Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified several loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) risk. Pathway analysis complements conventional GWAS analysis. We applied the recently developed linear combination test for pathways to datasets drawn from independent PBC GWAS in Italian and Canadian subjects. Of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and BioCarta pathways tested, 25 pathways in the Italian dataset (449 cases, 940 controls) and 26 pathways in the Canadian dataset (530 cases, 398 controls) were associated with PBC susceptibility (P < 0.05). After correcting for multiple comparisons, only the eight most significant pathways in the Italian dataset had FDR < 0.25 with tumor necrosis factor/stress-related signaling emerging as the top pathway (P = 7.38 × 10−4, FDR = 0.18). Two pathways, phosphatidylinositol signaling and hedgehog signaling, were replicated in both datasets (P < 0.05), and subjected to two additional complementary pathway tests. Both pathway signals remained significant in the Italian dataset on modified gene set enrichment analysis (P < 0.05). In both GWAS, variants nominally associated with PBC were significantly overrepresented in the phosphatidylinositol pathway (Fisher exact P < 0.05). These results point to established and novel pathway-level associations with inherited predisposition to PBC that on further independent replication and functional validation, may provide fresh insights into PBC etiology.
linear combination test; phosphatidylinositol signaling; hedgehog signaling; autoimmune disease
In order to understand the anomalous interface adhesion properties between graphene membranes and their substrates, we have developed a theoretical method to calibrate the interface adhesion energy of monolayer and multilayer graphene on substrates based on the bond relaxation consideration. Four kinds of interfaces, including graphene/SiO2, graphene/Cu, graphene/Cu/Ni and Cu/graphene/Ni, were taken into account. It was found that the membrane thickness and the interface confinement condition determine the adhesion energy. The relationship between the critical interface separation and the graphene thickness showed that the interface separation in the self-equilibrium state drops with decreasing membrane thickness. The size-dependent Young's modulus of graphene membrane and the interfacial condition were responsible for the novel interface adhesion energy. The proposed theory was expected to be applied to the design of graphene-based devices.
Stigma toward people living with HIV is pervasive in China and related to poor service utilization, psychosocial distress, and diminished quality of life. In an effort to identify mechanisms to reduce HIV stigma and its negative consequences, we examined whether social support mediates the relation between enacted stigma and both depressive symptoms and quality of life among 120 HIV outpatients in Beijing, China. Generally, perceived social support was associated with less stigma, less depressive symptomatology, and better quality of life. Using multivariable regression models, we found that social support was a full mediator of the impact of stigma on both depressive symptomatology and quality of life. The findings suggest social support may be an important target of interventions to reduce the impact of stigma on poor psychosocial health outcomes.
TCR specific antibodies may modulate the TCR engagement with antigen-MHC complexes, and in turn regulate in vivo T-cell responses to allo-antigens. Herein, we found that in vivo administration of mAbs specific for mouse TCRβ (H57-597), TCRα, or CD3 promptly reduced the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in normal mice, but H57-597 mAb most potently increased the frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells. When mice were injected with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) superantigen and H57-597 mAb, the expansion of SEB-reactive Vβ8+ T-cells was completely abrogated while SEB-non-reactive Vβ2+ T-cells remained unaffected. More importantly, transient H57-597 mAb treatment exerted long-lasting effect in preventing T-cell responses to allo-antigens, and produced long-term cardiac allograft survival (>100 days) in 10 out of 11 recipients. While Treg cells were involved in maintaining donor-specific long-term graft survival, T-cell homeostasis recovered over time and immunity was retained against third party allografts. Moreover, transient H57-597 mAb treatment significantly prolonged survival of skin allografts in naïve recipients as well as heart allografts in skin-sensitized recipients. Thus, transient modulation of the TCRβ chain by H57-597 mAb exhibits potent, long-lasting therapeutic effects to control allo-immune responses.
tolerance; T-cell receptor; T regulatory cells; allograft survival
To investigate whether radiofrequency (RF) ablation with low power (LP) or maximal power (MP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can achieve optimal ablation and fewer adverse effects.
