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1.  Phase I study of MLN8237—investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor—in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia 
Investigational New Drugs  2013;32(3):489-499.
Summary
Purpose Amplification or over-expression of the mitotic Aurora A kinase (AAK) has been reported in several heme-lymphatic malignancies. MLN8237 (alisertib) is a novel inhibitor of AAK that is being developed for the treatment of advanced malignancies. The objectives of this phase I study were to establish the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profiles of escalating doses of MLN8237 in patients with relapsed or refractory heme-lymphatic malignancies. Methods Sequential cohorts of patients received MLN8237 orally as either a powder-in-capsule (PIC) or enteric-coated tablet (ECT) formulation. Patients received MLN8237 PIC 25–90 mg for 14 or 21 consecutive days plus 14 or 7 days’ rest, respectively, or MLN8237 ECT, at a starting dose of 40 mg/day once-daily (QD) for 14 days plus 14 days’ rest, all in 28-day cycles. Subsequent cohorts received MLN8237 ECT 30–50 mg twice-daily (BID) for 7 days plus 14 days’ rest in 21-day cycles. Results Fifty-eight patients were enrolled (PIC n = 28, ECT n = 30). The most frequent grade ≥3 drug-related toxicities were neutropenia (45 %), thrombocytopenia (28 %), anemia (19 %), and leukopenia (19 %). The maximum tolerated dose on the ECT 7-day schedule was 50 mg BID. The terminal half-life of MLN8237 was approximately 19 h. Six (13 %) patients achieved partial responses and 13 (28 %) stable disease. Conclusion The recommended phase II dose of MLN8237 ECT is 50 mg BID for 7 days in 21-day cycles, which is currently being evaluated as a single agent in phase II/III trials in patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10637-013-0050-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10637-013-0050-9
PMCID: PMC4045308  PMID: 24352795
Phase I-III Leukemia and lymphomas; Novel antitumor agent; Cell cycle mechanisms of anticancer drug action; Aurora A kinase inhibitor; MLN8237
2.  High-dose immunosuppressive therapy for severe systemic sclerosis: initial outcomes 
Blood  2002;100(5):1602-1610.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disease of presumed autoimmune pathogenesis for which no proven effective treatment exists. High-dose immunosuppressive therapy (HDIT) has been proposed as an investigational treatment for severe autoimmune diseases. Nineteen patients with poor-prognosis SSc underwent HDIT. The median age was 40 years (range, 23–61 years), the median modified Rodnan skin score (a measure of dermal sclerosis) was 31, and the median DLCO was 57%. Conditioning therapy involved 800 cGy total body irradiation (TBI) (± lung shielding to approximately 200 cGy), 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and 90 mg/kg equine antithymocyte globulin. CD34-selected granulocyte–colony-stimulating factor–mobilized autologous blood stem cells provided hematopoietic rescue. With median follow-up at 14.7 months, the Kaplan-Meier estimated 2-year survival rate was 79%. Three patients died of treatment complications and one of disease progression. Two of the first 8 patients had fatal regimen-related pulmonary injury, a complication not found among 11 subsequent patients who received lung shielding for TBI. Overall, internal organ functions were stable to slightly worse after HDIT, and 4 patients had progressive or nonresponsive disease. As measured by modified Rodnan skin scores and modified health assessment questionnaire disability index (mHAQ-DI) scores, significant disease responses occurred in 12 of 12 patients evaluated at 1 year after HDIT. In conclusion, though important treatment-related toxicities occurred after HDIT for SSc, modifications of initial approaches appear to reduce treatment risks. Responses in skin and mHAQ-DI scores exceed those reported with other therapies, suggesting that HDIT is a promising new therapy for SSc that should be evaluated in prospective randomized studies.
