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author:("Yang, mianmin")
1.  Impact of guidewire selection and operator expertise on radiation exposure in transradial angiography 
Background
Several studies have implied that the time of radiation exposure for patients and operators during the transradial approach for coronary angiography (TRA) is associated with the use of different guidewire or catheter and operator’s finesse. This study aimed to assess the effects of non-hydrophilic or hydrophilic guidewire and operator expertise on fluoroscopy time and procedure time of TRA and further effects on the procedure safety.
Methods
A total of 1035 consecutive patients undergoing TRA were recruited prospectively and respectively divided into non-hydrophilic guidewire and hydrophilic guidewire group, or well-experienced group and less-experienced group. The primary endpoints were fluoroscopy time and procedure time. Secondary endpoints included contrast volume, cost, guidewire exchange, switchover and complications.
Results
TRA by non-hydrophilic guidewire group showed shorter fluoroscopy time and procedure time compared with hydrophilic guidewire group, similar results were found between well-experienced group and less-experienced group. Moreover, using of non-hydrophilic guidewire significantly reduced the incidence of hematoma and abnormal guidewie advancement, well-experienced group showed less dosage of contrast volume, lower incidence of radial artery spasm and frequency of guidewire exchange.
Conclusions
TRA by non-hydrophilic guidewire and well-experienced operator can decrease radiation exposure of patients and operators through reducing the fluoroscopy time and procedure time and further increase procedure safety. These will contribute to the optimization of TRA procedure and promote its widely application.
doi:10.1186/s13019-014-0194-5
PMCID: PMC4265418  PMID: 25477256
Coronary angiography; Transradial approach; Fluoroscopy time; Procedure time
2.  A Compact Immunoassay Platform Based on a Multicapillary Glass Plate 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2014;14(5):9132-9144.
A highly sensitive, rapid immunoassay performed in the multi-channels of a micro-well array consisting of a multicapillary glass plate (MCP) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slide is described. The micro-dimensions and large surface area of the MCP permitted the diffusion distance to be decreased and the reaction efficiency to be increased. To confirm the concept of the method, human immunoglobulin A (h-IgA) was measured using both the proposed immunoassay system and the traditional 96-well plate method. The proposed method resulted in a 1/5-fold decrease of immunoassay time, and a 1/56-fold cut in reagent consumption with a 0.05 ng/mL of limit of detection (LOD) for IgA. The method was also applied to saliva samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The results correlated well to those obtained by the 96-well plate method. The method has the potential for use in disease diagnostic or on-site immunoassays.
doi:10.3390/s140509132
PMCID: PMC4063063  PMID: 24859022
multicapillary glass plate; compact immunoassay; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
3.  Diagnostic Yield of the Light Blue Crest Sign in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92874.
Background
The diagnostic yield of light blue crest(LBC) sign, which was observed by narrow band imaging with magnification endoscopy(NBI-ME), in detecting gastric intestinal metaplasia(IM) has shown variable results.
Objective
We aimed to assess the diagnostic value of LBC under NBI-ME for detecting gastric IM.
Methods
We performed a literature search of the Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct and the Cochrane Library Databases; and a meta-analysis of pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and SROC area under the curve, using fixed- and random-effects models, for the accuracy of LBC-based IM diagnosis.
Results
We initially included 4 articles, but excluded 1 article to counter significant heterogeneity. When pooled, the remaining 3 articles, which included 247 patients with 721 lesions, showed the following patterns in IM diagnosis: sensitivity: 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86–0.92); specificity: 0.90 (95% CI 0.86–0.93), positive likelihood ratio: 8.98 (95% CI 6.42–12.58), negative likelihood ratio: 0.12 (95% CI 0.09–0.16), and SROC area under the curve: 0.9560.
Limitations
As the studies varied by their definitions for positive LBC, endoscopy types, biopsy protocols, race of patient cohort, and physicians' proficiency, some sample sizes were limited so that subgroup analyses could not be performed.