RF ablation was performed with MP in 101 patients (129 tumours) and with LP in 46 patients (61 tumours). MP RF ablation used power of >120 W. RF power below this was designated as LP. Clinical outcomes were also analysed in subgroups of high-risk tumours near the bile duct and blood vessels.
Primary effectiveness was achieved in 91.8% in the LP group and 89.9% in the MP group (p=0.795). 1 and 2-year local tumour progression rates were 28% and 30%, respectively, in the LP group, and 24% and 29%, respectively, in the MP group (p=0.70). 1 and 2-year survival rates were 98% and 98%, respectively, in the LP group, and 93% and 90%, respectively, in the MP group (p=0.216). The MP group had more adverse effects, with post-RF ablation syndrome, asymptomatic pleural effusion and ascites, than the LP group (20% vs 39% in the MP group; p=0.027); however, there was no significant difference in major complication rates (6% in the MP and LP groups; p=0.497). Among the patients with high-risk tumours, RF ablation using MP vs LP was comparable in primary effectiveness (91.7% vs 95.2%; p=0.618), local tumour progression (42.9% vs 29.2%; p=0.304) and overall complications (5% vs 8%; p=0.618).
RF ablation with LP and MP are comparable in clinical outcomes but considerably fewer adverse effects were encountered in the LP group.
Prohibitin, which can inhibit oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, has been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we investigate the effects of altering prohibitin levels in affected tissues in the interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mouse model with intestinal fibrosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of IL-10 on prohibitin and the role of prohibitin in intestinal fibrosis of murine colitis. After the mice were treated with IL-10, prohibitin expression and localization were evaluated in IL-10KO and wild-type (WT, 129/SvEv) mice. The colon tissue was then investigated and the potential pathogenic molecular mechanisms were further studied. Fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assays revealed a significant upregulation of prohibitin with IL-10 treatment. Furthermore, IL-10 decreases inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β1 in the IL-10KO model of Crohn's disease and demonstrates a promising trend in decreasing tissue fibrosis. In conclusion, we hypothesize that IL-10 treatment is associated with increased prohibitin and would decrease inflammation and fibrosis in an animal model of Crohn's disease. Interestingly, prohibitin may be a potential target for intestinal fibrosis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Recently, strategies for AML therapy have been developed that target anti-apoptotic BCL2 family members using BH3 mimetic drugs such as ABT-737. Though effective against BCL2 and BCL-XL, ABT-737 poorly inhibits MCL-1. Here we report that, unexpectedly, ABT-737 induces activation of ERK and induction of MCL-1 in AML cells. MEK inhibitors such as PD0325901 and CI-1040 have been used successfully to suppress MCL-1. We report that PD0325901 blocked ABT-737 –induced MCL-1 expression and when combined with ABT-737 resulted in potent synergistic killing of AML derived cell lines, primary AML blast and CD34+38−123+ progenitor/stem cells. Finally, we tested the combination of ABT-737 and CI-1040 in a murine xenograft model using MOLM-13 human leukemia cells. While control and CI-1040 treated mice exhibited progressive leukemia growth, ABT-737 and, to a significantly greater extent, ABT-737 + CI-1040 exerted major anti-leukemia activity. Collectively, results demonstrate unexpected anti-apoptotic interaction between the BCL2 family-targeted BH3 mimetic ABT-737 and MAPK signaling in AML cells: the BH3 mimetic is not only restrained in its activity by MCL-1, but also induces it’s expression. However, concomitant inhibition by BH3 mimetics and MEK inhibitors could abrogate this effect and may be developed into a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for patients with AML.
MCL-1; ABT-737; BH3 mimetic; AML; ERK; Apoptosis
Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Results. Morphologically, the group receiving acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments had larger total nerve area and blood vessel number compared with the controls. Electrophysiologically, the group receiving electroacupuncture had significantly larger amplitude and larger area of the evoked muscle action potentials compared with the controls. Functionally, the acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments enhanced the injured paw's ability to regain its grasping power and resulted in a faster efficiency to a new bilateral balance.
