Wear debris associated periprosthetic osteolysis represents a major pathological process associated with the aseptic loosening of joint prostheses. Naringin is a major flavonoid identified in grapefruit. Studies have shown that naringin possesses many pharmacological properties including effects on bone metabolism. The current study evaluated the influence of naringin on wear debris induced osteoclastic bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo. The osteoclast precursor cell line RAW 264.7 was cultured and stimulated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles followed by treatment with naringin at several doses. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), calcium release, and gene expression profiles of TRAP, cathepsin K, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B were sequentially evaluated. PMMA challenged murine air pouch and the load bearing tibia titanium pin-implantation mouse models were used to evaluate the effects of naringin in controlling PMMA induced bone resorption. Histological analyses and biomechanical pullout tests were performed following the animal experimentation. The in vitro data clearly demonstrated the inhibitory effects of naringin in PMMA induced osteoclastogenesis. The naringin dose of 10 μg/mL exhibited the most significant influence on the suppression of TRAP activities. Naringin treatment also markedly decreased calcium release in the stimulated cell culture medium. The short-term air pouch mouse study revealed that local injection of naringin ameliorated the PMMA induced inflammatory tissue response and subsequent bone resorption. The long-term tibia pin-implantation mouse model study suggested that daily oral gavage of naringin at 300 mg/kg dosage for 30 days significantly alleviated the periprosthetic bone resorption. A significant increase of periprosthetic bone volume and regaining of the pin stability were found in naringin treated mice. Overall, this study suggests that naringin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent to treat wear debris associated osteolysis.
naringin; osteoclastogenesis; aseptic loosening; periprosthetic osteolysis
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy in orthopaedic surgery. Studies suggest that expression of VEGF and high vascularity within osteosarcoma may correlate with poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation of VEGF expression with clinical tumour stage and metastasis.
This retrospective case series examined 54 cases of osteosarcoma patients who were treated during a ten-year period. Relevant clinical information included age, gender, tumour location, stage, adjuvant therapy, morbidity, mortality, and tumour subtypes. The clinical information was analysed for correlation of VEGF expression and tumour prognosis. Tumour sections were examined by routine H&E and by immunohistochemistry for VEGF, CD31, and the oncogenes c-myc and c-fos.
There was a significantly positive correlation between VEGF expression and tumour stages among these cases (p < 0.01). The data also suggested a higher cancer recurrence and more frequent cases of remote metastasis in the high-VEGF group compared to the low-VEGF group. VEGF expression also positively associated with c-fos and c-myc expressions in the primary tumour sections.
The results of this study highlight the role of VEGF in angiogenesis and tumour burden. Data also suggest the influence of VEGF may associate with the elevations of c-fos and c-myc expression. The development of novel therapies to target the VEGF pathway in osteosarcoma may lead to improved survival.
This study examined the influence of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene transfer on a murine collagen-induced arthritis model. A single periarticular injection of AAV-OPG or AAV-LacZ on the arthritic paw successfully incorporated the exogenous gene to the local tissue and resulted in marked transgene expression in the joint homogenate for at least three weeks. Clinical disease scores were significantly improved in OPG treated mice starting at 28-day post-treatment (P < 0.05). Histological assessment demonstrated that OPG gene transfer dramatically protected mice from erosive joint changes compared with LacZ controls (P < 0.05), although treatment appeared less effective on the local inflammatory progress. MicroCT data suggested significant protection against subchondral bone mineral density changes in OPG treated CIA mice. Interestingly, mRNA expressions of IFN-g and MMP3 were noticeably diminished following OPG gene transfer. Overall, gene transfer of OPG effectively inhibited the arthritis-associated periarticular bone erosion and preserved the architecture of arthritic joints, and the study provides evidence that the cartilage protection of the OPG gene therapy may be associated with the down-regulation of MMP3 expression.