Conclusion
We concluded that observing LBC under NBI-ME is an accurate and precise means of diagnosing gastric IM.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092874
PMCID: PMC3962461  PMID: 24658503
4.  FISH+CD34+CD38- cells detected in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients can predict the clinical outcome 
Background
In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the leukemia initiating cells (LICs) or leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is found within the CD34+CD38- cell compartment. The LICs subpopulation survives chemotherapy and is most probable the cause of minimal residual disease (MRD), which in turn is thought to cause relapse. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of the percentage of LICs in blasts at diagnosis.
Design and methods
The percentage of LICs in the blast population was determined at diagnosis using a unique Flow-FISH analysis, which applies fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on flow cytometry sorted cells to distinguish LICs within the CD34+CD38- cell compartment. Fourty-five AML patients with FISH-detectable cytogenetic abnormalities treated with standardized treatment program were retrospectively included in the study. Correlations with overall survival (OS), events-free survival (EFS) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analysis.
Results
The percentage of LICs is highly variable in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, ranged from 0.01% to 52.8% (median, 2.1%). High LIC load (≥1%) negatively affected overall survival (2-year OS: 72.57% vs. 16.75%; P = 0.0037) and events-free survival (2-year EFS: 67.23% vs. 16.33%; P = 0.0018), which was due to an increased cumulative incidence of relapse (2-year CIR: 56.7% vs. 18.0%; P = 0.021). By multivariate analysis, high LIC load retained prognostic significance for OS and EFS.
Conclusions
In the present study, we established the Flow-FISH protocol as a useful method to distinguish normal and leukemic cells within the CD34+CD38- cell subpopulation. The high percentage of LICs at diagnosis was significantly correlated with increased risk of poor clinical outcome.
doi:10.1186/1756-8722-6-85
PMCID: PMC4028871  PMID: 24517186
Acute myeloid leukemia; Leukemia initiating cells; Minimal residual disease
5.  Concurrent Infection of Hepatitis B Virus Negatively Affects the Clinical Outcome and Prognosis of Patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma after Chemotherapy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69400.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hepatotropic and lymphotropic. HBV-infected individuals have an increased risk of developing malignant lymphoma, and the HBV infection rate in lymphoma patients is significantly higher than that in the general population. However, the exact mechanism and correlation between HBV infection and lymphoma onset and progression currently remain unclear. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients with different HBV infection statuses. The results showed that the HBV infection rate was significantly higher in patients with B-cell type and late stage of NHL. The chemotherapy efficacy for NHL patients with chronic active HBV infection was significantly lower than that for the patients with chronic inactive HBV infection, the patients with HBV carriers and the patients without HBV infection. In addition, the NHL chemotherapy activated HBV replication and caused significant liver dysfunction, which could further reduce the chemotherapy efficacy. Through Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank analysis, we found that the HBV infection status in NHL patients was significantly correlated with the patients’ progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Compared with the patients without HBV infection (PFS: 95% CI 47.915 to 55.640; OS: 95% CI 81.324 to 86.858), the PFS and OS of the patients with chronic active HBV infection were significantly shorter (PFS: 95% CI 9.424 to 42.589, P < 0.001; OS: 95% CI 42.840 to 82.259, P = 0.006). The study demonstrated that the sustained HBV replication in patients with chronic active HBV infection could be a key factor that influences the prognosis of NHL patients after chemotherapy, and thus may provide information for designing rational clinical treatments for NHL patients with different HBV infection statuses and improve the treatment efficacy and prognosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069400
PMCID: PMC3704665  PMID: 23861969
6.  Cold Exposure Promotes Atherosclerotic Plaque Growth and Instability via UCP1-Dependent Lipolysis 
Cell Metabolism  2013;18(1):118-129.