Conclusion. Our findings provide multiapproach evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments to the regeneration of median nerve. Indeed, acupuncture and electroacupuncture appear to have positive effects on the regeneration processes. This platform is beneficial to further study the clinical application of acupuncture and electroacupuncture alternative treatments on nerve-injured patients.
We present the case of a 79-year-old female with symptomatic cavernous haemangioma of the liver. The patient had experienced progressive right lateral abdominal pain for years despite increased painkiller use. Surgical resection or transarterial embolisation was not recommended because of the patient’s age, cardiovascular comorbidities and large tumour size. Therefore, the patient was treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (RT) with a total dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions. Following RT, the painkillers were tapered from the third month, and complete symptomatic remission was achieved after the ninth month. The measured tumour volume from serial images pre-RT and 3, 9 and 15 months post-RT was 400 ml, 372 ml, 185 ml and 140 ml, respectively. The most dramatic volumetric reduction was found between 3 and 9 months post-RT, whereas the change before or after this period was minimal. The time course of the radiological volumetric changes correlated with that of the clinical symptoms. In addition, the observed vascular changes on serial imaging studies were consistent with the assumed radiobiological effects after fractionated RT.
Turner syndrome; renal failure; dialysis modality
Curcumin has very broad spectrum of biological activities; however, photodegradation, short half-life and low bioavailability have limited its clinical application. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were studied to overcome these problems. The aim of this study was to optimize the best formulation on curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Emulsion-evaporation and low temperature-solidification technique was applied with monostearin as lipid carriers. The single factor analysis and orthogonal design were used to optimize formulation and various parameters were investigate. By the optimisation of a single factor analysis and orthogonal test, the particles size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading capacity of the optimised formulation were 99.99 nm, 0.158, −19.9 mV, 97.86%, and 4.35%, respectively. The differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis results demonstrated new structure was formed in nanoparticles. The release kinetics in vitro demonstrated curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles can control drug release. These studies confirmed that curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles could be prepared successfully with high drug entrapment efficiency and loading capacity. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles may be a promising drug delivery system to control drug release and improve bioavailability.
Curcumin; preparation; release; solid lipid nanoparticles
Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive agent routinely used in organ transplantation, but also paradoxically, exerts antiviral and anti-tumor activities. Pathogen-specific memory CD8+ T cell (TCD8) responses were recently found to be augmented by rapamycin. However, whether rapamycin influences the magnitude and quality of anticancer TCD8 responses is unknown. Importantly, how rapamycin may regulate simultaneous virus/tumor-specific and alloreactive TCD8 in the same host remains unexplored. To answer these questions, we primed wild-type mice with allogeneic cells concomitantly expressing simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T Ag), a viral oncoprotein with well-defined epitopes. Rapamycin selectively enhanced the cross-priming of TCD8 specific for T Ag’s most immunodominant epitope called site IV but not TCD8 alloreactivity. Rapamycin-treated mice also had a high percentage of splenic CD127highKLRG1low TCD8 as well as an increased frequency of site IV-specific T cells long after the peak of their primary response. When site IV was presented as a cytosolic minigene encoded by a recombinant vaccinia virus, rapamycin failed to boost the site IV-specific response. Therefore, the nature and presentation mode of antigen determine the susceptibility to the adjuvant effect of rapamycin. Our findings reveal the unexpected benefit of rapamycin treatment in recipients of allografts co-expressing tumor/viral Ags.