This study investigated the efficacy of a combination gene therapy to repress IL-1 and RANKL for the treatment of particulate debris-induced aseptic loosening, and tried to explore the molecular mechanism the exogenous gene modifications on osteoclastogenesis. RAW cells activated by titanium particles were transduced with DFG-IL-1Ra and AAV-OPG individually or in combination for 4 weeks. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in culture media were determined by ELISA, and gene expressions of RANK, IL-1β, c-Fos, TRAF6, JNK1, and CPK were examined using real-time PCR. An established knee-implant-failure mouse model was employed to evaluate the efficacy of the in vivo double-gene therapy. The surgical implantation of a titanium alloy pin into the proximal tibia was followed by monthly challenge with titanium debris. Peri-implant gene transfers of IL-1Ra and OPG (respectively or in combination) were given three weeks after surgery. The combination of OPG and IL-1Ra gene transfer exhibited strong synergetic effects in blockage of inflammation and osteoclastogenesis at 8-weeks after gene modification. The combination therapy reversed peri-implant bone resorption and restored implant stability when compared with either single gene transduction. Real-time PCR data indicated that the action of IL-1Ra gene therapy may be mediated via the JNK1 pathway, while the reduction of osteoclastogenesis by OPG gene modification may be regulated by c-Fos expression. In addition, both gene modifications resulted in significantly diminishment of TRAF6 expression.
periprosthetic osteolysis; osteoclastogenesis; synergetic effects
Bone grafting is utilized in nearly all orthopedic subspecialties and in most anatomic regions. Bone graft substitutes have the potential to offer similar efficacy as autogenous grafts without the morbidity of harvest. Several studies have noted the efficacy of new-generation bone substitute products, but few studies have evaluated their safety. This study characterizes and quantifies the inflammatory reaction to four different commercially available bone graft substitutes, which were examined using the in vivo murine air pouch biocompatibility model. One coralline hydroxyapatite product was chosen as an example of a purely osteoconductive material. Three demineralized bone matrix products were chosen to represent products that are both osteoconductive and osteoinductive. Samples were implanted in a murine air pouch and harvested after 14 days in situ. Pouch fluid was extracted, mRNA isolated, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions carried out to detect interleukin-1 gene expression as a marker for inflammation. In addition, multiple histological characteristics were examined to quantify cellular responses to the implanted materials. All bone graft substitutes induced a significant inflammatory response compared with negative controls. Histology and polymerase chain reaction data indicated that the level of inflammatory reaction was elevated in materials with a higher demineralized bone matrix to carrier proportion. The hydroxyapatite product generated a low inflammatory reaction. In conclusion, this study used an in vivo model of biocompatibility to demonstrate that a significant inflammatory reaction occurs when using implanted bone graft substitutes. When choosing a bone grafting method, surgeons should consider both the efficacy and safety of methods and materials used. Further studies are necessary to determine the ideal bone graft material to maximize efficacy while minimizing morbidity.
bone graft; biocompatibility; inflammation; animal model
Numerous studies have examined the elution characteristics and the effects of antibiotics from bone cement. this study seeks to determine the effect that surface area and volume have on the elution characteristics and bioavailability of tobramycin and vancomycin when mixed in polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) bone cement in various combinations. It also investigates the mechanical properties of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement and its relationship to surface area and volume.
Three antibiotic-bone cement combinations were used, and these consisted of PMMA mixed with tobramycin and vancomycin or tobramycin alone. Four groups of specimens (different surface area and volume) were made. the elution characteristics of the different specimens were examined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIc) method at different time intervals. the bacteria used during testing were methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MssA). the ultimate compressive strength (Ucs) of the specimens was also determined at various time intervals.
the bactericidal activity of a tobramycin/vancomycin combination against MssA was not significantly greater than tobramycin alone. tobramycin was more effective than vancomycin against MssA (average: 168%, p<0.05). the inhibitory capabilities of tobramycin and vancomycin individually were not found to be additive. combination 2 (1.0g tobramycin/1.0g vancomycin) had a higher antibiotic elution mass and rate for all sample sizes compared to the other two combinations (average: 170%, p<0.05). surface area and volume did not have a significant effect on the elution rate of the antibiotics. the Ucs of all samples tested was greater than 70MPa at all three testing intervals.