Summary
Molecular mechanisms underlying the cold-associated high cardiovascular risk remain unknown. Here, we show that the cold-triggered food-intake-independent lipolysis significantly increased plasma levels of small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) remnants, leading to accelerated development of atherosclerotic lesions in mice. In two genetic mouse knockout models (apolipoprotein E−/− [ApoE−/−] and LDL receptor−/− [Ldlr−/−] mice), persistent cold exposure stimulated atherosclerotic plaque growth by increasing lipid deposition. Furthermore, marked increase of inflammatory cells and plaque-associated microvessels were detected in the cold-acclimated ApoE−/− and Ldlr−/− mice, leading to plaque instability. Deletion of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a key mitochondrial protein involved in thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), in the ApoE−/− strain completely protected mice from the cold-induced atherosclerotic lesions. Cold acclimation markedly reduced plasma levels of adiponectin, and systemic delivery of adiponectin protected ApoE−/− mice from plaque development. These findings provide mechanistic insights on low-temperature-associated cardiovascular risks.
Graphical Abstract
Highlights
•Cold activates lipolysis and increases blood levels of VLDL and LDL remnants•Cold-induced hypercholesterolemia promotes plaque growth and instability•Deletion of Ucp1 attenuates cold-induced lipolysis, plaque growth, and instability•Cold acclimation reduces plasma adiponectin levels
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.06.003
PMCID: PMC3701322  PMID: 23823482
7.  Impact of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms on Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Risk 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63309.
Background
Genetic factors in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies have received a lot attention during the past two decades. Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms were found to be associated with cardiomyopathies. However, the previous results were inconsistent. The current meta-analysis aims to examine the association of ACE I/D polymorphisms and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Methods
Eight studies on DCM (1387 controls and 977 patients) and eight studies on HCM (1055 controls and 827 patients) were included in this meta-analysis.
Results
The overall data showed no significant association between ACE I/D polymorphism and DCM risk. Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity also did not find a significantly increased risk for D allele carriers among East Asians and Europeans. However, the overall analysis suggested that the D allele carriers might be associated with increased risk of HCM (DD/ID vs. II: OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.04–2.74, P = 0.03).
Conclusion
In summary, the meta-analysis indicated that certain ACE I/D polymorphism might be associated with HCM but not DCM susceptibility. Given the limited sample sizes, further large multicenter case-control investigation is needed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063309
PMCID: PMC3653933  PMID: 23691019
8.  Common variants in adiponectin gene are associated with coronary artery disease and angiographical severity of coronary atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes 
Background
Adiponectin, an adipokine facilitating insulin action, has antiatherogenic effects. This study investigated whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene influenced plasma adiponectin level and whether they were associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its angiographical severity in type 2 diabetes in Chinese population.
Methods
11 tagging SNPs were genotyped in 1110 subjects with or without CAD in type 2 diabetes. Variants of adiponectin gene were determined by Taqman polymerase chain reaction method. The plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity and extent of coronary atherosclerosis were assessed using the angiographic Gensini score and Sullivan Extent score.
Results
Among the 11 SNPs, the minor G allele of SNP rs266729 was significantly associated with higher odds of CAD (odds ratio (95% CI) = 1.49 (1.10 - 2.16), P = 0.022) after adjusting for covariates. In stepwise multivariate logistic regression, SNP rs266729 was a significant independent factor of CAD. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that rs266729 (β = −0.101, P < 0.0001), rs182052 (β = −0.044, P = 0.0035), and rs1501299 (β = 0.073, P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with adiponectin level, and also indicated that the minor G allele of SNP rs266729 had higher Gensini score (β = 0.139, P < 0.001) and Sullivan Extent score (β = 0.107, P < 0.001). Haplotypes analysis revealed different haplotype distributions in case and control subjects (P = 0.0003), with two common haplotypes GGG and GAG of the rs266729, rs182052, and rs1501299 being associated in heterozygotes with a greater than threefold increase in cardiovascular risk (odds ratio (95% CI)=3.39 (1.83 - 6.30), P = 0.0001).
Conclusions
In our population, genetic variants in the adiponectin gene influence plasma adiponectin levels, and one of them is a strong determinant of CAD susceptibility and its angiographical severity in type 2 diabetes. This study has provided further evidence for a role of adiponectin in the development of CAD.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-67
PMCID: PMC3648457  PMID: 23590551
Adiponectin; Genetics; Coronary artery disease; Angiography; Gensini score; Sullivan Extent score; Single nucleotide polymorphism
9.  Overexpression of heparanase multiple antigenic peptide 2 is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer: Potential for therapy 
Oncology Letters  2012;4(1):178-182.