Rapamycin; mTOR; CD8+ T cells; alloreactivity; anti-tumor response; memory
SF-1 (Steroidogenic Factor 1, NR5A1) is a tissue-specific transcription factor critical for the growth, development and differentiation of steroidogenic and a few other endocrine tissues. But how SF-1 regulates cell growth is not entirely clear. Here we found that SF-1 was localized to the centrosome in addition to the nucleus, and SF-1 depletion by shRNA caused centrosome over-duplication, aberrant mitosis and genomic instability, leading to a reduction of cell number. Centrosome amplification defect was rescued by both wild-type SF-1 and transcription-defective SF-1-G35E, suggesting a non-genomic activity of SF-1 involved in centrosome homeostasis. In addition, we identified in SF-1 a centrosome localization signal, whose overexpression led to reduced localization of both SF-1 and γ-tubulin to the centrosome. Our results uncover a novel role of SF-1 in the control of centrosome homeostasis and genomic stability.
adrenal growth; centrosome amplification; NR5A1; γ-tubulin; centrosome localization signal
We recently identified Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2), a mammalian homolog of Grainyhead in Drosophila, to be a novel transcription factor that regulates hTERT gene expression and enhances proliferation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). In the current study, we show that GRHL2 impairs keratinocyte differentiation through transcriptional inhibition of the genes clustered at the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), located at chromosome 1q21. Gene expression profiling and subsequent in vitro assays revealed consistent downregulation of EDC genes, for example, IVL, KRT1, FLG, LCEs, and SPRRs, in NHEK expressing exogenous GRHL2. In vivo binding assay by chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed GRHL2 association at the promoter regions of its target genes, many of which belong to EDC. Exogenous GRHL2 expression also inhibited recruitment of histone demethylase Jmjd3 to the EDC gene promoters and enhanced the level of histone 3 Lys 27 trimethylation enrichment at these promoters. Survey of GRHL2 expression in human skin tissues demonstrated enhanced protein and mRNA levels in chronic skin lesions with impaired keratinocyte differentiation, for example, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, compared with normal epidermis. These data indicate that GRHL2 impairs epidermal differentiation by inhibiting EDC gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms and support its role in the hyperproliferative skin diseases.
epidermal differentiation complex; epigenetic; GRHL2; histone methylation; keratinocyte
Vortex domain patterns in low-dimensional ferroelectrics and multiferroics have been extensively studied with the aim of developing nanoscale functional devices. However, control of the vortex domain structure has not been investigated systematically. Taking into account effects of inhomogeneous electromechanical fields, ambient temperature, surface and size, we demonstrate significant influence of mechanical load on the vortex domain structure in ferroelectric nanoplatelets. Our analysis shows that the size and number of dipole vortices can be controlled by mechanical load, and yields rich temperature-stress (T-S) phase diagrams. Simulations also reveal that transformations between “vortex states” induced by the mechanical load are possible, which is totally different from the conventional way controlled on the vortex domain by the electric field. These results are relevant to application of vortex domain structures in ferroelectric nanodevices, and suggest a novel route to applications including memories, mechanical sensors and transducers.
Effects of highly hygroscopic sorbitol, citric acid, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, on the hydrolysis of simvastatin in tablets at 25°/90% RH were studied. The simvastatin tablets were prepared by direct powder compression. Simvastatin and its hydrolyte, simvastatin acid, were quantitatively analysed by high performance liquid chromotography. The hygroscopicity, water swelling ratio, water solubility and pH of the four hygroscopic excipients were investigated. During the investigation period, the weight gain of sorbitol or citric acid increased faster than that of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose at 25°/90% RH, accordingly, the moisture sorption of the tablets containing citric acid or sorbitol (T-3 or T-6) were more than that of the tablets containing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (T-4 or T-5). The increase of simvastatin acid content with time at 25°/90% RH for the tablets was in the following order: T-6 < T-4 < T-3 < T-5. The effects of the four excipients on the hydrolysis of simvastatin in tablet were related to not only their hygroscopicity but also their other properties, such as moisture retention capacity and pH. Sorbitol as hygroscopic excipient in tablet can most effectively prevent the hydrolysis of simvastatin in tablet.