Mixing tobramycin and vancomycin did not have a synergistic effect against the bacteria as expected. Increasing the concentration of antibiotics in bone cement increases both elution mass and elution rate over time. Although the Ucs of the antibiotic-impregnated bone cement was affected by antibiotic elution and sample geometry, all testing results fell within previously accepted standards.
This study advanced our overall understanding of the elution characteristics and biomechanics of PMMA bone cement impregnated with tobramycin and vancomycin.
antibiotic; bone-cement; elution; surface; volume
Exogenous OPG gene modification appears a therapeutic strategy for osteolytic aseptic loosening. The feasibility and efficacy of a cell-based OPG gene delivery approach were investigated using a murine model of knee prosthesis failure. A titanium pin was implanted into mouse proximal tibia to mimic a weight-bearing knee arthroplasty, followed by titanium-particles challenge to induce periprosthetic osteolysis. Mouse fibroblast-like synoviocytes were transduced in vitro with either AAV-OPG or AAV-LacZ before transfused into the osteolytic prosthetic joint 3 weeks post surgery. Successful transgene expression at the local site was confirmed 4 weeks later after sacrifice. Biomechanical pull-out test indicated a significant restoration of implant stability following the cell-based OPG gene therapy. Histology revealed that inflammatory pseudo-membranes existed ubiquitously at bone-implant interface in control groups, while only observed sporadically in OPG gene-modified groups. TRAP+ osteoclasts and TNFα, IL-1β, CD68+ expressing cells were significantly reduced in periprosthetic tissues of OPG gene-modified mice. No transgene dissemination or tumorigenesis was detected in remote organs and tissues. Data suggest that cell based ex vivo OPG gene therapy was comparable in efficacy with in vivo local gene transfer technique to deliver functional therapeutic OPG activities, effectively halted the debris-induced osteolysis and regained the implant stability in this model.
aseptic loosening; periprosthetic osteolysis; cell-based therapy; osteoprotegerin; implant stability
The development of highly vascularized and inflammatory periprosthetic tissue characterizes the progress of aseptic loosening, a major complication of joint arthroplasty. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important cell signaling protein involved in angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether R2/Fc (a VEGF neutralizing antibody) and SU5416 (a VEGF receptor II [Flk-1] inhibitor) could ameliorate particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis in a mouse model.
Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles were introduced into established air pouches in BALB/c mice, followed by implantation of calvaria bone from syngeneic littermates. Drug treatment was started 2 weeks after bone implantation, and mice without drug treatment were included as controls. Pouch tissues were harvested 4 weeks after bone implantation for molecular and histological analysis, and implanted bone degradation was analyzed by microcomputed tomography.
Exposure to UHMWPE particles induced inflammatory osteolysis, which was associated with increased expression of VEGF/Flt-1 proteins. Treatment with R2/Fc significantly improved UHMWPE particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis, and reduced the expression of VEGF/Flt-1 proteins. However, SU5416 treatment showed no effect on UHMWPE particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis.
Our findings indicate that VEGF signaling exerts a regulatory effect on the development of UHMWPE-induced inflammatory osteolysis, through its unique Flt-1, rather than Flk-1, receptor located on monocyte/macrophage cell lineages. These data provide a biological rationale for a VEGF/Flt-1-targeted treatment strategy, especially during the early stages of the wear debris-induced inflammatory response.
vascular endothelial growth factor; Flt -1; osteolysis; osteoclastogenesis; R2/Fc; SU5416; animal model; wear debris
To examine the trafficking of human circulating blood monocytes and their influence on the inflammation of periprosthetic tissues using a novel mouse–human chimera model.
