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1.  Ifit1 Inhibits Japanese Encephalitis Virus Replication through Binding to 5′ Capped 2′-O Unmethylated RNA 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(18):9997-10003.
The interferon-inducible protein with tetratricopeptide (IFIT) family proteins inhibit replication of some viruses by recognizing several types of RNAs, including 5′-triphosphate RNA and 5′ capped 2′-O unmethylated mRNA. However, it remains unclear how IFITs inhibit replication of some viruses through recognition of RNA. Here, we analyzed the mechanisms by which Ifit1 exerts antiviral responses. Replication of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) 2′-O methyltransferase (MTase) mutant was markedly enhanced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and macrophages lacking Ifit1. Ifit1 bound 5′-triphosphate RNA but more preferentially associated with 5′ capped 2′-O unmethylated mRNA. Ifit1 inhibited the translation of mRNA and thereby restricted the replication of JEV mutated in 2′-O MTase. Thus, Ifit1 inhibits replication of MTase-defective JEV by inhibiting mRNA translation through direct binding to mRNA 5′ structures.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00883-13
PMCID: PMC3754022  PMID: 23824812
2.  Dynamic Changes in Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Nepmucin/CD300LG Expression under Physiological and Pathological Conditions 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83681.
Vascular endothelial cells often change their phenotype to adapt to their local microenvironment. Here we report that the vascular endothelial adhesion molecule nepmucin/CD300LG, which is implicated in lymphocyte binding and transmigration, shows unique expression patterns in the microvascular endothelial cells of different tissues. Under physiological conditions, nepmucin/CD300LG was constitutively and selectively expressed at the luminal surface of the small arterioles, venules, and capillaries of most tissues, but it was only weakly expressed in the microvessels of the splenic red pulp and thymic medulla. Furthermore, it was barely detectable in immunologically privileged sites such as the brain, testis, and uterus. The nepmucin/CD300LG expression rapidly decreased in lymph nodes receiving acute inflammatory signals, and this loss was mediated at least in part by TNF-α. It was also down-regulated in tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes, indicating that nepmucin/CD300LG expression is negatively regulated by locally produced signals under these circumstances. In contrast, nepmucin/CD300LG was induced in the high endothelial venule-like blood vessels of chronically inflamed pancreatic islets in an animal model of non-obese diabetes. Interestingly, the activated CD4+ T cells infiltrating the inflamed pancreas expressed high levels of the nepmucin/CD300LG ligand(s), supporting the idea that nepmucin/CD300LG and its ligand interactions are locally involved in pathological T cell trafficking. Taken together, these observations indicate that the nepmucin/CD300LG expression in microvascular endothelial cells is influenced by factor(s) that are locally produced in tissues, and that its expression is closely correlated with the level of leukocyte infiltration in certain tissues.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083681
PMCID: PMC3871519  PMID: 24376728
3.  Nepmucin, a novel HEV sialomucin, mediates L-selectin–dependent lymphocyte rolling and promotes lymphocyte adhesion under flow 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2006;203(6):1603-1614.
Lymphocyte trafficking to lymph nodes (LNs) is initiated by the interaction between lymphocyte L-selectin and certain sialomucins, collectively termed peripheral node addressin (PNAd), carrying specific carbohydrates expressed by LN high endothelial venules (HEVs). Here, we identified a novel HEV-associated sialomucin, nepmucin (mucin not expressed in Peyer's patches [PPs]), that is expressed in LN HEVs but not detectable in PP HEVs at the protein level. Unlike conventional sialomucins, nepmucin contains a single V-type immunoglobulin (Ig) domain and a mucin-like domain. Using materials affinity-purified from LN lysates with soluble L-selectin, we found that two higher molecular weight species of nepmucin (75 and 95 kD) were decorated with oligosaccharides that bind L-selectin as well as an HEV-specific MECA-79 monoclonal antibody. Electron microscopic analysis showed that nepmucin accumulates in the extended luminal microvillus processes of LN HEVs. Upon appropriate glycosylation, nepmucin supported lymphocyte rolling via its mucin-like domain under physiological flow conditions. Furthermore, unlike most other sialomucins, nepmucin bound lymphocytes via its Ig domain, apparently independently of lymphocyte function–associated antigen 1 and very late antigen 4, and promoted shear-resistant lymphocyte binding in combination with intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Collectively, these results suggest that nepmucin may serve as a dual-functioning PNAd in LN HEVs, mediating both lymphocyte rolling and binding via different functional domains.