Excipients; hydrolysis; hygroscopicity; simvastatin; tablets
This study investigated the stroke risk in patients with head and neck cancers (HNCs) using population-based data.
From claims collected in the Taiwan National Health Insurance database, we identified 13 390 HNC patients with diagnosis made in 2000–2002. A reference cohort of 53 517 non-cancer individuals matched for age, gender, and stroke risk factors was used for assessing stroke risk in follow-up to 2008.
The overall stroke incidence was 1.44-fold higher in the HNC than in the reference cohort (11.4 vs 7.9 per 1000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40–1.68) for ischaemic stroke and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.09–1.69) for haemorrhagic stroke. The cancer-to-reference stroke incidence rate ratio was age dependent and the highest in the age group younger than 40 years (5.45, 95% CI: 3.78–7.87) and decreased with aging. Comparing different therapeutic modalities, HNC patients receiving both radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) had the highest stroke risk (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.22–1.74), followed in sequence by those who had CT alone, RT alone, and without therapy.
Patients with HNC are at increased risk of developing stroke, especially in the young age group and in those who received both RT and CT.
epidemiology; head and neck cancers; incidence; population-based study; stroke
The Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention trial found an association between baseline poststroke homocysteine (Hcy) and recurrent stroke. We investigated genes for enzymes and cofactors in the Hcy metabolic pathway for association with Hcy and determined whether associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influenced recurrent stroke risk.
Eighty-six SNPs in 9 candidate genes (BHMT1, BHMT2, CBS, CTH, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, TCN1, and TCN2) were genotyped in 2,206 subjects (83% European American). Associations with Hcy measures were assessed using linear regression models assuming an additive genetic model, adjusting for age, sex, and race and additionally for baseline Hcy when postmethionine load change was assessed. Associations with recurrent stroke were evaluated using survival analyses.
Five SNPs in the transcobalamin 2 (TCN2) gene were associated with baseline Hcy (false discovery rate [FDR]–adjusted p = 0.049). TCN2 SNP rs731991 was associated with recurrent stroke risk in the low-dose arm of the trial under a recessive model (log-rank test p = 0.009, hazard ratio 0.34). Associations with change in postmethionine load Hcy levels were found with 5 SNPs in the cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene (FDR-adjusted p < 0.031).
TCN2 variants contribute to poststroke Hcy levels, whereas variants in the CBS gene influence Hcy metabolism. Variation in the TCN2 gene also affects recurrent stroke risk in response to cofactor therapy.
Mutations in GLIS3, which encodes a Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor, were found to underlie sporadic neonatal diabetes. Inactivation of Glis3 by gene targeting in mice was previously shown to lead to neonatal diabetes, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of action of GLIS family zinc finger 3 (GLIS3) in Glis3−/− mice and to further decipher its action in in-vitro systems.
We created Glis3−/− mice and monitored the morphological and biochemical phenotype of their pancreatic islets at different stages of embryonic development. We combined these observations with experiments on Glis3 expressed in cultured cells, as well as in in vitro systems in the presence of other reconstituted components.
In vivo and in vitro analyses placed Glis3 upstream of Neurog3, the endocrine pancreas lineage-defining transcription factor. We found that GLIS3 binds to specific GLIS3-response elements in the Neurog3 promoter, activating Neurog3 gene transcription both directly, and synergistically with hepatic nuclear factor 6 and forkhead box A2.
These results indicate that GLIS3 controls fetal islet differentiation via direct transactivation of Neurog3, a perturbation that causes neonatal diabetes in mice.