Periprosthetic tissue and bone chips from patients with aseptic prosthetic loosening were implanted into the muscles of immune-deficient SCID mice depleted of host macrophages by periodic intraperitoneal injection of anti-asialo GM1 rabbit sera (ASGM1). Autologous patient peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were labeled with PKH2 fluorescent dye and injected intraperitoneally into the implanted animals. Mice were sacrificed 14 days after PBMC transfusion for molecular and histological analyses.
Patient periprosthetic tissues were well tolerated in SCID mice and preserved a high level of viability. Cell trafficking studies revealed the accumulation of fluorescent PBMC within the xenografts, with total cell counts in the xenografts significantly increased following the systemic PBMC infusion. PBMC infusion also promoted the expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNFα, and RANK within the periprosthetic tissue.
Systemic PBMC migrated to the implanted periprosthetic tissues and contributed to the local inflammation. The data provide evidence that circulating blood monocytes may play a role in pathologic process during aseptic loosening of total joint replacement.
Cell migration; Inflammatory models; Macrophages
Using an in vivo adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated gene transfer technique, this study evaluated the therapeutic effects of an Osteoprotegerin (OPG) transgene against orthopaedic wear debris–induced osteolysis in a long-term murine model. A titanium pin was surgically implanted into proximal tibia of Balb/c mice to mimic a weight-bearing knee arthroplasty, followed by an intra-articular challenge with Ti-particles to provoke periprosthetic inflammation and osteolysis. rAAV-hOPG or AAV-LacZ vectors were injected into the prosthetic joint at 3 weeks post-op. The tissues were harvested at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after transfection for histological and molecular analyses. Successful transgene expression at the local site was confirmed by real-time PCR and ELISA. Inflammatory pseudo-membranes were ubiquitously presence at the interface between the Ti implant and the surrounding bone in both LacZ and virus-free control groups, while soft tissue was only observed sporadically at the bone-implant interface in the OPG group. A significant reduction in TRAP+ osteoclast numbers was observed in the OPG treatment group. MicroCT assessment indicated a marked reversal in the loss of peri-implant bone mineral density (BMD) in the OPG-transduced group, when compared with the LacZ and virus-free controls. Further, OPG gene modification appeared to reduce local bone collagen loss by a mean of 40%. Real time PCR examination confirmed that in vivo OPG gene transfer dramatically influenced the periprosthetic tissue gene expression profiles by diminishing the mRNA expression of TNF, IL-1, CPK and RANKL. There were no transgene-associated toxic effects apparent during the experiment, and the PCR detection of transgenes in remote organs such as lungs, kidneys, liver, and muscle of contralateral limb were consistently negative. Overall, rAAV-mediated OPG gene transfer effectively reversed Ti-particle induced bone resorption in this experimental model. The therapeutic effects may be due to the blockage of local osteoclastogenesis and possibly the down-regulation of RANKL expression.
Aseptic loosening; gene therapy; wear debris; osteolysis; adeno-associate viral vectors
Interleukin-6 is a multifunctional cytokine that is critical for T/B-cell differentiation and maturation, immunoglobulin secretion, acute-phase protein production, and macrophage/monocyte functions. Extensive research into the biology of IL-6 has implicated IL-6 in the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of RA. An anti-murine IL-6 mAb that neutralizes mouse IL-6 activities was tested in animal model of collagen-induced arthritis. Prophylactic treatment with anti-IL-6 mAb significantly reduced the incidence and severity of arthritis compared to control mAb treated mice. The mitogenic response of B and T cells isolated from the lymph nodes of anti-IL-6 treated mice was significantly reduced compared to cells isolated from control mAb treated mice. The overall histopathology score for paws from the anti-IL-6 treated mice was significantly reduced when compared to paws from mice treated with control mAb, including both inflammatory (synovitis and pannus) and erosive (erosions and architecture) parameters. Reduced loss of cartilage matrix components was also observed in the anti-IL-6 treated mice. Collectively, these data suggest that IL-6 plays a major role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus support the potential benefit of anti-IL-6 mAb treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Tissue-engineered bone may be developed by seeding the cells capable of both osteogenesis and vascularization on biocompatible composite scaffolds. The current study investigated the performance of mice bone marrow-derived osteogenic cells and endothelial cells as seeded on hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) composite scaffolds.