doi:10.1084/jem.20052543
PMCID: PMC2118321  PMID: 16754720
4.  VLA-4-dependent and -independent pathways in cell contact-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by synovial nurse-like cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients 
Arthritis Research  2002;4(6):R10.
Nurse-like stromal cell lines from the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA-SNC) produce, on coculture with lymphocytes, large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. In the present paper, we analyze the molecular events necessary for the induction of cytokine release from RA-SNC cells, and particularly the roles played by cell adhesion and the transmigration (also known as pseudoemperipolesis) of lymphocytes. For this purpose, the effects of various mAbs on the binding and transmigration of a human B-cell line, MC/car, were examined using a cloned RA-SNC line, RA-SNC77. To analyze the role of lymphocyte binding and transmigration on upregulated cytokine production by the RA-SNC77 cells, we used C3 exoenzyme-treated MC/car cells, which could bind to RA-SNC77 cells but could not transmigrate. Treatment with anti-CD29 or anti-CD49d mAb significantly reduced binding and transmigration of the MC/car cells. In contrast, the neutralizing anti-CD106/vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 mAb did not show any inhibitory effect. Likewise, none of the neutralizing mAbs against CD11a, CD18, CD44, CD49e, or CD54 showed significant effects. Binding of C3-treated or untreated MC/car cells to RA-SNC77 cells induced comparable levels of IL-6 and IL-8 production. In addition, the enhanced cytokine production by RA-SNC77 cells required direct lymphocyte contact via a very late antigen-4 (VLA-4)-independent adhesion pathway. These results indicate that, although both the VLA-4-dependent/vascular cell adhesion molecule 1-independent and the VLA4-independent adhesion pathways are involved in MC/car binding and subsequent transmigration, only the VLA4-independent adhesion pathway is necessary and sufficient for the enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production by RA-SNC77 cells. The transmigration process, which is dependent on Rho-GTPase, is not a prerequisite for this phenomenon.
PMCID: PMC153839  PMID: 12453313
cell adhesion; cytokine production; nurse cells; rheumatoid arthritis; transmigration
5.  Toll-like receptor 4 and MAIR-II/CLM-4/LMIR2 immunoreceptor regulate VLA-4-mediated inflammatory monocyte migration 
Nature Communications  2014;5:4710.
Inflammatory monocytes play an important role in host defense against infections. However, the regulatory mechanisms of transmigration into infected tissue are not yet completely understood. Here we show that mice deficient in MAIR-II (also called CLM-4 or LMIR2) are more susceptible to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced peritonitis than wild-type (WT) mice. Adoptive transfer of inflammatory monocytes from WT mice, but not from MAIR-II, TLR4 or MyD88-deficient mice, significantly improves survival of MAIR-II-deficient mice after CLP. Migration of inflammatory monocytes into the peritoneal cavity after CLP, which is dependent on VLA-4, is impaired in above mutant and FcRγ chain-deficient mice. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation induces association of MAIR-II with FcRγ chain and Syk, leading to enhancement of VLA-4-mediated adhesion to VCAM-1. These results indicate that activation of MAIR-II/FcRγ chain by TLR4/MyD88-mediated signalling is essential for the transmigration of inflammatory monocytes from the blood to sites of infection mediated by VLA-4.
Inflammatory monocytes play an important role in host defense against infections. Here the authors provide insights into the mechanism behind the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to sites of infection by demonstrating the involvement of Toll-like receptor 4 and MAIR-II immunoreceptors in this process.
doi:10.1038/ncomms5710
PMCID: PMC4143930  PMID: 25134989

Results 1-5 (5)