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) trigger a TAA-specific immune response, thus they are the crux of antitumor immunosurveillance. A major advance in tumor immunology in the last 20 years was marked by the verification that CTL or B-cell epitopes rather than integral TAAs induce immunoreactivity. Previous studies on the correlation between heparanase (Hpa) expression and clinical or pathological features have generally used commercial antibodies against full-length Hpa protein rather than the functional epitopes, and the antigen determinants of such antibodies have not yet been defined. In our investigation of Hpa peptide expression in gastric cancer tissues and its association with tumor invasion, metastasis and prognosis, we analyzed Hpa expression in the tissues of 132 patients with gastric cancer using tissue microarray (TMA) technology and immunohistochemical staining. Three self-developed rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Hpa multiple antigenic peptides (MAP) and one commercial polyclonal rabbit antibody against the 50-8 kDa Hpa heterodimer were used. Clinical and pathological significance was evaluated using the Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. The results demonstrated that the positivity rates using the antibody against MAP2 and the commercial antibody were 60.6% (80/132) and 65.2% (86/132), respectively. No expression of either MAP1 or MAP3 was noted in the cancer tissues of the 132 cases. MAP2 behaved in a similar manner to the commercial antibody in that a higher Hpa expression was observed in the cancer tissues with vessel invasion, serosal involvement, distant metastasis, poor differentiation and TNM stages III and IV. Moreover, the patients with a positive Hpa expression had a far poorer prognosis, with lower one-year and five-year survival rates. Our results demonstrate that in a similar manner to full-length Hpa proteins, MAP2 expression is closely associated with the invasion, metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer. This finding may be of potential use in clinical therapy and in estimating the prognosis of a tumor.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.703
PMCID: PMC3398369  PMID: 22807984
gastric cancer; heparanase; immunopathology; tissue chip; prognosis
10.  Statins Induce the Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells in Atherosclerotic Plaque 
Molecular Medicine  2012;18(1):598-605.
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate immune suppression and prevent autoimmune disorders. Recently, Tregs were found to present in atherosclerotic lesions and play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Statins have immunomodulatory properties, and the effect of statins on atherosclerosis depends in part on their immunomodulatory mechanisms. We sought to determine whether statins exhibit an effect on Tregs in atherosclerotic plaques and in peripheral circulation of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In an in vivo experiment, we induced atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. The mice were randomly divided into two groups for 6-wk treatment: simvastatin (50 mg/kg/d) or vehicle (control). Simvastatin significantly increased the number of Tregs and the expression of Treg marker Foxp3 (Forkhead/winged helix transcription factor), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and interleukin (IL)-10 in atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, simvastatin played an important role in modulating the balance between antiinflammatory (Tregs and Th2 cells) and proinflammatory (Th17 and Th1 cells) subsets of T cells. In an in vitro experiment, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from patients with ACS and incubated with simvastatin. After an incubation for 96 h, simvastatin significantly enhanced the frequency and functional suppressive properties of Tregs. Therefore, statin treatment may influence Tregs in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, statins improved the quantity and suppressive function of Tregs in ACS patients.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2011.00471
PMCID: PMC3388131  PMID: 22331026
11.  Impairment of Select Forms of Spatial Memory and Neurotrophin-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity by Deletion of Glial Aquaporin-4 
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel in the central nervous system (CNS) and is primarily expressed in astrocytes. Little is known about the potential for AQP4 to influence synaptic plasticity, although many studies have shown that it regulates the response of the CNS to injury. Therefore, we evaluated long-term potentiation (LTP), and long-term depression (LTD) in AQP4 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. KO mice exhibited a selective defect in LTP and LTD without a change in basal transmission or short-term plasticity. Interestingly, the impairment in LTP in KO mice was specific for the type of LTP that depends on the neurotrophin BDNF, which is induced by stimulation at theta rhythm (TBS-LTP), but there was no impairment in a form of LTP that is BDNF-independent, induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS-LTP). LTD was also impaired in KO mice, which was rescued by a scavenger of BDNF or blockade of Trk receptors. TrkB receptors, which mediate effects of BDNF on TBS-LTP, were not altered in KO mice, but p75NTR, the receptor that binds all neurotrophins and has been implicated in some types of LTD, was decreased. The KO mice also exhibited a cognitive defect, which suggests a new role for AQP4 and astrocytes in normal cognitive function. This defect was evident using a test for location-specific object memory but not Morris water maze or contextual fear conditioning. The results suggest that AQP4 channels in astrocytes play an unanticipated role in neurotrophin-dependent plasticity and influence behavior.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6249-10.2011
PMCID: PMC3107562  PMID: 21525279
astrocyte; long-term potentiation (LTP); long-term depression (LTD); brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); p75NTR
12.  Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(5):e10638.
