amplitude (half-width). All of the variables of the chronic group were significantly different from the normal group, except the median frequency slope, RMS slope and mode. Half-width, age and maximum voluntary contraction were shown to be independent predictors of back pain classification. Half-width classified the subjects with a sensitivity of 0.65 and a specificity of 0.75.
Low back pain; Electromyogram; Paraspinal muscle
Angiomotin is a newly discovered molecule that regulates the migration and tubule formation of endothelial cells. It therefore has been implicated in the control of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. This study examined the expression of angiomotin and its analogues, angiomotin-like 1 (L1) and -like 2 (L2) in breast tumour tissues, and analysed their correlation with angiogenesis and clinical outcomes.
Human breast tissues (normal n = 32 and tumours n = 120) were used. The levels of expression of angiomotin, L1 and L2 were determined using reverse transcription PCR. Microvessels were stained using antibodies against PECAM, von Willebrand factor (factor 8, or vWF) and VE-cadherin. The transcript levels of angiomotin and its analogues were assessed against the clinical and pathological background, including long term survival (120 months).
Breast cancer tissues expressed significantly higher levels of angiomotin transcript, compared with normal mammary tissues (33.1 ± 11 in normal versus 86.5 ± 13.7 in tumour tissues, p = 0.003). Both L1 and L2 were seen at marginally higher levels in tumour than normal tissues but the difference was not statistically significant. Levels of angiomotin were at significantly higher levels in grade 2 and grade 3 tumours compared with grade 1 (p < 0.01 and p = 0.05 respectively). The levels of angiomotin in tumours from patients who had metastatic disease were also significantly higher than those patients who remained disease free (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis indicated that angiomotin transcript was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.031). No significant correlations were seen between angiomotin-L1 and L2 with the clinical outcome. Furthermore, high levels of angiomotin transcript were associated with shorter overall survival (p < 0.05). There was a high degree of correlation between levels of vW factor and that of angiomotin (p < 0.05), but not angiomotin-L1 and angiomotin-L2.
Angiomotin, a putative endothelial motility factor, is highly expressed in human breast tumour tissues and linked to angiogenesis. It links to the aggressive nature of breast tumours and the long term survival of the patients. These data point angiomotin as being a potential therapeutic target.
Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava is a rare tumor that presents in an insidious manner with non-specific symptoms. Given its rarity, there are no consensus guidelines to its management. The aim of this study was to report the clinical experience in the management of patients presenting to our institution during a 12 year period.
Patients and Methods
Four patients with leiomyosarcomas of the inferior vena cava were managed at our institution during the period reviewed. Patient details were identified through a search of the pathology department computerized database, and case notes were retrospectively reviewed to obtain details of presentation and management.
There were 3 females and 1 male with a mean age of 59 years. All tumors were identified within 2 months of first symptoms. Three of the 4 had localized tumors whilst 1 patient had lung metastases at presentation. The three patients with resectable tumors underwent radical surgical excision of the tumor, and two patients had postoperative radiotherapy. One patient died of recurrence at 7 months, and another at 30 months. The third patient is currently well and disease free at 16 months. The fourth patient with metastatic disease was treated with chemotherapy alone and survived 36 months.
Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava is an uncommon tumor that presents with non-specific symptoms. At the time of presentation, tumors are usually large and resection is challenging but probably offers the best opportunity for long-term survival.
Thromboxane synthase (TxS) metabolizes the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin H(2), into thromboxanes. Some of the thromboxanes are known to be biologically active on cancer cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of thromboxane synthases, TBXAS1 and the thromboxane A2 receptor, TBXA2R in a cohort of human breast cancer patients and also to assess their potential clinical relevance.
Human breast tumour tissues (n = 120) and non-neoplastic mammary tissues (n = 32) were studied. Levels of TBXA2R and TBXAS1 transcripts were quantified using quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis and correlated with clinical/pathological information including nodal status, grade, prognosis and long term survival (median follow-up period 120 months).
Breast tumour tissue expressed higher levels of TBXA2R compared with normal mammary tissues, although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). There was no difference between tumour and normal tissues for TBXAS1. However, TBXA2R expression was significantly increased in grade 3 tumours(p = 0.006 vs grade 1), while TBXAS1 was significantly reduced in grade 3 tumours (p = 0.026 vs grade 1 tumours). A similar differential expression pattern was seen in tumours from patients with different prognosis, in that patients with predicted poor prognosis had higher, but not statistically different, levels of TBXA2R, and significantly lower levels of TBXAS1 (p = 0.008). Finally, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis has shown that patients with high levels of TBXA2R had significantly shorter disease free survival (103.8 (79.1–128.5) months) compared with those with low levels (123.7 (112.0–135.3)) months, p = 0.043.