PMCID: PMC2956742  PMID: 12176878
3.  Epstein-Barr Virus–Associated Posttransplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after High-Dose Immunosuppressive Therapy and Autologous CD34-Selected Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Severe Autoimmune Diseases 
High-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently being evaluated for the control of severe autoimmune diseases. The addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to high-dose chemoradiotherapy in the high-dose immunosuppressive therapy regimen and CD34 selection of the autologous graft may induce a higher degree of immunosuppression compared with conventional autologous HSCT for malignant diseases. Patients may be at higher risk of transplant-related complications secondary to the immunosuppressed state, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), but this is an unusual complication after autologous HSCT. Fifty-six patients (median age, 42 years; range, 23–61 years) with either multiple sclerosis (n = 26) or systemic sclerosis (n = 30) have been treated. The median follow-up has been 24 months (range, 2–60 months). Two patients (multiple sclerosis, n = 1; systemic sclerosis, n = 1) had significant reactivations of herpesvirus infections early after HSCT and then developed aggressive EBV-PTLD and died on days +53 and +64. Multiorgan clonal B-cell infiltrates that were EBV positive by molecular studies or immunohistology were identified at both autopsies. Both patients had positive screening skin tests for equine ATG (Atgam) and had been converted to rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) from the first dose. Of the other 54 patients, 2 of whom had partial courses of rabbit ATG because of a reaction to the intravenous infusion of equine ATG, only 1 patient had a significant clinical reactivation of a herpesvirus infection (herpes simplex virus 2) early after HSCT, and none developed EBV-PTLD. The T-cell count in the peripheral blood on day 28 was 0/μL in all 4 patients who received rabbit ATG; this was significantly less than in patients who received equine ATG (median, 174/μL; P = .001; Mann-Whitney ranked sum test). Although the numbers are limited, the time course and similarity of the 2 cases of EBV-PTLD and the effect on day 28 T-cell counts support a relationship between the development of EBV-PTLD and the administration of rabbit ATG. The differences between equine and rabbit ATG are not yet clearly defined, and they should not be considered interchangeable in this regimen without further study.
PMCID: PMC2956744  PMID: 14506660
EBV; Lymphoma; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; CD34 selection; Autoimmune diseases; Systemic sclerosis; Multiple sclerosis
4.  Antigen-Specific Tumor Vaccine Efficacy In Vivo Against Prostate Cancer with Low Class IMHC Requires Competent Class II MHC 
The Prostate  2002;53(3):183-191.
BACKGROUND
Cancers can escape immune recognition by means of evading class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) -mediated recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, immunization strategies targeting defined tumor-associated antigens have not been extensively characterized in murine prostate cancer models. Therefore, we evaluated antigen-specific, antitumor immunity after antigen-encoding vaccinia immunization against mouse prostate cancer cells expressing a model tumor-associated antigen (β-galactosidase) and exhibiting partially deficient class I MHC.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Low class I MHC expression in β-galactosidase–expressing D7RM-1 prostate cancer cells was shown by fluorescence activated cell sorting, and deficient class I MHC-mediated antigen presentation was shown in resistance of D7RM-1 to cytolysis by β-galactosidase–specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Despite partially deficient class I MHC presenting function, immunization with vaccinia encoding β-galactosidase conferred antigen-specific protection against D7RM-1 cancer. Antigen-specific immunity was recapitulated in β2m knockout mice (with deficient class I MHC and CTL function), confirming that class I MHC antigen presentation was not required for immunity against tumor partially deficient in class I MHC. Conversely, antigen-specific antitumor immunity was abrogated in Abβ knockout mice (with deficient class II MHC and helper T cell function), demonstrating a requirement for functional class II MHC. Resistant tumors from the otherwise effectively immunized β2m knockout mice (among which tumor progression had been reduced or delayed) showed reduced target antigen expression, corroborating antigen-specificity (and showing an alternative immune escape mechanism), whereas antigen expression (like tumor growth) was unaffected among Abβ knockout mice.