The epidemiology and possibly the etiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have recently been recognized to be heterogeneous. In particular, three types [classical (C) and two atypical (H, L)] have been identified, largely on the basis of characteristics of the proteinase K (PK)-resistant core of the misfolded prion protein associated with the disease (PrPres). The present study was conducted to characterize the 17 Canadian BSE cases which occurred prior to November 2009 based on the molecular and biochemical properties of their PrPres, including immunoreactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profile and relative PK sensitivity. Two cases exhibited molecular weight and glycoform profiles similar to those of previously reported atypical cases, one corresponding to H-type BSE (case 6) and the other to L-type BSE (case 11). All other cases were classified as C-type. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance in both of these cases compared to the C-type cases. With Western immunoblotting, N-terminal-specific antibodies bound to PrPres from case 6 but not to that from case 11 or C-type cases. C-terminal-specific antibodies revealed a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth protein fragment in case 6, indicative of two PrPres subpopulations in H-type BSE. No mutations suggesting a genetic etiology were found in any of the 17 animals by sequencing the full PrP-coding sequence in exon 3 of the PRNP gene. Thus, each of the three known BSE types have been confirmed in Canadian cattle and show molecular characteristics highly similar to those of classical and atypical BSE cases described from Europe, Japan and the USA. The occurrence of atypical cases of BSE in countries such as Canada with low BSE prevalence and transmission risk argues for the occurrence of sporadic forms of BSE worldwide.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010638
PMCID: PMC2871047  PMID: 20498835
13.  Neuronal release of proBDNF 
Nature neuroscience  2009;12(2):113-115.
Pro–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and mature BDNF utilize distinct receptors to mediate divergent neuronal actions. Using new tools to quantitate endogenous BDNF isoforms, we found that mouse neurons secrete both proBDNF and mature BDNF. The highest levels of proBDNF and p75 were observed perinatally and declined, but were still detectable, in adulthood. Thus, BDNF actions are developmentally regulated by secretion of proBDNF or mature BDNF and by local expression of p75 and TrkB.
doi:10.1038/nn.2244
PMCID: PMC2737352  PMID: 19136973
14.  A homoharringtonine-based induction regimen for the treatment of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a single center experience from China 
Background and purpose
The response to remission induction in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poor. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a plant alkaloid, homoharringtonine, in combination with cytarabine as an induction therapy for AML in elderly patients (≥60 years).
Results
Twenty-three patients were treated with the HA regimen consisting of homoharringtonine (2 mg/m2/day for 7 days) and cytarabine (Ara-C, 100 mg/m2/day for 7 days). The overall response rate was 56.5% with complete remission (CR) rate of 39.1% and partial remission of 17.4%. There was no early death in this cohort of patients. The estimated median overall survival (OS) time of all patients was (12.0 ± 3.0) months. The estimated OS time of the CR patients was 15 months. The estimated one-year OS rate of all patients treated with HA protocol was (49.3 ± 13.5) %. The estimated one-year OS rate of the CR patients was (62.5 ± 17.1) %.
Conclusion
HA is a suitable induction regimen for elderly patients with AML, with relatively low toxicity and reasonable response rate.
doi:10.1186/1756-8722-2-32
PMCID: PMC2731035  PMID: 19642997
15.  Highly efficient genetic transduction of primary human synoviocytes with concentrated retroviral supernatant 
Arthritis Research  2002;4(3):215-219.