Thromboxane synthases are differentially expressed in human breast cancer. While TBXA2R is highly expressed in aggressive tumours and linked with poor prognosis, TBXAS1 is expressed at significantly low levels in high grade tumours and tumour patients with poor prognosis. TBXA2R thus has a significant prognostic value in clinical breast cancer.
Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 (CXC chemokine ligand-12) is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines, which, through its cognate receptor (CXC chemokine receptor [CXCR]4), plays an important role in chemotaxis of cancer cells and in tumour metastasis. We conducted the present study to evaluate the effect of SDF-1 on the invasiveness and migration of breast cancer cells, and we analyzed the expression of SDF-1 and its relation to clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes in human breast cancer.
Expression of SDF-1 mRNA in breast cancer, endothelial (HECV) and fibroblast (MRC5) cell lines and in human breast tissues were studied using RT-PCR. MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with a SDF-1 expression vector, and their invasiveness and migration was tested in vitro. In addition, the expression of SDF-1 was investigated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR in samples of normal human mammary tissue (n = 32) and mammary tumour (n = 120).
SDF-1 expression was identified in MRC5, MDA-MB-435s and MDA-MB-436 cell lines, but CXCR4 expression was detected in all cell lines and breast tissues. An autocrine loop was created following transfection of MDA-MB-231 (which was CXCR4 positive and SDF-1 negative) with a mammalian expression cassette encoding SDF-1 (MDA-MB-231SDF1+/+) or with control plasmid pcDNA4/GFP (MDA-MB-231+/-). MDA-MB-231SDF1+/+ cells exhibited significantly greater invasion and migration potential (in transfected cells versus in wild type and empty MDA-MB-231+/-; P < 0.01). In mammary tissues SDF-1 staining was primarily seen in stromal cells and weakly in mammary epithelial cells. Significantly higher levels of SDF-1 were seen in node-positive than in node-negative tumours (P = 0.05), in tumours that metastasized (P = 0.05), and tumours from patients who died (P = 0.03) than in tumours from patients who were disease free. It was most notable that levels of SDF-1 correlated significantly with overall survival (P = 0.001) and incidence-free survival (P = 0.035).
SDF-1 can increase the invasiveness and migration of breast cancer cells. Its levels correlated with node involvement and long-term survival in patients with breast cancer. SDF-1 may therefore have potential value in assessing clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer.
The KorB and TrbA proteins of broad-host-range plasmid RK2 are key regulators of the plasmid genes required for conjugative transfer. trbBp is the primary promoter responsible for expression of mating pair formation genes. We show that despite the targets for KorB and TrbA at trbBp being about 165 bp apart, 189 bp upstream of the transcription start point and overlapping the −10 region, respectively, these two proteins show up to 10-fold cooperativity for the repression of trbBp. Deletion analysis of TrbA showed that the C-terminal domain (CTD), which has a high degree of sequence conservation with the CTD of KorA, is required for this cooperativity with KorB. Western blotting demonstrated that the apparently mutual enhancement of repression is not due simply to elevation of repressor level by the presence of the second protein, suggesting that the basis for cooperativity is interaction between KorB and TrbA bound at their respective operators.
The korAB operon of broad-host-range plasmid RK2 encodes five genes, two of which, incC and korB, belong to the parA and parB families, respectively, of genome partitioning functions. Both korB and a third gene, korA, are responsible for coordinate regulation of operons encoding replication, transfer, and stable inheritance functions. Overexpression of incC alone caused rapid displacement of RK2. Using two different reporter systems, we show that incC modulates the action of KorB. Using promoter fusions to the reporter gene xylE, we show that incC potentiates the repression of transcription by korB. This modulation of korB activity was only observed with incC1, which encodes the full-length IncC (364 amino acids [aa]), whereas no effect was observed with incC2, which encodes a polypeptide of 259 aa that lacks the N-terminal 105 aa. Using bacterial extracts with IncC1 and IncC2 or IncC1 purified through the use of a His6 tail and Ni-agarose chromatography, we showed that IncC1 potentiates the binding of KorB to DNA at representative KorB operators. The ability of IncC to stabilize KorB-DNA complexes suggests that these two proteins work together in the global regulation of many operons on the IncP-1 genomes, as well in plasmid partitioning.
density functional calculations; organometallic compounds; solid-state structures; X-ray diffraction; zinc