CONCLUSION
Our results demonstrate that class I MHC-restricted antigen presentation and CTL activity is neither necessary nor sufficient for antigen-encoding vaccinia immunization to induce protective immunity against class I MHC-low tumors, whereas host class II MHC-mediated antigen presentation facilitates antigen-specific immunity against prostate cancer in vivo. Reduced expression of the target antigen developed rapidly in vivo as an immune escape mechanism for such cancers.
doi:10.1002/pros.10136
PMCID: PMC2042541  PMID: 12386918
prostate cancer; T lymphocytes; tumor antigens; vaccinia; immunotherapy
5.  MT1-MMP–dependent neovessel formation within the confines of the three-dimensional extracellular matrix 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2004;167(4):757-767.
During angiogenesis, endothelial cells initiate a tissue-invasive program within an interstitial matrix comprised largely of type I collagen. Extracellular matrix–degradative enzymes, including the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9, are thought to play key roles in angiogenesis by binding to docking sites on the cell surface after activation by plasmin- and/or membrane-type (MT) 1-MMP–dependent processes. To identify proteinases critical to neovessel formation, an ex vivo model of angiogenesis has been established wherein tissue explants from gene-targeted mice are embedded within a three-dimensional, type I collagen matrix. Unexpectedly, neither MMP-2, MMP-9, their cognate cell-surface receptors (i.e., β3 integrin and CD44), nor plasminogen are essential for collagenolytic activity, endothelial cell invasion, or neovessel formation. Instead, the membrane-anchored MMP, MT1-MMP, confers endothelial cells with the ability to express invasive and tubulogenic activity in a collagen-rich milieu, in vitro or in vivo, where it plays an indispensable role in driving neovessel formation.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200405001
PMCID: PMC2172577  PMID: 15545316
6.  Highly efficient genetic transduction of primary human synoviocytes with concentrated retroviral supernatant 
Arthritis Research  2002;4(3):215-219.
We are developing retroviral-mediated gene transfer to human fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) as one approach to characterizing genetic pathways involved in synoviocyte pathophysiology. Prior work has suggested that FLS are relatively refractory to infection by Moloney murine leukemia virus based vectors. To determine if viral titer influenced the transduction efficiency of FLS, we optimized a rapid, efficient, and inexpensive centrifugation method to concentrate recombinant retroviral supernatant. The technique was evaluated by measurement of the expression of a viral enhanced green fluorescent protein transgene in transduced cells, and by analysis of viral RNA in retroviral supernatant. Concentration (100-fold) was achieved by centrifugation of viral supernatant for four hours, with 100% recovery of viral particles. The transduction of FLS increased from approximately 15% with unconcentrated supernatant, to nearly 50% using concentrated supernatant. This protocol will be useful for investigators with applications that require efficient, stable, high level transgene expression in primary FLS.
PMCID: PMC111025  PMID: 12010573
enhanced green fluorescent protein; fibroblast-like synovial cell; gene therapy; retrovirus; titer
7.  Dendritic cells genetically engineered to express IL-4 inhibit murine collagen-induced arthritis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2001;107(10):1275-1284.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that migrate from the periphery to lymphoid tissues, where they activate and regulate T cells. Genetic modification of DCs to express immunoregulatory molecules would provide a new immunotherapeutic strategy for autoimmune and other diseases. We have engineered bone marrow–derived DCs that express IL-4 and tested the ability of these cells to control murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a model for rheumatoid arthritis in which Th1 cells play a critical role. IL-4–transduced DCs inhibited Th1 responses to collagen type II in vitro. A single injection of IL-4–transduced DCs reduced the incidence and severity of CIA and suppressed established Th1 responses and associated humoral responses, despite only transient persistence of injected DCs in the spleen. In contrast, control DCs and IL-4–transduced T cells or fibroblastic cells failed to alter the course of the disease. The functional effects correlated well with the differential efficiency of DC migration from various sites of injection to lymphoid organs, especially the spleen. The ability of splenic T cells to produce IL-4 in response to anti-CD3 was enhanced after the administration of IL-4–transduced DCs. These results support the feasibility of using genetically modified DCs for the treatment of autoimmune disease.
PMCID: PMC209294  PMID: 11375417

Results 1-7 (7)