GLIS3; Neonatal diabetes; Neurog3; Pancreatic islet differentiation
Oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are both suggested to be involved in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy of cardiomyocytes and high-affinity O2−• and Zn2+ probes, this study is the first to show that I/R, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) all cause a marked increase in the [O2−•]i, resulting in cytosolic and mitochondrial Zn2+ release. Exposure to a cell-penetrating, high-affinity Zn2+i chelator, TPEN, largely abolished the Zn2+i release and markedly protected myocytes from I/R-, ROS-, RNS-, or Zn2+/K+ (Zn2+i supplementation)-induced myocyte apoptosis for at least 24 h after TPEN removal. Flavonoids and U0126 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) largely inhibited the myocyte apoptosis and the TPEN-sensitive I/R- or Zn2+i supplement-induced persistent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, dephosphorylation of p-Ser9 on glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and the translocation into and accumulation of p-Tyr216 GSK-3β and p53 in, the nucleus. Silencing of GSK-3β or p53 expression was cardioprotective, indicating that activation of the ERK–GSK-3β–p53 signaling pathway is involved in Zn2+-sensitive myocyte death. Moreover, the ERK-dependent Noxa–myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) pathway is also involved, as silencing of Noxa expression was cardioprotective and U0126 abolished both the increase in Noxa expression and in Mcl-1 degradation. Thus, acute upstream Zn2+i chelation at the start of reperfusion and the use of natural products, that is, flavonoids, may be beneficial in the treatment of cardiac I/R injury.
I/R injury; zinc; TPEN; flavonoids; GSK-3β; Noxa
The synchronisation of time and frequency between remote locations is crucial for many important applications. Conventional time and frequency dissemination often makes use of satellite links. Recently, the communication fibre network has become an attractive option for long-distance time and frequency dissemination. Here, we demonstrate accurate frequency transfer and time synchronisation via an 80 km fibre link between Tsinghua University (THU) and the National Institute of Metrology of China (NIM). Using a 9.1 GHz microwave modulation and a timing signal carried by two continuous-wave lasers and transferred across the same 80 km urban fibre link, frequency transfer stability at the level of 5×10−19/day was achieved. Time synchronisation at the 50 ps precision level was also demonstrated. The system is reliable and has operated continuously for several months. We further discuss the feasibility of using such frequency and time transfer over 1000 km and its applications to long-baseline radio astronomy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between extended-release (ER) fluvastatin tablet and its immediate-release (IR) capsule in Chinese healthy subjects. This was an open-label, single/multiple-dose, two-period, two-treatment, crossover, randomized trial with a minimum washout period of 7 days. Twenty healthy male adult subjects were given fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD by oral administration or fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID for seven days. Blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing on day 1 and day 7. Serum concentrations of fluvastatin were determined by LC-MS/MS. For fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD, Cmax was 61.0 ± 39.0 and 63.9 ± 29.7 ng/mL, and AUC0−24 h was 242 ± 156 and 253 ± 91.1 ng·h/mL on day 1 and 7, respectively. For fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID, Cmax was 283 ± 271 and 382 ± 255 ng/mL, and AUC0−24 h was 720 ± 776 and 917 ± 994 ng·h/mL on day 1 and day 7, respectively. The relative bioavailability of fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD to fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID is (45.3 ± 23.9)% and (43.3 ± 24.1)% on day 1 and day 7, respectively. Tmax for fluvastatin ER tablet was 2.50 and 2.60 h and for capsule was 0.78 and 0.88 h on day 1 and day 7, respectively. In the first period, compared to baseline, cholesterol decreased 15.3% in fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD and 16.9% in fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID. Triglyceride decreased 3.7% in fluvastatin ER tablet 80 mg QD and 19.1% in fluvastatin IR capsule 40 mg BID. The difference has no statistical significance at P > 0.05 in reduction percent of cholesterol and triglyceride between the two groups. No adverse events were recorded. The results indicated that Cmax of fluvastatin ER tablet is reduced and Tmax is prolonged compared with IR capsule. There is no accumulation for ER formulation after multiple doses.
In the title compound, C20H20N2, the quinoxaline ring adopts a very distorted half-chair conformation [N=C—C=N = 22.7 (2)° for the nominally coplanar atoms] and the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The quinoxaline and cyclohexane rings are cis-fused. The two phenyl rings form a dihedral angle of 63.88 (7)°.