Mononuclear cells were induced to osteoblasts and endothelial cells respectively, which were defined by the expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and deposits of calcium-containing crystal for osteoblasts, or by the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and von Willebrand factor (vWF), and the formation of a capillary network in Matrigel™ for endothelial cells. Both types of cell were seeded respectively on PCL-HA scaffolds at HA to PCL weight ratio of 1:1, 1:4, or 0:1 and were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, ALP activity (of osteoblasts) and nitric oxide production (of endothelial cells) plus the assessment of cell viability.
The results indicated that HA led to a positive stimulation of osteoblasts viability and ALP activity, while HA showed less influence on endothelial cells viability. An elevated nitric oxide production of endothelial cells was observed in HA-containing group.
Supplement of HA into PCL improved biocompatible for bone marrow-derived osteoblasts and endothelial cells. The PCL-HA composite integrating with two types of cells may provide a useful system for tissue-engineered bone grafts with vascularization.
A murine model of osteosarcoma was developed to investigate the association between the expression of VEGF and the progression of osteosarcoma. Two human osteosarcoma cell lines with distinct VEGF expressions were introduced into proximal tibiae of immuno-deficient SCID mice, either by direct injection through the cortical bone or surgical exposing and drilling on the tibial metaphysis to seed tumor cells. Bone tumors were obvious on microCT within 4 weeks following osteosarcoma cell inoculation through surgical delivery. In contrast, direct injection without drilling often resulted in periosteal tumors. Although neoplasms were developed regardless of VEGF levels, orthotopic tumors derived from high VEGF-expressing cells were detected 2 weeks earlier on CT images than the ones from VEGF negative cells. At sacrifice, high VEGF tumors were distinctively larger in size and more frequently invaded the adjacent bone tissue. Multiple metastatic lesions were found in all the lung tissues at 8 weeks from high VEGF group, whereas only 1 of 7 VEGF negative tumors exhibited pulmonary metastasis. Overall, this model developed with the surgical tumor cell delivery results in histological and radiographic features more consistent with primary osteosarcoma. Interestingly, VEGF expression correlates with the early establishment, rapid tumor growth, and the development of pulmonary metastasis.
Anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-α (TNF-α) monoclonal antibody was used to treat Tg197 transgenic mice, which constitutively produce human TNF-α (hTNF-α) and develop a progressive polyarthritic disease. Treatment of both young (7- or 8-week-old) and aged (27- or 28-week-old) mice commenced when at least two limbs showed signs of moderate to severe arthritis. The therapeutic efficacy of anti-TNF-α antibody was assessed using various pathological indicators of disease progression. The clinical severity of arthritis in Tg197 mice was significantly reduced after anti-TNF-α treatment in comparison with saline-treated mice and in comparison with baseline assessments in both young and aged mice. The treatment with anti-TNF-α prevented loss of body weight. Inflammatory pathways as reflected by elevated circulating hTNF-α and local expression of various proinflammatory mediators were all diminished by anti-TNF-α treatment, confirming a critical role of hTNF-α in this model of progressive polyarthritis. More importantly, the amelioration of the disease was associated with reversal of existing structural damage, including synovitis and periosteal bone erosions evident on histology. Repair of cartilage was age dependent: reversal of cartilage degradation after anti-TNF-α treatment was observed in young mice but not in aged mice.
antibody; animal models; cytokines; rheumatoid arthritis; tumor necrosis factor alpha