We are developing retroviral-mediated gene transfer to human fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) as one approach to characterizing genetic pathways involved in synoviocyte pathophysiology. Prior work has suggested that FLS are relatively refractory to infection by Moloney murine leukemia virus based vectors. To determine if viral titer influenced the transduction efficiency of FLS, we optimized a rapid, efficient, and inexpensive centrifugation method to concentrate recombinant retroviral supernatant. The technique was evaluated by measurement of the expression of a viral enhanced green fluorescent protein transgene in transduced cells, and by analysis of viral RNA in retroviral supernatant. Concentration (100-fold) was achieved by centrifugation of viral supernatant for four hours, with 100% recovery of viral particles. The transduction of FLS increased from approximately 15% with unconcentrated supernatant, to nearly 50% using concentrated supernatant. This protocol will be useful for investigators with applications that require efficient, stable, high level transgene expression in primary FLS.
PMCID: PMC111025  PMID: 12010573
enhanced green fluorescent protein; fibroblast-like synovial cell; gene therapy; retrovirus; titer
16.  Dendritic cells genetically engineered to express IL-4 inhibit murine collagen-induced arthritis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2001;107(10):1275-1284.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that migrate from the periphery to lymphoid tissues, where they activate and regulate T cells. Genetic modification of DCs to express immunoregulatory molecules would provide a new immunotherapeutic strategy for autoimmune and other diseases. We have engineered bone marrow–derived DCs that express IL-4 and tested the ability of these cells to control murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a model for rheumatoid arthritis in which Th1 cells play a critical role. IL-4–transduced DCs inhibited Th1 responses to collagen type II in vitro. A single injection of IL-4–transduced DCs reduced the incidence and severity of CIA and suppressed established Th1 responses and associated humoral responses, despite only transient persistence of injected DCs in the spleen. In contrast, control DCs and IL-4–transduced T cells or fibroblastic cells failed to alter the course of the disease. The functional effects correlated well with the differential efficiency of DC migration from various sites of injection to lymphoid organs, especially the spleen. The ability of splenic T cells to produce IL-4 in response to anti-CD3 was enhanced after the administration of IL-4–transduced DCs. These results support the feasibility of using genetically modified DCs for the treatment of autoimmune disease.
PMCID: PMC209294  PMID: 11375417
17.  Angiotensin(1–7) attenuates the progression of streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal injury better than angiotensin receptor blockade 
Kidney International  2014;87(2):359-369.
To explore the potential therapeutic effects of angiotensin(1–7) (Ang(1–7)), an endogenous ligand of the Mas receptor, on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a diabetic model group. After 12 weeks, the diabetic rats were divided into subgroups for 4-week treatments consisting of no-treatment group, small-, moderate-, and large-dose Ang(1–7) groups, a valsartan group, a large-dose Ang(1–7) plus valsartan group, and an A779 (antagonist of the Mas receptor) group, each with 15 rats. Ang(1–7) improved renal function, attenuated glomeruli sclerosis, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation, decreased the expression of collagen IV, TGF-β1, VEGF, NOX4, p47phox, PKCα, and PKCβ1, and the phosphorylation of Smad3. In the rat mesangial HBZY-1 cell line, Ang(1–7) decreased high-glucose-induced oxidative stress, the proliferation and expression of NOX4, p47phox, and TGF-β1, the phosphorylation of Smad3, collagen IV, and VEGF, and the membrane translocation of PKCα and PKCβ1. A779 blocked the effects of Ang(1–7) both in vivo and in vitro. The effects of large-dose Ang(1–7) alone and in combination with valsartan were superior to valsartan alone, but the combination had no significant synergistic effect compared with Ang(1–7) alone. Thus, Ang(1–7) ameliorated streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal injury. Large-dose treatment was superior to valsartan in reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting TGFβ1/Smad3- and VEGF-mediated pathways.
doi:10.1038/ki.2014.274
PMCID: PMC4317508  PMID: 25075768
angiotensin(1–7); angiotensin receptor blocker; diabetic nephropathy; extracellular matrix

Results 1-17 (17)